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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 106: 105384, 2022 Nov 15.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181580

Résumé

Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major pathogen of community acquired pneumonia in children. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of RVs in China, we performed a molecular epidemiological study during 2017-2019 in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric patients. In this multicenter study, 109 RV-A, 20 RV-B and 80 RV-C were identified. Among them, RV-A12, RV-A101, RV-A78, RV-A49, RV-A22, RV-B52, RV-C2, RV-C53 and RV-C5 were the common genotypes in the study. A total of 23 complete genome of RVs including 4 RV-A, 1 RV-B and 18 RV-C were obtained. Furthermore, in the RV-C isolates, one RV-C5 and five RV-C53 genotypes were found, which have a limited number in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome showed that most of the RVs isolated in the study have high nucleotide sequence identities (>95%) compared with the corresponding reference sequence in the GenBank. In RV-A9, RV-A28, RV-A61 and RV-B52, amino acid mutations were found in the potential neutralizing immunogenic (Nim) sites (Nim-1a and Nim-1b) of the VP1. In RV-B52, one of RV-C2 and RV-C5 isolates, amino acid mutations were found in the P1a peptide of the VP1. However, no recombination events were found in the study. In conclusion, RV-A was the predominant specie of RVs followed by RV-C in the study. The complete genomes of one RV-C5 and five RV-C53 genotypes were obtained which have a limited number sequence in the GenBank. High nucleotide sequence identities (>95%) were found among the complete genome obtained in the study and the corresponding reference sequence in the GenBank. Amino acid mutations were found in the potential Nim-1a, Nim-1b sites and P1a peptide region of the VP1 in parts of RVs.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179529

Résumé

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the differences between elderly patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections. METHODS: We contrasted two absolute groups of patients (age ≥ 60) infected with either COVID-19 (n = 222) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections (n = 96). Propensity score matching was used to reduce the imbalance between the two matched groups. The clinical features, imaging presentations, therapies, and prognosis data were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The influenza patients showed higher proportions of cough, expectoration, fatigue and shortness of breath. Higher counts of lymphocytes, hemoglobin and creatine kinase and lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were found in the COVID-19 patients. Regarding the imaging characteristics, bilateral pneumonia was the most abnormal pattern in the two groups of patients. The incidence of ARDS or death was lower among the COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients are more concealed than those of influenza patients. Fewer symptoms of sputum production, fatigue, and shortness of breath combined with lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils and CRP are possible predictive factors of COVID-19 among elderly patients.

3.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2169805
4.
J Med Virol ; 2023.
Article Dans Anglais | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2173244

Résumé

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib and imatinib are considered therapies for COVID-19, but their ultimate clinical impact remains to be elucidated, so our objective is to determine whether these kinase inhibitors provide benefit when added to standard care in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Phase-2, open-label, randomized trial with a pick-the-winner design conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 in a single Spanish center. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a symptom duration ≤ 10 days were assigned to 3 arms: imatinib (400 mg qd, 7 days) plus standard-care, baricitinib (4 mg qd, 7 days) plus standard-care, or standard-care alone. Primary outcome was time to clinical improvement (discharge alive or a reduction of 2 points in an ordinal scale of clinical status) compared on a day-by-day basis in order to identify differences ≥ 15% between the most and least favorable groups. Secondary outcomes included oxygenation and ventilatory support requirements, additional therapies administered all-cause mortality and safety. RESULTS: 165 patients analyzed. Predefined criteria for selection of the most advantageous arm were met for baricitinib, but not for imatinib. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in formal analysis, but a trend towards better results in patients receiving baricitinib was found compared to standard care alone (HR for clinical improvement 1.41, 95%CI 0.96-2.06;HR for discontinuing oxygen 1.46, 95%CI 0.94-2.28). No differences were found regarding additional therapies administered or safety. CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib plus standard care showed better results for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, being the most advantageous therapeutic strategy among those proposed in this exploratory clinical trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Health Science Reports ; 6(1), 2023.
Article Dans Anglais | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2172953

Résumé

Background and AimsOn March 11, 2020, the WHO has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, affecting our day-to-day lives. Physical distancing and lockdown made significant obstacles to populations, particularly healthcare systems. Most healthcare workers were reallocated to COVID-19 facilities. Noncommunicable disease patients were given low priority and are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection, which disrupted the treatment and disease management of these patients. This review aimed to assess the effect of COVID-19 on different types of noncommunicable diseases and the severity it may cause to patients. MethodsWe have conducted a review of the literature on COVID-19 and noncommunicable diseases from December 2019 until January 2022. The search was done in PubMed and Cochrane for relevant articles using variety of searching terms. Data for study variables were extracted. At the end of the selection process, 46 papers were selected for inclusion in the literature review. ResultThe result from this review found that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the efficiency of the patient's treatment indirectly by either delaying or canceling sessions, which solidified the need to rely more on telemedicine, virtual visits, and in-home visits to improve patient education and minimize the risk of exposure to the patients. The major and most common types of noncommunicable diseases are known to be related to the severe outcomes of COVID-19 infection. It is strongly recommended to prioritize these patients for vaccinations against COVID-19 to provide them with the protection that will neutralize the risk imposed by their comorbidities. ConclusionWe recommend conducting more studies with larger population samples to further understand the role of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in this pandemic. However, this pandemic has also affected the efficiency of NCDs treatment indirectly by delaying or canceling sessions and others.

6.
Acute Medicine and Surgery ; 9(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2172435

Résumé

Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia differs from ordinary pneumonia in that it is associated with lesions that reduce pulmonary perfusion. Dual-energy computed tomography is well suited to elucidate the etiology of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, because it highlights changes in organ blood flow. In this study, we investigated whether dual-energy computed tomography could be used to determine the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. Method(s): Patients who were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, admitted to our hospital, and underwent dual-energy computed tomography were included in this study. Dual-energy computed tomography findings, plane computed tomography findings, disease severity, laboratory data, and clinical features were compared between two groups: a critical group (18 patients) and a non-critical group (30 patients). Result(s): The dual-energy computed tomography results indicated that the percentage of flow loss was significantly higher in the critical group compared with the non-critical group (P < 0.001). Additionally, our data demonstrated that thrombotic risk was associated with differences in clinical characteristics (P = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the percentage of flow loss, evaluated using dual-energy computed tomography, could predict severity in the critical group with 100% sensitivity and 77% specificity. However, there were no significant differences in the receiver operating characteristic values for dual-energy computed tomography and plane computed tomography. Conclusion(s): Dual-energy computed tomography can be used to associate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia with high accuracy. Further studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Acute Medicine & Surgery published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Association for Acute Medicine.

7.
Journal of International Dental and Medical Research ; 15(4):1816-1821, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2169956
8.
Kuwait Medical Journal ; 54(3):310-319, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2169495

Résumé

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus of the same family as SARSCoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, has spread globally, leading the World Health Organization to announce it as a pandemic. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), causes flu-like symptoms that may become severe in people at high risk. Infection is known to spread from human to human and through contact with contaminated surfaces. COVID-19's main symptoms include nausea, cough, fatigue, mild dyspnea, sore throat, headache and gastrointestinal problems. Real time polymerase chain reaction is used as a diagnostic device using nasal swab, oropharyngeal swab, tracheal aspiration or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Antiviral medications, steroids, IL-6 antagonist and respiratory support devices are the primary treatments being used to treat the condition. In addition, while several interventions have been suggested, quarantine is the only method that seems to be successful in lowering the risk of infection. The COVID-19 pandemic reflects the present generation's major global public health issue, following the 1918 pandemic influenza epidemic. The pace and frequency of clinical trials conducted to evaluate possible COVID-19 therapies underscore both the need and capacity to deliver high-quality evidence even in the midst of a pandemic. Various vaccines have been developed which are in different phases and we hope to have a vaccine for the general population soon, as it could prevent the spread of the disease.

9.
Fizjoterapia Polska ; 22(5), 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2168928

Résumé

Background. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus was assigned as a pandemic by WHO. Fever, breathlessness, cough and expectoration indicates lung involvement in the form of pneumonia and its most common complications are pulmonary fibrosis, chronic respiratory failure and reduced quality of life. Incentive spirometry is the relevant therapy to enhance the normal lung function and improve quality of life. Aim. To find the effect of incentive spirometry on pulmonary function test in post COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Methodology. An experimental study with simple random sampling (lottery method) of 24 patients in age group (18-68 years). The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A received pharmacotherapy and incentive spirometry and Group B received only pharmacotherapy. Computerized spirometry and Diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was used as diagnostic tool to measure pre & post test values for both groups. Intervention was given for 4 weeks and after 4 weeks, to analyze the spirometry values post-test was taken for both groups. Outcome measures. Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC &DLCO. Results. Statistical analysis shows significant improvement (p < 0.05) between pretest and post test values on Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) in both Group A&B whereas there was increase in the improvement in intervention group than control group. Conclusion. Incentive spirometry improved the lung volume and capacities on PFT in post COVID-19 pneumonia patients and also these patients have mainly restrictive lung pattern by the use of DLCO. © 2022, DJ Studio. All rights reserved.

10.
Scientific Chronicles ; 27(2):258-271, 2022.
Article Dans Grec | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2168906

Résumé

The last two and a half years our life has been marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. Within a few months, COVID-19 became a global pandemic that affected all age groups with millions of deaths and serious socioeconomic consequences. The clinical symptoms of the disease may be completely absent, resembling those of the flu or severe, leading to the onset of severe respiratory disease. The most common symptoms are (from low to high) fever, headache, sore throat, dry cough, fatigue. Severely ill patients may develop pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 have been described, as well as manifestations from the oral cavity. The etiology of oral lesions in patients with COVID-19 appears to be multifactorial. Oral manifestations may be caused due to the action of the SARSCoV-2 virus itself in the tissues of the oral cavity, as well as to the increase in stress and the decline of the immune system caused by the disease, to the medication for COVID-19 and hospital conditions. Oral manifestations include distaste, hyposalivation, burning sensation, oral lesions such as canker sores, recurrent herpes infection, candidiasis and others, while the possibility of a bilateral correlation between COVID-19 and periodontal disease is under investigation. In any case, it is taken for granted that it is necessary that a dentist should monitor as well severely ill COVID-19 patients, to enhance patient support and to contribute to pain control and relief. A better understanding of the oral manifestations of COVID-19 can help clarify the pathological processes involved in the disease and guide the dentist in the direction of more effective treatment of its oral manifestations.

11.
Japanese Journal of Chemotherapy ; 69(5):361-366, 2021.
Article Dans Japonais | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168769

Résumé

Common cold and influenza are often complicated by pneumococcal pneumonia, but the complication whereas pneumococcal pneumonia complicating COVID-19 is not common. Both influenza and COVID-19 are respiratory viral infections, and their pathogenesis depends on the host immune response. Therefore, clinically, accurate pathogen diagnosis in the early stage of the clinical course for the purpose of formulating an appropriate treatment plan may contribute to improvement of the patient prognosis. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in clinical manifestations, epidemiological history, laboratory findings and radiological findings, some of which were different and some of which were similar from influenza or any other common cold. We would like to emphasize the importance of researching the mechanism of pneumonia induced from common cold, influenza, COVID-19 and any other respiratory viral infection. Copyright © 2021 Japan Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

12.
Community Practitioner ; 95(6):24-27, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168534

Résumé

It is three years since a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was reported in Wuhan in China. Little did many know how soon lives around the world would be upended. Many people now feel that the pandemic is behind them, and very few are still testing regularly, but in reality, Covid is still with them. In fact, a spike with new variants is predicted with some unease by researchers in the field for this winter: quite possibly combined with influenza, to constitute a 'twindemic'. Alongside this, there is an increasing awareness that 'long Covid' can keep people ill or disabled for a considerable length of time. So for any clients sinking into Covid vaccination apathy, it's worth reminding them of the realities, and that studies have suggested vaccination can reduce the risk of long Covid. Research into the immunity required to protect against long Covid, as well as the role of new variants, continues.

13.
Drug Topics ; 166(11):2, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168496
14.
JK Science ; 25(1):30-34, 2023.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168435

Résumé

[...]COVID-19 wave in India was more severe than the first wave in terms of the number of patients affected as well as the severity of the pneumonia in the involved patients, likely due to continuously mutating variants ofthe virus & lifting up of the restrictions. [1] The diagnosis of this disease depends upon the real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction . The CT manifestations of the COVID-19 pneumonia include multifocal ground glass and consolidative opacities in a peripheral distribution with predominantly apicobasal gradient . [6,7] Material and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among the patients who had documented RT-PCR positive and CT documented COVID-19 pneumonia admitted in Chest Diseases Hospital of GMC, Jammu.

15.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Feb 11.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205224

Résumé

SUMMARY: Hypersensitivity reactions has been reported with COVID-19 vaccines. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia has not been reported yet after Sinovac/CoronaVac vaccine. A 73-year-old woman presented with maculopapular rash, cough and dyspnea following Sinovac/CoronaVac injection. The complete blood count (CBC) indicated eosinophilia and further evaluation of the eosinophilia with CT and bronchoscopy confirmed a diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. After methylprednisolone therapy, her rash resolved with marked improvement of the dyspnea. She is still on treatment and on the follow up period, we plan to continue steroid treatment at least 3 months.

16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(8): 4410-4416, 2022 Aug.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201898

Résumé

Background: The Radiologic Society of North America (RSNA) divides patients into four sections: negative, atypical, indeterminate, and typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia based on their computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Herein, we evaluate the frequency of the chest CT-scan appearances of COVID-19 according to each RSNA categorical group. Methods: A total of 90 patients with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study and differences in age, sex, cardiac characteristics, and imaging features of lung parenchyma were evaluated in different categories of RSNA classification. Results: According to the RSNA classification 87.8, 5.56, 4.44, and 2.22% of the patients were assigned as typical, indeterminate, atypical, and negative, respectively. The proportion of "atypical" patients was higher in the patients who had mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion. Moreover, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were more pronounced in the lower lobes and left lung compared to the upper lobes and right lung, respectively. While small nodules were mostly seen in the atypical group, small GGO was associated with the typical group, especially when it is present in the right lung and indeterminate group. Conclusion: Regardless of its location, non-round GGO is the most prevalent finding in the typical group of the RSNA classification systems. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and small nodules are mostly observed in the atypical group and small GGO in the right lung is mostly seen in the typical group.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 814300, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198951

Résumé

Combined variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency, characterized by impairment in immune system function. These patients are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which may mimic COVID-19 manifestations. Also, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of opportunistic infections can lead to perilous consequences. We report a 28-year-old woman with a history of combined variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) and ulcerative colitis (UC) complained of fever, cough, and dyspnea. According to the clinical and radiological manifestations and the COVID-19 epidemic, she was admitted with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. After a week, the patient did not respond to treatment, so she underwent bronchoscopy. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology, we detected DNA of Pneumocystis jirovecii, the causative agent of a life-threatening pneumonia (PCP), in respiratory specimens. The patient was hypersensitive to common PCP treatments, so she was treated with high-dose clindamycin. However, the patient's clinical condition aggravated. Besides, we found evidence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium in chest CT scan. We inserted a catheter for the patient to evacuate the air inside the mediastinum. Also, we added caspofungin to the treatment. The patient eventually recovered and was discharged from the hospital about a week later. Thus, during the COVID-19 epidemic, in febrile patients with respiratory symptoms, physicians should not think only of COVID-19. They must consider opportunistic infections such as PCP, especially in immunocompromised patients.

18.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(2): e1763, 2022 03.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173486

Résumé

Pneumonia is a common but serious infectious disease, and is the sixth leading cause for death. The foreign pathogens such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria establish an inflammation response after interaction with lung, leading to the filling of bronchioles and alveoli with fluids. Although the pharmacotherapies have shown their great effectiveness to combat pathogens, advanced methods are under developing to treat complicated cases such as virus-infection and lung inflammation or acute lung injury (ALI). The inflammation modulation nanoparticles (NPs) can effectively suppress immune cells and inhibit inflammatory molecules in the lung site, and thereby alleviate pneumonia and ALI. In this review, the pathological inflammatory microenvironments in pneumonia, which are instructive for the design of biomaterials therapy, are summarized. The focus is then paid to the inflammation-modulating NPs that modulate the inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines, and microenvironments of pneumonia for better therapeutic effects. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Respiratory Disease.


Sujets)
Lésion pulmonaire aigüe , Nanoparticules , Pneumopathie infectieuse , Lésion pulmonaire aigüe/traitement médicamenteux , Lésion pulmonaire aigüe/anatomopathologie , Humains , Inflammation/traitement médicamenteux , Poumon , Nanoparticules/usage thérapeutique , Pneumopathie infectieuse/traitement médicamenteux , Pneumopathie infectieuse/anatomopathologie
19.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC ; 34(Suppl 1)(4):S1021-S1026, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207203

Résumé

: There are number of emerging studies that link the air leak syndrome (ALS) with COVID 19 disease but still data to explain the association, incidence and outcome in these patients is lacking. We aim to understand the risk factors and clinical outcome of these air leakage events in COVID 19 patients admitted to our institution.

20.
Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research ; 12(4):449-453, 2022.
Article Dans Anglais | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2207067

Résumé

A quantitative research study was done to evaluate the effect of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding self management behaviour among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients in prevention of Covid-19 at selected areas in Alappuzha district. The objectives were to assess the pretest level of knowledge regarding self management behaviour among type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to find out the association between knowledge regarding regarding self management behaviour among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients in prevention of covid19 at selected areas in Alappuzha district with selected demographic variables. The Quantitative research approach was selected with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test control group design. The study was conducted in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients who have been diagnosed in 5 years at selected areas in Alappuzha district. 50 Samples were selected according to the non-probability convenient sampling techniques. Screening test was done for the population with screening criteria. Knowledge questionnaire was given for 50 type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients who have been diagnosed in 5 year. The study findings reveals that among 50 samples, majority (84%) of the subjects have good knowledge regarding self management behaviour in prevention of COVID 19 remaining 16% percentage have average knowledge and nobody had poor knowledge. The association between knowledge score with various demographic variables shows 0.05 level of significance and it shows there is no significant association between knowledge score and demographic variables like age, sex, religion, type of family, area of residence, education, occupation and income.

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