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1.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development ; 11(7):1579-1586, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692882

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease occurred in 2020 which is followed by ongoing control efforts Physical distancing is one of the government’s policies to stop the spread of corona virus In the city of Banda Aceh, there are two community gathering places that are usually used, first is the coffee shop and second is place of worship such as mosque and mushola One factor difficult to control is the behavior of the people of Aceh who like to hang out for a long time in the coffee shop, sitting together while enjoying coffee If the people do not pay attention to the government appeal, it is feared that COVID-19 will be widely spread Objective: This study aims to determine the knowledge and behavior of the public on physical distancing in preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the City of Banda Aceh in 2020 Methodology: The method used here was descriptive survey The population in this study were all people in the city of Banda Aceh Data collection used Google Form The samples were collected in 30 days as many as 196 respondents Results: The survey results found that 93 9% of respondents had good knowledge on physical distancing, there were 90 8% respondents who agrred that gathering in a coffee shop could transmit COVID-19 and 57 1% understood that lock down could prevent the spread of COVID-19 Regarding the respondents’ behavior, it was shown that 7 1% still travelled out of town, 52% stayed at home and 89 8% left the house when they needed something Regarding the respondents’ habits, 78 6% always wore a mask when leaving the house, 87 8 % always washed their hands in the space provided, 64 3%, always used hand sanitazer when touching an object in a public place, 42 9% still performed either five daily prayers or Friday prayer in congregation in the mosque Furthermore, there were 83 7% who used private transportation, 5 1% gathered in a coffee shop among >4 people with a duration of more than 1 hour

2.
Journal of cardiovascular medicine (Hagerstown, Md.) ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and prognostic implications of acute cardiac injury (ACI), as a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remain unclear OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between ACI and mortality risk in COVID-19 patients METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in abstracting data and assessing validity We searched MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science to locate all articles published up to 10 April 2020 reporting data of COVID-19 survivors and nonsurvivors developing ACI as a complication of the infection Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale Data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects models with odds ratio as the effect measure with the related 95% confidence interval Statistical heterogeneity between groups was measured using the Higgins I statistic RESULTS: Eight studies, enrolling 1686 patients (mean age 59 5 years), met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis Data regarding the outcome of patients complicated with ACI were available for 1615 patients Of these, 387 (23 9%) experienced ACIs as COVID-19 complications during the hospitalization The incidence of ACI was significantly higher among non survivors when compared with survivors (61 6 vs 6 7%, P < 0 0001) The pooled analysis confirmed a significantly increased risk of death in COVID-19 patients complicated with ACI during the disease (odds ratio: 21 6, 95% confidence interval: 8 6-54 4, P < 0 0001, I = 82%) CONCLUSION: Development of ACI during COVID-19 significantly increases the risk of death during the infection

3.
Archives of pharmacal research ; 1:3-3, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692878

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, later named SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in China in December 2019 and subsequently widely identified in the United States, Japan, South Korea, France, India, and other countries The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was called COVID-19 The high fatality and morbidity rates of COVID-19 make it the third largest global epidemic in this century However, there are currently no approved antiviral drugs for the COVID-19 treatment Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo Preliminary clinical evidence suggests these drugs may have an effect on the treatment of COVID-19 Herein, we review the pharmacokinetics characteristics and antiviral effects of these drugs, in addition to their side effects and clinical evidence of their use for the COVID-19 treatment

4.
Patterns ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692873

ABSTRACT

Summary The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is placing an increasing burden on the healthcare systems Although the majority of infected patients have non-severe symptoms and can be managed at home, some individuals may develop severe disease and are demanding the hospital admission Therefore, it becomes paramount to efficiently assess the severity of COVID-19 and identify hospitalization priority with precision In this respect, a 4-variable assessment model, including lymphocyte, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil, is established and validated using the XGBoost algorithm This model is found effective to identify severe COVID-19 cases on admission, with a sensitivity of 84 6%, a specificity of 84 6%, and an accuracy of 100% to predict the disease progression toward rapid deterioration It also suggests that a computation-derived formula of clinical measures is practically applicable for the healthcare administrators to distribute hospitalization resources to the most needed in epidemics and pandemics

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692871

ABSTRACT

Background The anti-viral effects of Novaferon, a potent antiviral protein drug on COVID-19 was evaluated in laboratory, and in a randomized, open-label, parallel group trial Methods In laboratory, the inhibition of Novaferon on viral replication in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, and on prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry into healthy cells was determined Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated The primary endpoint was the SARS-CoV-2 clearance rates on day 6 of treatment, and the secondary endpoint was the time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance Results Novaferon inhibited the viral replication (EC50 = 1 02 ng/ml), and prevented viral infection (EC50 = 0 10 ng/ml) Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day 6than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50 0% vs 24 1%, p = 0 0400, and 60 0% vs 24 1%, p = 0 0053) Median time to viral clearance were 6 days, 6 days, and 9 days for three groups respectively, a 3-dayreductionin both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with Lopinavir/Ritonavir group Conclusions Novaferon exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro and in COVID-19 patients These data justified the further evaluation of Novaferon Trial registration number number ChiCTR2000029496at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www chictr org cn/)

6.
Infectious Diseases of Poverty 2020 9:1 ; 9(1):1-10, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692870

ABSTRACT

The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has rapidly increased all over the world Specific information about immunity in non-survivors with COVID-19 is scarce This study aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics and abnormal immunity of the confirmed COVID-19 non-survivors In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 125 patients with COVID-19 who were died between January 13 and March 4, 2020 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University A total of 414 randomly recruited patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were discharged from the same hospital during the same period served as control The demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings at admission, and treatment used in these patients were collected The immunity-related risk factors associated with in-hospital death were tested by logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve Non-survivors (70 years, IQR: 61 5–80) were significantly older than survivors (54 years, IQR: 37–65) (P <  0 001) 56 8% of non-survivors was male Nearly half of the patients (44 9%) had chronic medical illness In non-survivors, hypertension (49 6%) was the most common comorbidity, followed by diabetes (20 0%) and coronary heart disease (16 0%) The common signs and symptoms at admission of non-survivors were fever (88%), followed by cough (64 8%), dyspnea (62 4%), fatigue (62 4%) and chest tightness (58 4%) Compared with survivors, non-survivors had higher white blood cell (WBC) count (7 85 vs 5 07 × 109/L), more elevated neutrophil count (6 41 vs 3 08 × 109/L), smaller lymphocyte count (0 69 vs 1 20 × 109/L) and lower platelet count (172 vs 211 × 109/L), raised concentrations of procalcitonin (0 21 vs 0 06 ng/mL) and CRP (70 5 vs 7 2 mg/L) (P < 0 001) This was accompanied with significantly decreased levels of CD3+ T cells (277 vs 814 cells/μl), CD4+ T cells (172 vs 473 cells/μl), CD8+ T cells (84 vs 262 5 cells/μl, P < 0 001), CD19+ T cells (88 vs 141 cells/μl) and CD16+ 56+ T cells (79 vs 128 5 cells/μl) (P < 0 001) The concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) G (13 30 vs 11 95 g/L), IgA (2 54 vs 2 21 g/L), and IgE (71 30 vs 42 25 IU/ml) were increased, whereas the levels of complement proteins (C)3 (0 89 vs 0 99 g/L) and C4 (0 22 vs 0 24 g/L) were decreased in non-survivors when compared with survivors (all P < 0 05) The non-survivors presented lower levels of oximetry saturation (90 vs 97%) at rest and lactate (2 40 vs 1 90 mmol/L) (P < 0 001) Old age, comorbidity of malignant tumor, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, decreased C3, and low oximetry saturation were the risk factors of death in patients with confirmed COVID-19 The frequency of CD4+ T cells positively correlated with the numbers of lymphocytes (r = 0 787) and the level of oximetry saturation (r = 0 295), Whereas CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with age (r =-0 323) and the numbers of neutrophils (r = − 0 244) (all P < 0 001) Abnormal cellular immunity and humoral immunity were key features of non-survivors with COVID-19 Neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, and decreased C3 were immunity-related risk factors predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19

7.
Health Communication ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692868
8.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692867

ABSTRACT

Objectives To investigate the proportion and characteristics of asymptomatic infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) Methods We retrospectively investigated 1,407 HCWs who were screened for COVID-19 by chest CT scans and nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid Demographics, CT features, nasopharyngeal swabs, baseline symptoms and laboratory data were collected Results Of 1,407 HCWs, 235 had symptoms and 1,172 were asymptomatic close contacts, of which, 107 were symptomatic cases and 84 were close contacts who had abnormal CT findings Of 152 symptomatic individuals and 908 close contacts tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, 122 symptomatic cases and 38 close contacts had positive RT-PCR test results The rate of confirmed asymptomatic infections was 4 2% (38/908) Both symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infected cases had high titrations of specific IgG or had ≥4-fold increase in IgG during convalescence compared with the acute phase Combining the RT-PCR tests and serological findings, the rate of asymptomatic infections was 9 7% (88/908) In terms of the duration of viral shedding, there was no significant difference between symptomatic mild/moderate patients and asymptomatic infections Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a high rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers exists among members of close contacts during the outbreak of COVID-19

9.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692864

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics and predictive roles of lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients Method We evaluated lymphocyte subsets and other clinical features of COVID-19 patients and analysed their potential impacts on COVID-19 outcomes Results 1 Lymphocyte subset counts in the peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 were significantly reduced, especially in patients with severe disease 2 In patients with non-severe diseases, the time from symptom onset to hospital admission was positively correlated with total T cell counts 3 Among COVID-19 patients who did not reach the composite endpoint, lymphocyte subset counts were higher than in patients who had reached the composite endpoint 4 The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significant differences in COVID-19 patients, classified by the levels of total, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells at admission Conclusion Our study shows that the total, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell counts in patients with COVID-19 were significantly reduced, especially in patients with severe disease T lymphocyte subsets were significantly associated with a higher occurrence of composite endpoint events These subsets may help identify patients with a high risk of composite endpoint events

10.
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692862
11.
Journal of the Operations Research Society of China ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692857

ABSTRACT

This study develops a holistic view of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spread worldwide through a spatial-temporal model with network dynamics By using a unique human mobility dataset containing 547 166 flights with a total capacity of 101 455 913 passengers from January 22 to April 24, 2020, we analyze the epidemic correlations across 22 countries in six continents and particularly the changes in such correlations before and after implementing the international travel restriction policies targeting different countries Results show that policymakers should move away from the previous practices that focus only on restricting hotspot areas with high infection rates Instead, they should develop a new holistic view of global human mobility to impose the international movement restriction The study further highlights potential correlations between international human mobility and focal countries' epidemic situations in the global network of COVID-19 pandemic

12.
Pediatric emergency care ; 36(8):e482-e483, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692854
13.
China International Strategy Review ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692851

ABSTRACT

China-US relations are the most important bilateral relations in the world Today, China-US relations are neither the same as then Soviet-US relations, nor as their previous situation After the breakout of COVID-19 Pandemic, China-US relations show great differences in terms of public opinions, economic and trade relations and strategic trust It is of great importance to keep sober minded about China-US relations after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and to uphold Deng Xiaop-ing's guiding principle of "hiding your strength and biding your time while trying to accomplish something", which are essential for China to deal with various severe challenges under the new circumstances and to safeguard China's security and development environment

14.
Annals of Translational Medicine ; 8(13), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692848

ABSTRACT

Background: As a global pandemic, COVID-19 has aroused great concern in the last few months and a growing number of related researches have been published Therefore, a bibliometric analysis of these publications may provide a direction of hot topics and future research trends Methods: The global literatures about COVID-19 published between 2019 and 2020 were scanned in the Web of Science collection database "COVID-19" "Novel Coronavirus" "2019-nCoV" and "SARS-CoV-2" were used as the keywords to reach the relevant publications VOSviewer was applied to perform the bibliometric analysis of these articles Results: Totally 3,626 publications on the topic of COVID-19 were identified and "COVID-19" with a total link strength of 2,649 appeared as the most frequent keyword, which had a strong link to "pneumonia" and "epidemiology" The mean citation count of the top 100 most cited articles was 96 (range, 26-883) Most of them were descriptive studies and concentrated on the clinical features The highest-ranking journal was British medical journal with 211 publications and the most cited journal was Lancet with 2,485 citation counts Eleven articles written by Christian Drosten from Berlin Institute of Virology have been cited for 389 times and 40 articles from Chinese Academy of Sciences have been cited for 1,597 times which are the most cited author and organization The number of collaborators with China is 44 and the total link strength is 487 The main partners of China are USA, England and Germany The published literatures have focused on three topics: disease management, clinical features and pathogenesis Conclusions: The current growth trends predict a large increase in the number of global publications on COVID-19 China made the most outstanding contribution within this important field Disease treatment, spike protein and vaccine may be hotspots in the future

15.
International Journal of Clinical Practice ; n/a(n/a):e13632-e13632, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692847

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The profiles of liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 patients need to be clarified Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients over 60 years old in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from Jan 1 to Feb 6 were included Data of demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, medications and outcomes were collected and analyzed Sequential alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were monitored Results 330 patients were included and classified into two groups with normal (n=234) or elevated ALT (n=96) There were fewer females (40 6% vs 54 7%, P=0 020) and more critical cases (30 2% vs 19 2%, P=0 026) in patients with elevated ALT compared to the normal group Higher levels of bacterial infection indices (e g white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) were observed in the elevated group Spearman correlation showed that both ALT and AST levels were positively correlated with those indices of bacterial infection No obvious effects of medications on ALT abnormalities were found In patients with elevated ALT, most ALT elevations were mild and transient 59 4% of the patients had ALT concentrations of 41?100 U/L, while only a few patients (5 2%) had high serum ALT concentrations above 300 U/L ALT elevations occurred at 13 (10?17) days and recovered at 28 (18?35) days from disease onset For most patients, the elevation of serum ALT levels occurred at 6?20 days after disease onset and reached their peak values within a similar time frame The recovery of serum ALT levels to normal frequently occurred at 16?20 days or 31?35 days after disease onset Conclusions Liver function abnormalities were observed in 29 1% of the elderly COVID-19 patients, which were slightly and transient in most cases Liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 may be correlated with bacterial infection

16.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 8(14):2950-2958, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A large number of pneumonia cases due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been first reported in China Meanwhile, the virus is sweeping all around the world and has infected millions of people Fever and pulmonary symptoms have been noticed as major and early signs of infection, whereas gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in a significant portion of patients The clinical investigation of disease onset was underestimated, especially due to the neglection of cases presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms AIM To characterize the clinical features of coronavirus-infected patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as initial symptoms METHODS This is a retrospective, single-center case series of the general consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Wuhan Union Hospital from February 2, 2020 to February 13, 2020 According to their initial symptoms, these patients were classified into two groups Patients in group one presented with pulmonary symptoms (PS) as initial symptoms, and group two presented with gastrointestinal symptoms (GS) Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected for analysis RESULTS Among the 50 patients recruited, no patient has been admitted to intensive care units, and no patient died during the study The duration of hospitalization was longer in the GS group than in the PS group (12 13 ± 2 44 vs 10 00 ± 2 13, P < 0 01) All of the 50 patients exhibited decreased lymphocytes However, lymphocytes in the GS group were significantly lower compared to those in the PS group (0 94 ± 0 06 vs 1 04 ± 0 15, P < 0 01) Procalcitonin and hs-CRP were both significantly higher in the GS group than in the PS group Accordingly, the duration of viral shedding was significantly longer in the GS group compared to the PS group (10 22 ± 1 93 vs 8 15 ± 1 87, P < 0 01) CONCLUSION COVID-19 patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms as initial symptoms need more days of viral shedding and hospitalization than the patients presenting with pulmonary symptoms

17.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology ; 60(5):558-563, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692832
18.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692831

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Behaviors of older adults, the population most vulnerable to Covid-19, may be one of keys in tacking the virus as a country, though it is not usually covered in a mobility big data Our unique IoT data shows older adults have considerably decreased their social and physical activities in response to social distancing messages from community

19.
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692830
20.
Current opinion in ophthalmology ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692825

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to the healthcare community To reduce disease transmission, national regulatory agencies temporarily recommended curtailment of all nonurgent office visits and elective surgeries in March 2020, including vitreoretinal outpatient care in the USA The effect of these guidelines on utilization of vitreoretinal care has not been explored to date RECENT FINDINGS: Retinal outpatient visits, new patient visits, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and in-office multimodal retinal imaging has seen a significant decline in utilization in the early phase of the pandemic Intravitreal injections were performed at a comparatively higher rate than office visits Utilization appeared to steadily increase in April 2020 Telemedicine visits, enabled by new national legislation for all areas of medicine, have been adopted to a modest degree by the retina community SUMMARY: In-office retinal care declined in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and national regulatory guidelines limiting nonurgent care These trends in practice patterns and care utilization may be of interest to vitreoretinal providers and all ophthalmologists at large

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