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1.
Cureus ; 12(6):e8915-e8915, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693652

ABSTRACT

While the majority of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have not been critical, occurrences of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been emerging as the pandemic progresses Herein, we report our experience with a pediatric COVID-19 case that presented with shock and multisystem inflammation Our patient notably had multiple negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays but tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody This case not only highlights the utility of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the diagnosis of COVID-19 when RT-PCR is negative but suggests MIS-C may be a post-infectious immune-mediated process

2.
Children ; 7(8):87-87, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693647

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France The newborn developed an acute respiratory distress by 14 days of life with bilateral ground glass opacities on a chest CT scan and a 6-week-long stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) This case report emphasizes the need for a cautious and close follow-up period for asymptomatic neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection Vertical transmission cannot be excluded in this case

3.
Opflow ; 46(8):28-29, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693638

ABSTRACT

Unless a water or wastewater utility has had to deal with a serious disruption in the past, emergency preparedness may not have been a priority However, with COVID-19, every water and wastewater utility has now faced a prolonged emergency and can?and should?learn from it

4.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 21(15):5380-5380, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693630

ABSTRACT

To control the COVID-19 pandemic and prevent its resurgence in areas preparing for a return of economic activities, a method for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive point-of-care diagnosis and mass screening is urgently needed We developed and evaluated a one-step colorimetric reverse-transcriptional loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (COVID-19-LAMP) for detection of SARS-CoV-2, using SARS-CoV-2 isolate and respiratory samples from patients with COVID-19 (n = 223) and other respiratory virus infections (n = 143) The assay involves simple equipment and techniques and low cost, without the need for expensive qPCR machines, and the result, indicated by color change, is easily interpreted by naked eyes COVID-19-LAMP can detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA with detection limit of 42 copies/reaction Of 223 respiratory samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR, 212 and 219 were positive by COVID-19-LAMP at 60 and 90 min (sensitivities of 95 07% and 98 21%) respectively, with the highest sensitivities among nasopharyngeal swabs (96 88% and 98 96%), compared to sputum/deep throat saliva samples (94 03% and 97 02%), and throat swab samples (93 33% and 98 33%) None of the 143 samples with other respiratory viruses were positive by COVID-19-LAMP, showing 100% specificity Samples with higher viral load showed shorter detection time, some as early as 30 min This inexpensive, highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-LAMP assay can be useful for rapid deployment as mobile diagnostic units to resource-limiting areas for point-of-care diagnosis, and for unlimited high-throughput mass screening at borders to reduce cross-regional transmission

5.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 13(8):173-173, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693627

ABSTRACT

Through an international business risk management lens, the widespread and catalytic implications of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic on the supply chains (SCs) of fashion multinational corporations (MNC) are analyzed to contribute to existing research on supply chain management (SCM) While a movement towards agile, networked supply chain models had been in consideration for many firms prior to the outbreak, the pandemic highlights issues inherent in supply chains that employ concentrated production We examined the current state of fashion supply chains, risks that have arisen historically and recently, and existing risk mitigation methods We found that while lean supply chain management is primarily favored for its cost and waste reduction advantages, the structure is limited by the lack of supply chain transparency that results as well as the increasing demand volatility observed even before the COVID-19 outbreak Although this problem might exist in the agile supply chain, agile supply chains combat this by focusing on enhancing communication and buyer-supplier relationships to improve information exchange However, this structure also entails an associated increase in inventory and inventory costs The COVID-19 pandemic has caused supply and demand disruptions which have resonating effects on supply chain activities and management, indicating a need to build flexibility to mitigate epidemic and demand risks To address this, several strategies that firms can adopt to control for such risks are outlined and key areas for further research are identified which consider parties both upstream and downstream of the fashion supply chain

6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5477-5477, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693623

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the morbidity and mortality rates of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in different prefectures of Japan Under the constraint that daily maximum confirmed deaths and daily maximum cases should exceed 4 and 10, respectively, 14 prefectures were included, and cofactors affecting the morbidity and mortality rates were evaluated In particular, the number of confirmed deaths was assessed, excluding cases of nosocomial infections and nursing home patients The correlations between the morbidity and mortality rates and population density were statistically significant (p-value <0 05) In addition, the percentage of elderly population was also found to be non-negligible Among weather parameters, the maximum temperature and absolute humidity averaged over the duration were found to be in modest correlation with the morbidity and mortality rates Lower morbidity and mortality rates were observed for higher temperature and absolute humidity Multivariate linear regression considering these factors showed that the adjusted determination coefficient for the confirmed cases was 0 693 in terms of population density, elderly percentage, and maximum absolute humidity (p-value <0 01) These findings could be useful for intervention planning during future pandemics, including a potential second COVID-19 outbreak

7.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5541-5541, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693621

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions of dietitians’ wellbeing at work before and during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in Brazil This cross-sectional study was performed using a previously validated instrument to investigate the wellbeing of dietitians at work in Brazil The questionnaire on the wellbeing of dietitians was composed of 25 items (with a 5-point scale), characteristics, and questions about the SARS-COV-2 period The application was carried out with GoogleForms® tool from 26 May to 7 June 2020 The weblink to access the research was sent via email, messaging apps, and social networks Volunteers were recruited nationwide with the help of the Brazilian Dietitians Councils, support groups, as well as media outreach to reach as many dietitians as possible Volunteers received, along with the research link, the invitation to participate, as well as the consent form A representative sample of 1359 dietitians from all the Brazilian regions answered the questionnaire—mostly female (92 5%), Catholic (52 9%), from 25 to 39 years old (58 4%), with a partner (63 8%), and with no children (58%) Most of the participants continue working during the pandemic period (83 8%), but they did not have SARS-COV-2 (96%), nor did their family members (80 7%) The wellbeing at work before SARS-COV-2 was 3 88 ± 0 71, statistically different (p <0 05) from during the pandemic, with the wellbeing of 3 71 ± 0 78 Wellbeing at work was higher before the pandemic for all the analyzed variables Analyzing variables separately before and during the pandemic, dietitians with partners, children and a Ph D presented higher scores for wellbeing at work Professionals receiving more than five times the minimum wage have higher scores During the pandemic, better wellbeing was observed for dietitians working remotely

8.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693599

ABSTRACT

There is currently an ongoing worldwide pandemic of a novel virus belonging to the family of Coronaviruses (CoVs) which are large, enveloped, plus-stranded RNA viruses Coronaviruses belong to the order of Nidovirales, family of Coronavirinae and are divided into four genera: alphacoronavirus, betacoronavirus, gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus CoVs cause diseases in a wide variety of birds and mammals and have been found in humans since 1960 To date, seven human CoVs were identified including the alpha-CoVs HCoVs-NL63 and HCoVs-229E and the beta-CoVs HCoVs-OC43, HCoVs-HKU1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and the novel virus that first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread to 213 countries as of the writing this paper It was officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (ICTV) and the disease’s name is COVID-19 for coronavirus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 is very contagious and is capable of spreading from human to human Infection routes include droplet and contact, and aerosol transmission is currently under investigation It is associated with a respiratory illness that may cause severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) SARS-CoV-2 became an emergency of international concern As of July 12, 2020, the virus has been responsible for 12,698,995 confirmed cases and 564,924 deaths worldwide and the number is still increasing Up until now, no specific treatment has yet been proven effective against SARS-CoV-2 Since the beginning of this outbreak, several interesting papers on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 have been published to report on the phylogenetic evolution, epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission as well as clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and possible treatments agents This paper is a systematic review of the available literature on SARS-CoV-2 It was performed in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and aims to help readers access the latest knowledge surrounding this new infectious disease and to provide a reference for future studies

9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5503-5503, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693598

ABSTRACT

There is an “infodemic” associated with the COVID-19 pandemic—an overabundance of valid and invalid information Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health information, making it crucial for navigating coronavirus and COVID-19 information environments A cross-sectional representative study of participants ≥ 16 years in Germany was conducted using an online survey A coronavirus-related health literacy measure was developed (HLS-COVID-Q22) Internal consistency was very high (α = 0 940;ρ = 0 891) and construct validity suggests a sufficient model fit, making HLS-COVID-Q22 a feasible tool for assessing coronavirus-related health literacy in population surveys While 49 9% of our sample had sufficient levels of coronavirus-related health literacy, 50 1% had “problematic” (15 2%) or “inadequate” (34 9%) levels Although the overall level of health literacy is high, a vast number of participants report difficulties dealing with coronavirus and COVID-19 information The participants felt well informed about coronavirus, but 47 8% reported having difficulties judging whether they could trust media information on COVID-19 Confusion about coronavirus information was significantly higher among those who had lower health literacy This calls for targeted public information campaigns and promotion of population-based health literacy for better navigation of information environments during the infodemic, identification of disinformation, and decision-making based on reliable and trustworthy information

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5508-5508, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693595

ABSTRACT

The virus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, may be present in the stools of COVID-19 patients Therefore, we aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the population Samples of untreated wastewater were collected from 33 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different sizes within the Czech Republic SARS-CoV-2 RNA was concentrated from wastewater and viral RNA was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 11 6% of samples and more than 27 3% of WWTPs;in some of them, SARS-CoV-2 was detected repeatedly Our preliminary results indicate that an epidemiology approach that focuses on the determination of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater could be suitable for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in the population

11.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5618-5618, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693593

ABSTRACT

The use of advanced learning technologies in a learning management system (LMS) can greatly assist learning processes, especially when used in university environments, as they promote the development of Self-Regulated learning, which increases academic performance and student satisfaction towards personal learning One of the most innovative resources that an LMS may have is an Intelligent Personal Assistant (IPA) We worked with a sample of 109 third-grade students following Health Sciences degrees The aims were: (1) to verify whether there will be significant differences in student access to the LMS, depending on use versus non-use of an IPA (2) To verify whether there will be significant differences in student learning outcomes depending on use versus non-use of an IPA (3) To verify whether there will be significant differences for student satisfaction with teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, depending on use versus non-use of an IPA (4) To analyze student perceptions of the usefulness of an IPA in the LMS We found greater functionality in access to the LMS and satisfaction with teaching, especially during the health crisis, in the group of students who had used an IPA However, both the expansion of available information and the usability of the features embedded in an IPA are still challenging issues

12.
Cities ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693589

ABSTRACT

The special epistemic characteristics of the COVID-19, such as the long incubation period and the infection through asymptomatic cases, put severe challenge to the containment of its outbreak By the end of March, 2020, China has successfully controlled the within- spreading of COVID-19 at a high cost of locking down most of its major cities, including the epicenter, Wuhan Since the low accuracy of outbreak data before the mid of Feb 2020 forms a major technical concern on those studies based on statistic inference from the early outbreak We apply the supervised learning techniques to identify and train NP-Net-SIR model which turns out robust under poor data quality condition By the trained model parameters, we analyze the connection between population flow and the cross-regional infection connection strength, based on which a set of counterfactual analysis is carried out to study the necessity of lock-down and substitutability between lock-down and the other containment measures Our findings support the existence of non-lock-down-typed measures that can reach the same containment consequence as the lock-down, and provide useful guideline for the design of a more flexible containment strategy

13.
Science of The Total Environment ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693584

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus identified as the cause of COVID-19, and as the pandemic evolves, many have made parallels to previous epidemics such as SARS-CoV (the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]) in 2003 Many have speculated that, like SARS, the activity of SARS-CoV-2 will subside when the climate becomes warmer We sought to determine the relationship between ambient temperature and COVID-19 incidence in Canada We analyzed over 77,700 COVID-19 cases from four Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec) from January to May 2020 After adjusting for precipitation, wind gust speed, and province in multiple linear regression models, we found a positive, but not statistically significant, association between cumulative incidence and ambient temperature (14 2 per 100,000 people;95%CI: −0 60–29 0) We also did not find a statistically significant association between total cases or effective reproductive number of COVID-19 and ambient temperature Our findings do not support the hypothesis that higher temperatures will reduce transmission of COVID-19 and warns the public not to lose vigilance, and to continue practicing safety measures such as hand washing, social distancing, and use of facial masks despite the warming climates

14.
Nutrients ; 12(8):2324-2324, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693574

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify patterns of dietary changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with sociodemographics, body mass index (BMI) before pandemic, and lifestyle changes in Polish adults and to examine the effects of lockdowns on dietary–lifestyle changes This study used a cross-sectional online survey to collect data The k-means algorithm was used to determine of patterns of dietary changes, and logistic regression analyses were performed During the study period, 43% of respondents decreased physical activity (PA), 49%—increased screen time, and 34%—increased food consumption Among the three dietary changes patterns, two opposite patterns were found: Prohealthy (28% participants) and Unhealthy (19% participants) The adherence to the Prohealthy pattern was negatively associated with age, but positively with being overweight (aOR 1 31) or obese before pandemic (aOR 1 64) Residing in a macroeconomic region with GDP >100% decreased adherence to the Prohealthy (aOR 0 73) but increased adherence to the Unhealthy pattern (aOR 1 47) Adults over 40 years old, those living with children, unemployed, those living in a region with a higher GDP, and those not consuming homemade meals could be more exposed to unhealthy behaviors From a public health perspective, enhancing the message “to be active” during the compulsory isolation period should be prioritized

15.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693569

ABSTRACT

The pandemic situation with the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from China has endangered human lives Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presented with asymptomatic, mild, or severe pneumonia-like symptoms COVID-19 patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), hypertension, malignancies, HIV, and other comorbidities could develop a life-threatening situation SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE-2 receptors found at the surface of the host cells to get inside the cell Certain comorbidities are associated with a strong ACE-2 receptor expression and higher release of proprotein convertase that enhance the viral entry into the host cells The comorbidities lead to the COVID-19 patient into a vicious infectious circle of life and are substantially associated with significant morbidity and mortality The comorbid individuals must adopt the vigilant preventive measure and requires scrupulous management In this review, we rigorously focused on the impact of common morbidities in COVID-19 patients and recapitulated the management strategies with recent directions We found limited resources describing the association of comorbidities in COVID-19;however, our review delineates the broader spectrum of comorbidities with COVID-19 patients

16.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 21(15):5559-5559, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693568

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with rising numbers of patients worldwide, presents an urgent need for effective treatments To date, there are no therapies or vaccines that are proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Several potential candidates or repurposed drugs are under investigation, including drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and block infection The most promising therapy to date is remdesivir, which is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for emergency use in adults and children hospitalized with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 Herein we summarize the general features of SARS-CoV-2’s molecular and immune pathogenesis and discuss available pharmacological strategies, based on our present understanding of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections Finally, we outline clinical trials currently in progress to investigate the efficacy of potential therapies for COVID-19

17.
International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry ; 13(2):176-179, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of this corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan city in China and now it has become a global issue The total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 recorded globally has surpassed 100,000 The mode of transmission of COVID-19 is usually from person to person and it could also be through direct transmission such as cough, sneeze, and inhalation of droplets Dental care providers are at higher risk since they are more prone to cross contamination with the patient's saliva and aerosols that are released during the dental procedures They can also be transmitted through other routes such as direct contact with blood, oral fluids, and from contaminated instruments This paper intends to provide primordial-level preventive measures for dental care providers against this life-threatening COVID-19 HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Khanagar SB, Al-Ehaideb A, Naik S, et al Primordial-level Preventive Measures for Dental Care Providers against Life-threatening Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(2):176-179

18.
Materials ; 13(15):3363-3363, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693566

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly across the globe, greatly affecting how humans as a whole interact, work and go about their daily life One of the key pieces of personal protective equipment (PPE) that is being utilised to return to the norm is the face mask or respirator In this review we aim to examine face masks and respirators, looking at the current materials in use and possible future innovations that will enhance their protection against SARS-CoV-2 Previous studies concluded that cotton, natural silk and chiffon could provide above 50% efficiency In addition, it was found that cotton quilt with a highly tangled fibrous nature provides efficient filtration in the small particle size range Novel designs by employing various filter materials such as nanofibres, silver nanoparticles, and nano-webs on the filter surfaces to induce antimicrobial properties are also discussed in detail Modification of N95/N99 masks to provide additional filtration of air and to deactivate the pathogens using various technologies such as low- temperature plasma is reviewed Legislative guidelines for selecting and wearing facial protection are also discussed The feasibility of reusing these masks will be examined as well as a discussion on the modelling of mask use and the impact wearing them can have The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) models and its applications to minimise or prevent the spread of the virus using face masks and respirators is also addressed It is concluded that a significant amount of research is required for the development of highly efficient, reusable, anti-viral and thermally regulated face masks and respirators

19.
SSRN ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693565

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has created an unparalleled disruption of global behavior and a significant loss of human lives To minimize SARS-CoV-2 spread, understanding the mechanisms of infection from all possible viral entry routes is essential As aerosol transmission is thought to be the primary route of spread, we sought to investigate whether the eyes are potential entry portals for SARS-CoV-2 While virus has been detected in the eye, in order for this mucosal membrane to be a bone fide entry source SARS-CoV-2 would need the capacity to productively infect ocular surface cells  As such, we conducted RNA sequencing in ocular cells isolated from adult human cadaver donor eyes as well as from a pluripotent stem cell-derived whole eye organoid model to evaluate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, essential proteins that mediate SARS-CoV-2 viral entry We also infected eye organoids and adult human ocular cells with SARS-CoV-2 and evaluated virus replication and the host response to infection We found the limbus was most susceptible to infection, whereas the central cornea exhibited only low levels of replication Transcriptional profiling of the limbus upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, found that while type I or III interferons were not detected in the lung epithelium, a significant inflammatory response was mounted Together these data suggest that the human eye can be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2 and thus is a route warranting protection Funding: The National Eye Institute (NEI), Bethesda, MD, USA, extramural grant 1R21EY030215-01 and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai supported this study

20.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health ; 17(15):5627-5627, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693562

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and worldwide spread of COVID-19 has resulted in a high prevalence of mental health problems in China and other countries This was a cross-sectional study conducted using an online survey and face-to-face interviews to assess mental health problems and the associated factors among Chinese citizens with income losses exposed to COVID-19 The degrees of the depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress symptoms of our participants were assessed using the Chinese versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Insomnia Severity Index-7 (ISI-7), and the revised 7-item Impact of Event Scale (IES-7) scales, respectively, which found that the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress caused by COVID-19 were 45 5%, 49 5%, 30 9%, and 68 1%, respectively Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among workers with income losses during COVID-19 Participants working in Hubei province with heavy income losses, especially pregnant women, were found to have a high risk of developing unfavorable mental health symptoms and may need psychological support or interventions

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