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1.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260280

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly affected food systems including food security. Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted food security is important to provide support, and identify long-term impacts and needs. Objective. Our team- the National Food Access and COVID research Team (NFACT) was formed to assess food security over different U.S. study sites throughout the pandemic, using common instruments and measurements. Here we present results from 18 study sites across 15 states and nationally over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. A validated survey instrument was developed and implemented in whole or part across the sites throughout the first year of the pandemic, representing 22 separate surveys. Sampling methods for each study site were convenience, representative, or high-risk targeted. Food security was measured using the USDA six-item module. Food security prevalence was analyzed using analysis of variance by sampling method to statistically significant differences. Results. In total, more than 27,000 people responded to the surveys. We find higher prevalence of food insecurity (low or very low food security) since the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to before the pandemic. In nearly all study sites, we find higher prevalence of food insecurity among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC), households with children, and those with job disruptions. We also demonstrate lingering food insecurity, with high or increased prevalence over time in sites with repeat surveys. We find no statistically significant differences between convenience and representative surveys, but statistically higher prevalence of food insecurity among high-risk compared to convenience surveys. Conclusions. This comprehensive multi-study site effort demonstrates higher prevalence of food insecurity since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, which in multiple survey sites continues throughout the first year of the pandemic. These impacts were prevalent for certain demographic groups, and most pronounced for surveys targeting high-risk populations.

2.
J Med Ethics ; 2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318175

ABSTRACT

Disproportional morbidity and mortality experienced by ethnic minorities in the UK have been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The 'Black Lives Matter' movement has exposed structural racism's contribution to these health inequities. 'Cultural Safety', an antiracist, decolonising and educational innovation originating in New Zealand, has been adopted in Australia. Cultural Safety aims to dismantle barriers faced by colonised Indigenous peoples in mainstream healthcare by addressing systemic racism.This paper explores what it means to be 'culturally safe'. The ways in which New Zealand and Australia are incorporating Cultural Safety into educating healthcare professionals and in day-to-day practice in medicine are highlighted. We consider the 'nuts and bolts' of translating Cultural Safety into the UK to reduce racism within healthcare. Listening to the voices of black, Asian and minority ethnic National Health Service (NHS) consumers, education in reflexivity, both personal and organisational within the NHS are key. By listening to Indigenous colonised peoples, the ex-Empire may find solutions to health inequity. A decolonising feedback loop is required; however, we should take care not to culturally appropriate this valuable reverse innovation.

3.
Studia Linguistica ; 75(2):165-174, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1317994

ABSTRACT

This special issue aims to explore the advances in historical linguistics that are made possible by the ongoing documentation of underdescribed and endangered languages. About this special issue The present special issue evolved out of the two-day workshop I From fieldwork to reconstruction: Language documentation and historical linguistics i , convened by the editor on 7-8 November 2018 at the Language and Culture Research Centre (James Cook University), Cairns, Australia. Although communication during the pandemic has highlighted many linguistic barriers and a huge divide between hegemonic and minority languages (see López 2020 for Latin America), there has been an unprecedented worldwide production of health information materials in indigenous languages (see CEJIS 2020, among others, for some examples in Bolivian languages), which was also made possible by linguistic research. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic has made the description of minority languages even more urgent, as coronavirus has often hit the hardest those vulnerable communities in which endangered languages are spoken, causing the death of many language keepers. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Studia Linguistica is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

4.
Intern Med J ; 51(7): 1143-1145, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316900

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an overwhelming burden on healthcare delivery globally. This paper examines how COVID-19 has affected cancer care clinicians' capacity to deliver cancer care in the Australian context. We use the lens of 'holding patients' (drawing from attachment theory, psychology and from Australian Indigenous knowledge) to conceptualise cancer clinicians' processes of care and therapeutic relationships with patients. These notions of 'holding' resonate with the deep responsibility cancer care clinicians feel towards their patients. They enrich ethical language beyond duties to benefit, avoid harm, respect patients' autonomy and provide just treatment. We consider the disruptive effects of COVID-19 on care delivery and on clinicians themselves. We then show how models of clinical ethics and other similar reflective discussion approaches are a relevant support mechanism to assist clinicians to process and make sense of COVID-19's disruptions to their professional ethical role of holding patients during and beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 12:675554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317244

ABSTRACT

We determined consumer preferences for traceable pork attributes in 328 consumers in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China, based on a traceable pork attribute system composed of traceability, animal welfare, place of origin, and price attributes. Preference was studied using a Choice Experiment and Bayesian inference analysis. Results showed that the marginal utility of health welfare was lower than that of high-level traceability information and similar to that of place of origin but was higher than that of middle-level traceability information. A complementary relationship existed between dietary animal welfare and high-level traceability information and between health welfare and non-indigenous production. A substitution relationship existed between health welfare and indigenous production and between environmental animal welfare and non-indigenous production. The marginal utilities of health welfare and dietary welfare were higher than those of all price levels, and consumers accept a higher price as a result of increased production costs due to the inclusion of animal welfare information. Due to the harsh realities of COVID-19, China has recently approved the animal welfare attribute to be integrated into traceability market systems of new animal-derived food. The government should encourage manufacturers to produce diverse traceable animal-derived food not only to protect animal welfare and promote the construction of an ecological civilization, but also to develop new animal-derived food markets to satisfy different levels of consumer demand.

6.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite having a large indigenous population, little is known about the differences in COVID-19-related health outcomes between indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Mexico. The aim of this study is to analyse the variation in hospitalisation and death between indigenous and non-indigenous patients with COVID-19 to guide future policies and clinical practice. METHODS: We used data from the Mexican Ministry of Health (MoH) to study the hospitalisation and death of adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in MoH facilities between 1 March 2020 and 28 February 2021. Predicted probabilities of hospitalisation and death were adjusted for sociodemographic and presentation to care characteristics as well as municipal social deprivation index and health jurisdiction-level index of human resource and hospital equipment availability. RESULTS: Of 465 676 hospitalised adults with COVID-19, 5873 (1.3%) were identified as indigenous. Indigenous patients had higher odds of hospitalisation (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.9, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.0), death (aOR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1. 3) and early mortality (aOR=1.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4), compared with non-indigenous patients. Living in municipalities with high social deprivation was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and early death. Living in areas with low healthcare resources was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation but not death. Being male, aged 51 years or older, having diabetes, hypertension and obesity were associated with an incremental probability of hospitalisation and death among indigenous patients. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous patients with COVID-19 in Mexico have a higher risk of hospitalisation and death than non-indigenous individuals. Our findings can guide future efforts to protect this population from SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated outcomes.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315807
8.
Confluenze-Rivista Di Studi Iberoamericani ; 13(1):105-124, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1314924

ABSTRACT

The article presents the first year of the pandemic in the Brazilian scenario in dialogue and action with indigenous peoples. The constant deconstruction of public policies and repeated aggressions against minorities in the country are aggravated by the displacements caused by Covid19. In view of this difficult context, we present a reflection on our experience with the Xakriaba indigenous people. We aim to contribute to the understanding of the processes to which we are all submitted in order to seek alliances capable of offering us alternatives and directions to face such a situation.

9.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; 42(6):966-976, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1314795

ABSTRACT

Objective In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemic severities, non-pharmaceutical intervention intensities, individual behavior patterns and vaccination coverage vary with countries in the world. China has experienced a long period without indigenous cases, unfortunately, multi local outbreaks caused by imported cases and other factors have been reported, posing great challenges to COVID-19 prevention and control in China. Thus it is necessary to explore the mechanisms of the re-emerged COVID-19 epidemics and their differences. Methods Based on susceptible exposed infectious recovered (SEIR) epidemic dynamics model, we developed a set of novel evolution equations which can describe the dynamic processes of integrated influence of interventions, vaccination coverage and individual behavior changes on the re-emergency of COVID-19 epidemic. We developed methods to calculate the optimal intervention intensity and vaccination rate at which the size of susceptible population can be reduced to less than threshold for the re-emergency of COVID-19 epidemic. Results If strong interventions or super interventions are lifted too early, even a small cause can lead to the re-emergence of COVID-19 epidemic at different degrees. Moreover, the stronger the early control measures lifted are, the more severe the epidemic is. The individual behavior changes for the susceptibility to the epidemic and the enhancement or lifting of prevention and control measures are key factors to influence the incidence the multi outbreaks of COVID-19. The optimist early intervention measures and timely optimization of vaccination can not only prevent the re-emergency of COVID-19 epidemic, but also effectively lower the peak of the first wave of the epidemic and delay its arrival. Conclusion The study revealed that factors for the re-emergence of COVID-19 epidemics included the intensity and lifting of interventions, the change of individual behavior to the response of the epidemic, external incentives and the transmissibility of COVID-19.

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(14):7626, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1314659

ABSTRACT

In November 2020, Brazil ranked third in the number of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and second in the number of deaths due to the disease. We carried out a descriptive study of deaths, mortality rate, years of potential life lost (YPLL) and excess mortality due to COVID-19, based on SARS-CoV-2 records in SIVEP-Gripe (Ministry of Health of Brazil) from 16 February 2020, to 1 January 2021. In this period, there were 98,025 deaths from COVID-19 in Brazil. Men accounted for 60.5% of the estimated 1.2 million YPLLs. High YPLL averages showed prematurity of deaths. The population aged 45–64 years (both sexes) represented more than 50% of all YPLLs. Risk factors were present in 69.5% of deaths, with heart disease, diabetes and obesity representing the most prevalent comorbidities in both sexes. Indigenous people had the lowest number of deaths and the highest average YPLL. However, in indigenous people, pregnant women and mothers had an average YPLL of over 35 years. The excess mortality for Brazil was estimated at 122,914 deaths (9.2%). The results show that the social impacts of YPLL due to COVID-19 are different depending on gender, race and risk factors. YPLL and excess mortality can be used to guide the prioritization of health interventions, such as prioritization of vaccination, lockdowns, or distribution of facial masks for the most vulnerable populations.

11.
Energy Research & Social Science ; 79:102189, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1313103

ABSTRACT

While controversial plans for fossil fuel pipeline-building continue across Indigenous lands without consent, how are visual practices – including watching and witnessing – serving as modes of resistance? Drawing on a participant-observation ethnography over the 2018–2021 period with environmental defenders on Coast Salish land, in what is colonially called ‘British Columbia, Canada’, this article offers a lens for exploring visual realms of resistance amid expanding extractivism, police surveillance and reconfigured pipeline opposition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Grassroots photography in land-based monitoring, artistic communication in and around courtrooms and other visual practices have been serving as powerful inflection points, countering multiple facets of petro-colonialism – ecological destruction, health threats, and moral and legal transgressions by companies and state institutions. They have also been stimulating new collective actions, some led by Indigenous land protectors extending longstanding traditions of protecting human and non-human life. As ‘more-than-representational’, visual encounters can be active players in constructing knowledge, challenging structures of dispossession, genocide and ecocide, and cultivating understandings of care, sovereignty, climate justice and anti-colonial solidarity from heterogeneous vantage points. Some environmental defenders’ visual creativities invite deep reflection on ontologies rooted in reciprocity and respect that are thoroughly ignored in extractivist settler-colonial cultures. The article situates visual strategies in fraught political contexts of ramped-up police and corporate surveillance targeting Indigenous land protectors and other environmental defenders, underscoring critical concern about superficial optical allyship and hollow gestures by state actors responding to racism and state violence on Indigenous land. It calls for attention to dialectical relationships amongst state visual tactics and counter-hegemonic visual practices in struggles to resist colonial energy regimes and to cultivate efforts towards alternative, less destructive energy futures.

12.
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ; 94(1):159-164, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1312274

ABSTRACT

Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Amid the increase in bikeshare usage during the early months of the pandemic, bikeshare companies made changes to membership requirements to increase accessibility, targeting especially essential workers. Essential workers in the United States are disproportionately Black and Latinx, underpaid, and reliant on public transit to commute to work. We document changes made by bikeshare companies, including benefits to various groups of essential workers, and we discuss such changes in the context of longstanding racial disparities in bikeshare access. While well intended, the arbitrary delineation in eligibility for such benefits by class of essential workers unwittingly curtailed access for many who may have benefited most. Given that equity in bikeshare is an important tool to improve access to safe transportation, critical changes in the distribution, accessibility, and usability of bikeshare networks is essential. Bikeshare companies, city planners, and policy makers should collaborate with community-based bike advocates to implement changes, as vocalized by those most in need of alternative forms of transportation.

13.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; : 272684X211031106, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311206

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led Cameroon's government to implement public health measures aimed at preventing its spread. This paper investigates how community health education on the virus was being carried out, what gaps exist and what further action could be taken. A survey instrument was used to gather data among a total of 179 Cameroonians recruited via opportunistic and snowball sampling methods. According to our findings, gaps exist. These include the need for adequate community health education on COVID-19, maximising multilingualism and indigenous cultural assets and disbanding misconceptions on the pandemic, as well as stigmatisation. The paper culminates by underlining the significance of an integrated approach to confront the pandemic. This approach captures the need to frame but also firm up community health education architecture on COVID-19 that captures inputs from different stakeholders, including indigenous knowledge holders, for collective wellbeing.

14.
Acad Med ; 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310946

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: American Indians and Alaska Natives hold a state-conferred right to health, yet significant health and health care disparities persist. Academic medical centers are resource-rich institutions committed to public service, yet few are engaged in responsive, equitable, and lasting tribal health partnerships to address these challenges. APPROACH: Maniilaq Association, a rural and remote tribal health organization in Northwest Alaska, partnered with Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School to address health care needs through physician staffing, training, and quality improvement initiatives. This partnership, called Siamit, falls under tribal governance, focuses on supporting community health leaders, addresses challenges shaped by extreme geographic remoteness, and advances the mission of academic medicine in the context of tribal health priorities. OUTCOMES: Throughout the 2019-2020 academic year, Siamit augmented local physician staffing, mentored health professions trainees, provided continuing medical education courses, implemented quality improvement initiatives, and provided clinical care and operational support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Siamit began with a small budget and limited human resources, demonstrating that relatively small investments in academic-tribal health partnerships can support meaningful and positive outcomes. NEXT STEPS: During the 2020-2021 academic year, the authors plan to expand Siamit's efforts with a broader social medicine curriculum, additional attending staff, more frequent trainee rotations, an increasingly robust mentorship network for Indigenous health professions trainees, and further study of the impact of these efforts. Such partnerships may be replicable in other settings, and represent a significant opportunity to advance community health priorities, strengthen tribal health systems, support the next generation of Indigenous health leaders, and carry out the academic medicine mission of teaching, research, and service.

15.
Heliyon ; : e07582, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1309232

ABSTRACT

Background The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus and the subsequent containment strategies has taken a heavy toll on the mental health of people irrespective of age, gender, race, ethnicity, and geographical location. Studies have documented the mental health status of non-indigenous Bangladeshi people, but little attention has been paid during the pandemic to the investigation of the mental health status of indigenous people living in remote hilly areas. To address this gap the present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and accompanying risk factors of depression, anxiety, stress, and compromised well-being among indigenous people during the pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 422 indigenous people aged between 16 and 90 using the 21-item Bangla Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (BDASS-21) and the Bangla version of the WHO-5 Well-being Index from January 30 to April 10, 2021. Data were collected by trained research assistants from three remote hilly areas namely Bandarban, Rangamati, and Khagracchari in the Chattogram Hill Tracts (CHT). Chi-squares, logistic regression, and ANOVA were performed to examine the association of variables. Results The prevalence of moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, stress, and low well-being among the indigenous population during the pandemic was found to be 49.3%, 47.2%, 36.7%, and 50.9%, respectively. Risk predictors for depression, anxiety, and stress included age, ethnicity, geographical locations, educational attainment, occupation, and marital status. Conclusions The results suggest that the ongoing pandemic has led to the rise of common mental health problems among indigenous people during the pandemic. The results can contribute to the formation of mental health policy for indigenous people and the development of suitable mental health intervention strategies especially during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
International Journal of Multicultural Education ; 23(1):162-173, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1308708

ABSTRACT

This article sheds light on the challenges that Black, Indigenous, and students of color in the U.S. face in dealing with uncertainties and prejudice caused by the worldwide pandemic. It provides recommendations on culturally relevant, responsive, and sustaining teaching strategies based on the cultural competence model (Pedersen, 1994;Sue, 2001;Sue et al., 1992) and curriculum reframing. Teachers of Black, Indigenous, and students of color around the world will find this article particularly useful because there are limited research-based recommendations applicable to schools in the U.S. and around the world.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308180

ABSTRACT

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Human Rights , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Politics , Quarantine/psychology , Spain
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307894

ABSTRACT

The recent rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines offers hope in addressing the worst pandemic in a hundred years. However, many countries in the Global South face great difficulties in accessing vaccines, partly because of restrictive intellectual property law. These laws exacerbate both global and domestic inequalities and prevent countries from fully realising the right to health for all their people. Commodification of essential medicines, such as vaccines, pushes poorer countries into extreme debt and reproduces national inequalities that discriminate against marginalised groups. This article explains how a decolonial framing of human rights and public health could contribute to addressing this systemic injustice. We envisage a human rights and global health law framework based on solidarity and international cooperation that focuses funding on long-term goals and frees access to medicines from the restrictions of intellectual property law. This would increase domestic vaccine production, acquisition and distribution capabilities in the Global South.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights , Humans , Intellectual Property , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Psychology for Sustainability ; : 1-430, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1308502

ABSTRACT

Psychology for Sustainability applies psychological science to so-called environmental problems that manifest when human behavior disrupts and degrades natural systems. Drawing on environmental psychology, ecopsychology, conservation psychology, and related disciplines, the authors provide an extensive review of relevant theory and research in a lively and easy-to-read style. This edition represents a substantial revision and expansion spurred by a burgeoning body of research and by global ecological, political, and social developments. Particular attention is paid to environmental justice and collective action for systems change. More than one-third of the content is entirely new, and there are more than nine hundred new references. This edition also features a new full-color design and over two hundred full-color fgures, tables, and photos. Timely topics include climate change, biodiversity loss, environmental racism, Indigenous perspectives, social media, and COVID-19 and other pandemics. Content retained from the previous edition has been updated throughout. The twelve chapters are organized into four parts: 1.What on Earth Are We Doing includes a prologue on psychology as a sustainability science, followed by three chapters that provide an overview of the ecological crisis and its historical origins and offer a vision for a sustainable future. 2.Psychology for a Sustainable Future encompasses fve chapters on research methods, theory, and fndings pertinent to understanding and shifting unsustainable behavior. 3.What’s Good for the Planet Is Good for Us includes two chapters that address the reciprocal relationship between planetary health and human health. 4.Being the Change We Want to See introduces two new chapters to inspire readers to take what they have learned and apply it as changemakers in the world. The frst is about collective action for systemic change. The second presents a positive psychology perspective on how to tackle the ecological crisis in a way that promotes wellbeing and resilience and is personally meaningful and fulflling. Carefully tailored to the length of a standard college semester, Psychology for Sustainability is essential reading for courses on sustainability across disciplines. It will be invaluable to people outside academia as well, including policymakers, legislators, and those working on building sustainable communities. The text is also supplemented by online resources for instructors.

20.
Genealogy ; 5(2):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1308326

ABSTRACT

Artist and historian of the Atakapa-Ishak Nation, Jeffery Darensbourg's 2020 film with Fernando Lopez features poetry in Ishakkoy, an indigenous language from what is now southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas, composed during an artist residency at A Studio in the Woods. The companion essay shares some of the process of composing creative works in this language, and especially of writing centos, also known as patchwork or collage poems, during COVID-19 sequestration.

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