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2.
Sexologies ; 2020.
Article in English, French | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-773252

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus crisis, French people daily life was upset by eight weeks of lockdown. This upheaval required adaptation to both the professional and personal standards of the whole population. What about the level of sexual life during this period of lockdown? Was sexuality at his peak for people confined in couple? Have auto-erotic practices been accentuated for individuals confined without sexual partner? To investigate these issues, we conducted a prospective survey using two online anonymous self-administered questionnaires – one for people living in couples and one for people living alone, without sexual partner. In total, 844 questionnaires were analyzed – 437 for individuals confined in couple and 407 for individuals confined alone – carried out in 554 women and 291 men. Results of this study highlight changes in sexual habits in both couples and those without partners during this period. We also note an impact of the psychological experience link to the situation on sexuality. Whether the confinement is experienced positively or negatively by the subjects, repercussions on sexuality are different. We could have believed, at the beginning of the lockdown, that couples’ sexuality would increase tenfold, and that people confined alone would increase their masturbatory practices but this particular health context has unexpected repercussions on sexuality.

3.
HSS Journal ® ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-775270
4.
Journal of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-775065
6.
Virus Research ; 286, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-775030

ABSTRACT

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor The genetic variant CCR5A32 (32 base-pair deletion in CCR5 gene) impairs CCR5 expression on the cell surface and is associated with protection against HIV infection in homozygous individuals Also, the genetic variant CCR5A32 modifies the CCR5-mediated inflammatory responses in various conditions, such as inflammatory and infectious diseases CCR5 antagonists mimic, at least in part, the natural effects of the CCR5A32 in humans, which explains the growing interest in the potential benefits of using CCR5 modulators for the treatment of different diseases Nevertheless, beyond HIV infection, understanding the effects of the CCR5A32 variant in multiple viral infections is essential to shed light on the potential effects of the CCR5 modulators from a broader perspective In this context, this review discusses the involvement of CCR5 and the effects of the CCR5A32 in human infections caused by the following pathogens: West Nile virus, Influenza virus, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Poliovirus, Dengue virus, Human cytomegalovirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Enterovirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Hantavirus Subsequently, this review addresses the impacts of CCR5 gene editing and CCR5 modulation on health and viral diseases Also, this article connects recent findings regarding extracellular vesicles (e g , exosomes), viruses, and CCR5 Neglected and emerging topics in "CCR5 research" are briefly described, with focus on Rocio virus, Zika virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Rhinovirus Finally, the potential influence of CCR5 on the immune responses to coronaviruses is discussed

8.
Pediatr Res ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774919

ABSTRACT

Fig 1 ASSOCIATIONS OF CORONAVIRUS GROUPS WITH NASOPHARYNGEAL AIRWAY METABOLITES IN INFANTS WITH SEVERE BRONCHIOLITIS : a Sparse partial least-squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) score plot of nasopharyngeal airway metabolome according to alpha (blue) vs beta (red) CoV infection Each dot represents the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profile of a single infant, by plotting the component scores in the smaller subspace spanned by latent variables of sPLS-DA The eclipses are 95% confidence intervals The arrows start from the centroid of each virus group and end for each infant belonging to each group b Heatmap of Spearman's correlations of the genomic load (measured as the inverse cycle threshold value) of alpha and beta CoVs with the 30 most discriminatory nasopharyngeal airway metabolites in the corresponding sPLS-DA model (Table E2) Clustering is based on Euclidean distance and Ward's minimum variance linkage algorithm The color bar indicates the correlation coefficients-red color indicates a positive correlation while blue color indicates a negative correlation Superpathway of each metabolite is color-coded for each function CoV coronavirus

9.
Emerging Microbes & Infections ; 9(1):246-255, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774889

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is primarily associated with common cold in children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals Outbreaks caused by HCoV-NL63 are rare Here we report a cluster of HCoV-NL63 cases with severe lower respiratory tract infection that arose in Guangzhou, China, in 2018 Twenty-three hospitalized children were confirmed to be HCoV-NL63 positive, and most of whom were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or acute bronchitis Whole genomes of HCoV-NL63 were obtained using next-generation sequencing Phylogenetic and single amino acid polymorphism analyses showed that this outbreak was associated with two subgenotypes (C3 and B) of HCoV-NL63 Half of patients were identified to be related to a new subgenotype C3 One unique amino acid mutation at I507 L in spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) was detected, which segregated this subgenotype C3 from other known subgenotypes Pseudotyped virus bearing the I507 L mutation in RBD showed enhanced entry into host cells as compared to the prototype virus This study proved that HCoV-NL63 was undergoing continuous mutation and has the potential to cause severe lower respiratory disease in humans

10.
mSphere ; 5(3), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774837

ABSTRACT

Zinc supplementation in cell culture has been shown to inhibit various viruses, like herpes simplex virus, rotavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) However, whether zinc plays a direct antiviral role in viral infections and whether viruses have adopted strategies to modulate zinc homeostasis have not been investigated Results from clinical trials of zinc supplementation in infections indicate that zinc supplementation may be beneficial in a pathogen- or disease-specific manner, further underscoring the importance of understanding the interaction between zinc homeostasis and virus infections at the molecular level We investigated the effect of RSV infection on zinc homeostasis and show that RSV infection in lung epithelial cells leads to modulation of zinc homeostasis The intracellular labile zinc pool increases upon RSV infection in a multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent fashion Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitous zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 suggests that labile zinc levels are increased due to the increased uptake by RSV-infected cells as an antiviral response Adding zinc to culture medium after RSV infection led to significant inhibition of RSV titers, whereas depletion of zinc by a zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN) led to an increase in RSV titers The inhibitory effect of zinc was specific, as other divalent cations had no effect on RSV titers Both RSV infection and zinc chelation by TPEN led to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, whereas addition of zinc blocked ROS induction These results suggest a molecular link between RSV infection, zinc homeostasis, and oxidative-stress pathways and provide new insights for developing strategies to counter RSV infection IMPORTANCE Zinc deficiency rates in developing countries range from 20 to 30%, and zinc supplementation trials have been shown to correct clinical manifestations attributed to zinc deficiency, but the outcomes in the case of respiratory infections have been inconsistent We aimed at understanding the role of zinc homeostasis in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection Infection of lung epithelial cell lines or primary small-airway epithelial cells led to an increase in labile zinc pools, which was due to increased uptake of zinc Zinc supplementation inhibited RSV replication, whereas zinc chelation had an opposing effect, leading to increases in RSV titers Increases in labile zinc in RSV-infected cells coincided with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) Both zinc depletion and addition of exogenous ROS led to enhanced RSV infection, whereas addition of the antioxidant inhibited RSV, suggesting that zinc is part of an interplay between RSV-induced oxidative stress and the host response to maintain redox balance

11.
J Innate Immun ; 12(1):4-20, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774824

ABSTRACT

The impact of respiratory virus infections on the health of children and adults can be very significant Yet, in contrast to most other childhood infections as well as other viral and bacterial diseases, prophylactic vaccines or effective antiviral treatments against viral respiratory infections are either still not available, or provide only limited protection Given the widespread prevalence, a general lack of natural sterilizing immunity, and/or high morbidity and lethality rates of diseases caused by influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses, this difficult situation is a genuine societal challenge A thorough understanding of the virus-host interactions during these respiratory infections will most probably be pivotal to ultimately meet these challenges This review attempts to provide a comparative overview of the knowledge about an important part of the interaction between respiratory viruses and their host: the arms race between host innate immunity and viral innate immune evasion Many, if not all, viruses, including the respiratory viruses listed above, suppress innate immune responses to gain a window of opportunity for efficient virus replication and setting-up of the infection The consequences for the host's immune response are that it is often incomplete, delayed or diminished, or displays overly strong induction (after the delay) that may cause tissue damage The affected innate immune response also impacts subsequent adaptive responses, and therefore viral innate immune evasion often undermines fully protective immunity In this review, innate immune responses relevant for respiratory viruses with an RNA genome will briefly be summarized, and viral innate immune evasion based on shielding viral RNA species away from cellular innate immune sensors will be discussed from different angles Subsequently, viral enzymatic activities that suppress innate immune responses will be discussed, including activities causing host shut-off and manipulation of stress granule formation Furthermore, viral protease-mediated immune evasion and viral manipulation of the ubiquitin system will be addressed Finally, perspectives for use of the reviewed knowledge for the development of novel antiviral strategies will be sketched

12.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(2):e2020128, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774706
13.
Elife ; 9, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774702

ABSTRACT

Bats host virulent zoonotic viruses without experiencing disease A mechanistic understanding of the impact of bats' virus hosting capacities, including uniquely constitutive immune pathways, on cellular-scale viral dynamics is needed to elucidate zoonotic emergence We carried out virus infectivity assays on bat cell lines expressing induced and constitutive immune phenotypes, then developed a theoretical model of our in vitro system, which we fit to empirical data Best fit models recapitulated expected immune phenotypes for representative cell lines, supporting robust antiviral defenses in bat cells that correlated with higher estimates for within-host viral propagation rates In general, heightened immune responses limit pathogen-induced cellular morbidity, which can facilitate the establishment of rapidly-propagating persistent infections within-host Rapidly-transmitting viruses that have evolved with bat immune systems will likely cause enhanced virulence following emergence into secondary hosts with immune systems that diverge from those unique to bats Bats can carry viruses that are deadly to other mammals without themselves showing serious symptoms In fact, bats are natural reservoirs for viruses that have some of the highest fatality rates of any viruses that people acquire from wild animals – including rabies, Ebola and the SARS coronavirus Bats have a suite of antiviral defenses that keep the amount of virus in check For example, some bats have an antiviral immune response called the interferon pathway perpetually switched on In most other mammals, having such a hyper-vigilant immune response would cause harmful inflammation Bats, however, have adapted anti-inflammatory traits that protect them from such harm, include the loss of certain genes that normally promote inflammation However, no one has previously explored how these unique antiviral defenses of bats impact the viruses themselves Now, Brook et al have studied this exact question using bat cells grown in the laboratory The experiments made use of cells from one bat species – the black flying fox – in which the interferon pathway is always on, and another – the Egyptian fruit bat – in which this pathway is only activated during an infection The bat cells were infected with three different viruses, and then Brook et al observed how the interferon pathway helped keep the infections in check, before creating a computer model of this response The experiments and model helped reveal that the bats’ defenses may have a potential downside for other animals, including humans In both bat species, the strongest antiviral responses were countered by the virus spreading more quickly from cell to cell This suggests that bat immune defenses may drive the evolution of faster transmitting viruses, and while bats are well protected from the harmful effects of their own prolific viruses, other creatures like humans are not The findings may help to explain why bats are often the source for viruses that are deadly in humans Learning more about bats' antiviral defenses and how they drive virus evolution may help scientists develop better ways to predict, prevent or limit the spread of viruses from bats to humans More studies are needed in bats to help these efforts In the meantime, the experiments highlight the importance of warning people to avoid direct contact with wild bats eng

14.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 94, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social determinants and health inequalities have a huge impact on health of populations It is important to study their role in the management of the Covid-19 epidemic, especially in cities, as certain variables like the number of tests and the access to health system cannot be assumed as equal The aim of this work was to determine the relation of social determinants in the incidence of Covid-19 in the city of Barcelona METHODS: An observational retrospective ecological study was performed, with the neighbourhood as the population unit, based on data of cumulative incidence published at May 14th, 2020 by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona Covid-19 incidence disparities depending on the income of the neighbourhoods, the Pearson linear correlation of the variables selected (age, sex, net density, immigrants, comorbidities, smokers, Body Mass Index [BMI] and Available Income per Family Index [AIFI]) with the incidence and the correlation with a multivariant Generalized Linear Model (GLM) were estimated RESULTS: It was found that neighbourhoods belonging to the lowest quintile of income had a 42% more incidence than those belonging to the highest quintile: 942 cases per 100,000 inhabitants versus 545 per 100,000 inhabitants of the highest quintile The Pearson correlation was statistically significative between the incidence of Covid-19 and the percentage of population over 75 (r=0 487), the percentage of immigration of the neighbourhood and the origin of the immigrants (r=-0 257), the AIFI (r=-0 462), the percentage of smokers (r=0 243) and the percentage of people with BMI over 25 (r=0 483) The GLM showed that the most correlated variables with the incidence are the percentage of people over 75 (Z-score=0 258), the percentage of people from Maghreb (Z-score=-0 206) and Latin America (Z-score=0 19) and the percentage of people with BMI over 25 (Z-score=0 334) The results of the GLM were significative CONCLUSIONS: Social determinants are correlated with the modification of the incidence of Covid-19 in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona, with special relevance of the prevalence of BMI over 25 and the percentage of immigrants and its origin

15.
Radiologe ; 60(9):880-880, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774688
16.
Radiologe ; 60(9):881-882, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774687
17.
Respiratory Care ; 65(7):i, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774686
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(706):1726, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774684
19.
International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems ; 13(1):852-863, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774671

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the design and implementation of a smart and safe minimarket prototype for deployment in busy smart cities to mitigate the overhead of shopping experience The prototype allows customers to remotely access and browse the available products at the minimarket using a special smart-phone application The system can intelligently detect the nearby location of customers and subsequently provide location-dependent services such as allowing orders to be placed using the application, predicting weekly customer expenditures based on artificial-neural-network machine-learning approach, and automatically delivering purchased products using a robotic shopping cart This proposal is believed to support safe shopping which became a critical issue after COVID-19 pandemic From a service provider view point, the application allows the provider to remotely manage the minimarket by adding/removing product items, keeping track of shortage in products, and getting revenue information Empirical results show that the average service time of the minimarket is approximate to 60 seconds per customer However, an analytical model based on queueing theory was used to analyze the performance of the system when customers arrive according to a Poisson random process and get served according to a general-service-time distribution (M/G/1) The case of batch customer arrivals (M-[H]/G/1) was also analyzed, where batch size is also assumed to be random Various traffic intensities and the effect of variable service times were studied and cross-validated with simulation results Worst-case scenario shows that under heavy load of 95%, when customers arrive at the minimarket every 63 seconds on average, the average response time for each customer is minutes (C) 2020 The Authors Published by Atlantis Press SARL

20.
Mkg-Chirurg ; 13(3):234-234, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774669
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