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1.
CHEST ; 160(4):A1404-A1404, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1460867
2.
Messenger of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation ; 18(3):15-22, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1342084

ABSTRACT

The objective: in patients with COVID-19, to study the relationship of transcutaneous saturation values with clinical indicators that characterize ARF, the state of acid-base balance and blood gas composition. Subjects and methods. A multicenter prospective observational study included 90 COVID-19 patients treated in ICU whose transcutaneous saturation (SpO2) values were below 93% despite treatment. Depending on the degree of impaired oxygenation, patients underwent oxygen therapy through a mask or nasal cannula, high-flow oxygenation or non-invasive ventilation, while it was not always possible to achieve the target values of oxygenation parameters. The patients were divided into the following groups: Group 1 - SpO2 above 93%, Group 2 - SpO2 within 93-90%, Group 3 - SpO2 within 85-89%, Group 4- SpO2 within 80-84%, Group 5 - SpO2 within 75-79%, and Group 6 - below 75%. Results. It was revealed that during ARF management by noninvasive methods, different values of transcutaneous saturation and corresponding changes in the acid-base balance (ABB) and blood gas composition were determined When transcutaneous saturation (SpO2) decreased to 85%, there was a corresponding moderate decrease in PaO2 while no metabolic changes occurred. As a rule, there were no obvious clinical signs of respiratory failure (silent hypoxia). In patients with SpO2 reduction down 80-85%, clinical signs of respiratory failure (dyspnea, tachypnea, agitation) and, as a rule, a moderate increase in PаCO2 with the development of respiratory acidosis and compensatory metabolic alkalosis were noted. When SpO2 decreased down to 75-79%, arterial hypoxemia was usually accompanied by moderate hypercapnia and the development of decompensated mixed acidosis and venous desaturation as well as increased lactate levels. With transcutaneous saturation going below 74%, these changes were even more pronounced and were observed in all patients of this group. Conclusion. The revealed changes are mostly consistent with generally accepted ideas about the relationship between values of transcutaneous saturation and blood gas composition and parameters of blood ABB in the case of ARF. Reduction of transcutaneous saturation down to 85% not accompanied by pronounced clinical signs of respiratory failure (dyspnea, tachypnea, agitation), development of acidosis and venous desaturation, and the elevated lactate level can be regarded as relatively safe. © 2021 Serbian Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

3.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 294: 103765, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336881

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised that COVID-19 face coverings compromise lung function and pulmonary gas exchange to the extent that they produce arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia during high intensity exercise resulting in exercise intolerance in recreational exercisers. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of a surgical, flannel or vertical-fold N95 masks on cardiorespiratory responses to incremental exercise. METHODS: This investigation studied 11 adult males and females at rest and while performing progressive cycle exercise to exhaustion. We tested the hypotheses that wearing a surgical (S), flannel (F) or horizontal-fold N95 mask compared to no mask (control) would not promote arterial deoxygenation or exercise intolerance nor alter primary cardiovascular variables during submaximal or maximal exercise. RESULTS: Despite the masks significantly increasing end-expired peri-oral %CO2 and reducing %O2, each ∼0.8-2% during exercise (P < 0.05), our results supported the hypotheses. Specifically, none of these masks reduced sub-maximal or maximal exercise arterial O2 saturation (P = 0.744), but ratings of dyspnea were significantly increased (P = 0.007). Moreover, maximal exercise capacity was not compromised nor were there any significant alterations of primary cardiovascular responses (mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output) found during sub-maximal exercise. CONCLUSION: Whereas these results are for young healthy recreational male and female exercisers and cannot be applied directly to elite athletes, older or patient populations, they do support that arterial hypoxemia and exercise intolerance are not the obligatory consequences of COVID-19-indicated mask-wearing at least for cycling exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Masks/adverse effects , Oxygen/blood , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e046364, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Countries have major differences in the acceptance of face mask use for the prevention of COVID-19. This work aims at studying the information online in different countries in terms of information quality and content. DESIGN: Content analysis. METHOD: We analysed 450 webpages returned by searching the string 'are face masks dangerous' in Italy, the UK and the USA using three search engines (Bing, Duckduckgo and Google) in August 2020. The type of website and the stance about masks were assessed by two raters for each language and inter-rater agreement reported as Cohen's kappa. The text of the webpages was collected from the web using WebBootCaT and analysed using a corpus analysis software to identify issues mentioned. RESULTS: Most pages were news outlets, and few (2%-6%) from public health agencies. Webpages with a negative stance on masks were more frequent in Italian (28%) than English (19%). Google returned the highest number of mask-positive pages and Duckduckgo the lowest. Google also returned the lowest number of pages mentioning conspiracy theories and Duckduckgo the highest. Webpages in Italian scored lower than those in English in transparency (reporting authors, their credentials and backing the information with references). When issues about the use of face masks were analysed, mask effectiveness was the most discussed followed by hypercapnia (accumulation of carbon dioxide), contraindication in respiratory disease and hypoxia, with issues related to their contraindications in mental health conditions and disability mentioned by very few pages. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that: (1) public health agencies should increase their web presence in providing correct information on face masks; (2) search engines should improve the information quality criteria in their ranking; (3) the public should be more informed on issues related to the use of masks and disabilities, mental health and stigma arising for those people who cannot wear masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Search Engine , Humans , Internet , Italy , Language , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 34: 102279, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246137

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to show the changes in choroidal thickness (CT) with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after prolonged use of N95 mask. METHOD: The healthcare workers who use the N95 face-mask, between 30-50 years of age who have best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥10/10, spherical or cylindrical refraction errors less than 2 diopters, with normal intra ocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL) between 22-24 mm included in the study. The choroid was imaged with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) techniques using SD-OCT. CT was measured, subfoveal, at 1000 µm nasal and temporal of the center of the fovea. Measurements were first made after wearing the N95 mask for at least 2 h without removing it and repeated 15 min after removing. RESULTS: After 2 h of the N95 mask using without removal, the mean subfoveal CT was 293.56 ± 76.12(min:185, max:479), the mean temporal CT was 253.81 ± 63.48(min:172, max:384), the mean nasal CT was 239.18 ± 53.92(min:139, max:356). Fifteen minutes after removal of the N95 mask, the mean subfoveal CT was 250.56 ± 52.48(min:172, max:397), the mean temporal was 218.40 ± 53.58(min:129, max:354), the mean nasal CT was 210.67 ± 53.31(min:132, max:366). The differences in subfoveal, temporal and nasal CT between 2 h of N95 mask use and 15 min after removal of the mask were statistically significant (p < 0.05 for each). CONCLUSION: Hypercapnia due to prolonged use of the N95 mask may cause choroidal hemodynamic changes and transient increased choroidal thickness.


Subject(s)
N95 Respirators , Photochemotherapy , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Tomography, Optical Coherence
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110411, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225344

ABSTRACT

Many countries across the globe utilized medical and non-medical facemasks as non-pharmaceutical intervention for reducing the transmission and infectivity of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Although, scientific evidence supporting facemasks' efficacy is lacking, adverse physiological, psychological and health effects are established. Is has been hypothesized that facemasks have compromised safety and efficacy profile and should be avoided from use. The current article comprehensively summarizes scientific evidences with respect to wearing facemasks in the COVID-19 era, providing prosper information for public health and decisions making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Hypercapnia/psychology , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/psychology , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/standards , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/standards , N95 Respirators/virology , Respiration , Safety , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 354, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic led to wide-spread use of face-masks, respirators and other personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers. Various symptoms attributed to the use of PPE are believed to be, at least in part, due to elevated carbon-dioxide (CO2) levels. We evaluated concentrations of CO2 under various PPE. METHODS: In a prospective observational study on healthy volunteers, CO2 levels were measured during regular breathing while donning 1) no mask, 2) JustAir® powered air purifying respirator (PAPR), 3) KN95 respirator, and 4) valved-respirator. Serial CO2 measurements were taken with a nasal canula at a frequency of 1-Hz for 15-min for each PPE configuration to evaluate whether National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) limits were breached. RESULTS: The study included 11 healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 16-54) and 6 (55%) men. Percent mean (SD) changes in CO2 values for no mask, JustAir® PAPR, KN95 respirator and valve respirator were 0.26 (0.12), 0.59 (0.097), 2.6 (0.14) and 2.4 (0.59), respectively. Use of face masks (KN95 and valved-respirator) resulted in significant increases in CO2 concentrations, which exceeded the 8-h NIOSH exposure threshold limit value-weighted average (TLV-TWA). However, the increases in CO2 concentrations did not breach short-term (15-min) limits. Importantly, these levels were considerably lower than the long-term (8-h) NIOSH limits during donning JustAir® PAPR. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs (p < 0.0001, except KN95 and valved-respirator (p = 0.25). However, whether increase in CO2 levels are clinically significant remains debatable. CONCLUSION: Although, significant increase in CO2 concentrations are noted with routinely used face-masks, the levels still remain within the NIOSH limits for short-term use. Therefore, there should not be a concern in their regular day-to-day use for healthcare providers. The clinical implications of elevated CO2 levels with long-term use of face masks needs further studies. Use of PAPR prevents relative hypercapnoea. However, whether PAPR should be advocated for healthcare workers requiring PPE for extended hours needs to evaluated in further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Masks , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Apunts Sports Medicine ; : 100349, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1064820

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Due to the mandatory use of a mask in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the authorization to do outdoor sports in Catalonia, we set out to evaluate the physiological impact of the hypoxia and hypercapnia generated by the mask during aerobic exercise. Methods: 46 adolescent competitive athletes (35 women, 11 men) were evaluated. Measurements were taken of ambient air, at rest intra-mask, and during a stress test intra-mask. The concentration of O2 and CO2 intra-mask and the O2 Saturation were evaluated. Results: The O2 of ambient air in the laboratory: 20.9%;Basal intra-mask O2: 18.0 ± 0.7% and intra-mask O2 during exercise: 17.4 ± 0.6% (p <0.0001). The CO2 was: 0.05 ± 0.01% environmental;baseline intra-mask: 1.31 ± 0.5%, and during exercise intra-mask: 1.76 ± 0.6% (p <0.0001). Baseline O2 saturation with mask was 98.4 ± 0.6% and immediately after exercise was 97.1 ± 2.8% (p <0.03). During the exercise intra-mask, 30% of the young athletes exceeded 2% of CO2 and 22% breathed oxygen with a concentration lower than 17%. Conclusions: The use of masks generate hypercapnic hypoxia during exercise. One third of the subjects exceed the CO2 threshold of 2%.

10.
Saudi Pharm J ; 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002835

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a severe community health threat across the world. Covid-19 is a major illness, presently there is no as such any medicine and vaccine those can claim for complete treatment. It is spreading particularly in a feeble immune people and casualties are expanding abruptly and put the health system under strain. Among the strategic measures face mask is one of the most used measures to prevent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Wearing a face mask possibly create a false sense of security lead to decline others measures. Face mask could be risk for the people of under lying medical conditions, old age group, outdoor exercise, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and feeble innate immune. Restrictive airflow due to face mask is the main cause of retention of CO2 called hypercapnia that can lead to respiratory failure with symptoms of tachycardia, flushed skin, dizziness, papilledema, seizure and depression. According to latest updates face shield and social distancing could be better substitute of face mask.

11.
ClinicalTrials.gov; 03/01/2021; TrialID: NCT04715854
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-NCT04715854

ABSTRACT

Condition:

Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure;Emergencies;Covid19

Intervention:

Device: Mask

Primary outcome:

Change in PaO2 and PaCO2

Criteria:


Inclusion Criteria:

Hypoxemia

Exclusion Criteria:

Hypercapnia

Confusion


12.
ClinicalTrials.gov; 13/11/2020; TrialID: NCT04629989
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-NCT04629989

ABSTRACT

Condition:

Covid19;Hypoxemia

Intervention:

Other: Standard Oxygen Delivery System;Other: Double-Trunk Mask;Other: Surgical Mask

Primary outcome:

Changes in PaO2

Criteria:


Inclusion Criteria:

- COVID-19 positive

- SpO2 between 92 and 96% with low-flow oxygen therapy

- Oxygen output at baseline between 3 and 7 L/min.

Exclusion Criteria:

- Pulmonary disease with hypercapnia

- Confusion

- Contra-indications to arterial blood gas sampling (peripheral arteriopathy, bleeding
disorder)


13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20218271

ABSTRACT

Countries have major differences in the acceptance of face mask use for the prevention of COVID-19. We analyzed 450 webpages returned by searching the string "are face masks dangerous" in Italy, the UK and the USA using three search engines (Bing, Duckduckgo and Google). The majority (64-79%) were pages from news outlets, with few (2-6%) pages from government and public health agencies. Webpages with a positive stance on masks were more frequent in English (50%) than in Italian (36%), and those with a negative stance were more frequent in Italian (28% vs. 19% in English). Google returned the highest number of mask-positive pages and Duckduckgo the lowest. Google also returned the lowest number of pages mentioning conspiracy theories and Duckduckgo the highest. Webpages in Italian scored lower than those in English in transparency (reporting authors, their credentials and backing the information with references). When issues about the use of face masks were analyzed, mask effectiveness was the most discussed followed by hypercapnia (accumulation of carbon dioxide), contraindication in respiratory disease, and hypoxia, with issues related to their contraindications in mental health conditions and disability mentioned by very few pages. This study suggests that: 1) public health agencies should increase their web presence in providing correct information on face masks; 2) search engines should improve the information quality criteria in their ranking; 3) the public should be more informed on issues related to the use of masks and disabilities, mental health and stigma arising for those people who cannot wear masks.

14.
Results Phys ; 19: 103425, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807917

ABSTRACT

In the last few months, the spread of COVID-19 among humans has caused serious damages around the globe letting many countries economically unstable. Results obtained from conducted research by epidemiologists and virologists showed that, COVID-19 is mainly spread from symptomatic individuals to others who are in close contact via respiratory droplets, mouth and nose, which are the primary mode of transmission. World health organization regulations to help stop the spread of this deadly virus, indicated that, it is compulsory to utilize respiratory protective devices such as facemasks in the public. Indeed, the use of these facemasks around the globe has helped reduce the spread of COVID-19. The primary aim of facemasks, is to avoid inhaling air that could contain droplets with COVID-19. We should note that, respiration process is the movement of oxygen from external atmosphere to the cells within tissue and the transport of carbon dioxide outside. However, the rebreathing of carbon dioxide using a facemask has not been taken into consideration. The hypercapnia (excess inhaled content of CO2) has been recognized to be related to symptoms of fatigue, discomfort, muscular weakness, headaches as well as drowsiness. Rebreathing of CO2 has been a key to concern regarding the use of a facemask. Rebreathing usually occur when an expired air that is rich in CO2 stays long than normal in the breathing space of the respirator after a breath. The increase of the arterial CO2 concentration leads to symptoms that are aforementioned. Studies have been conducted on facemask shortages and on the appropriate facemask required to reduce the spread of COVID-19; however no study has been conducted to assess the possible relationship between CO2 inhalation due to facemask, to determine and recommend which mask is appropriate in the reduction of the spread of the coronavirus while simultaneously avoid CO2 inhalation by the facemask users. In the current paper, we provided a literature review on the use of facemasks with the aim to determine which facemasks could be used to avoid re-inhaling rejected CO2. Additionally, we presented mathematical models depicting the transport of COVID-19 spread through wind with high speed. We considered first mathematical models for which the effect air-heterogeneity is neglected, such that air flow follows Markovian process with a retardation factor, these models considered two different scenarios, the speed of wind is constant and time-space dependent. Secondly, we assumed that the wind movement could follow different processes, including the power law process, fading memory process and a two-stage processes, these lead us to use differential operators with power law, exponential decay and the generalized Mittag-Leffler function with the aim to capture these processes. A numerical technique based on the Lagrange polynomial interpolation was used to solve some of these models numerically. The numerical solutions were coded in MATLAB software for simulations. The results obtained from the mathematical simulation showed that a wind with speed of 100 km/h could transport droplets as far as 300 m. The results obtained from these simulations together with those presented by other researchers lead us to conclude that, the wind could have helped spread COVID-19 in some places around the world, especially in coastal areas. Therefore, appropriate facemasks that could help avoid re-inhaling enough CO2 should be used every time one is in open air even when alone especially in windy environment.

16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 132, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762367

ABSTRACT

Facial masks may be one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent the diffusion of COVID 19 infection. Nevertheless, fake news are spreading, alerting parents on dangerous side effects in children, such as hypercapnia, hypoxia, gut dysbiosis and immune system weakness. Aim of the Italian Pediatric Society statement is to face misconception towards the use of face masks and to spread scientific trustable information.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Masks/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110177, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720650

ABSTRACT

The mandatory use of facemasks is a public health measure implemented by various countries in response to the novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been case reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) with the wearing of facemasks during exercise. In this paper, we hypothesize that exercise with facemasks may increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) leading to SCD via the development of acute and/or intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms including increases in adrenergic stimulation and oxidative stress leading to electrophysiological abnormalities that promote arrhythmias via non-reentrant and reentrant mechanisms. Given the interplay of multiple variables contributing to the increased arrhythmic risk, we advise avoidance of a facemask during high intensity exercise, or if wearing of a mask is mandatory, exercise intensity should remain low to avoid precipitation of lethal arrhythmias. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of an arrhythmic substrate even with low intensity exercise especially in those with established chronic cardiovascular disease in whom baseline electrophysiological abnormalities may be found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Electrophysiological Phenomena , Exercise , Masks , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hypercapnia , Hypoxia , Models, Theoretical , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Risk , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Ventricular Fibrillation/physiopathology
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110002, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610333

ABSTRACT

Straying away from a sedentary lifestyle is essential, especially in these troubled times of a global pandemic to reverse the ill effects associated with the health risks as mentioned earlier. In the view of anticipated effects on immune system and prevention against influenza and Covid-19, globally moderate to vigorous exercises are advocated wearing protective equipment such as facemasks. Though WHO supports facemasks only for Covid-19 patients, healthy "social exercisers" too exercise strenuously with customized facemasks or N95 which hypothesized to pose more significant health risks and tax various physiological systems especially pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems. Exercising with facemasks may reduce available Oxygen and increase air trapping preventing substantial carbon dioxide exchange. The hypercapnic hypoxia may potentially increase acidic environment, cardiac overload, anaerobic metabolism and renal overload, which may substantially aggravate the underlying pathology of established chronic diseases. Further contrary to the earlier thought, no evidence exists to claim the facemasks during exercise offer additional protection from the droplet transfer of the virus. Hence, we recommend social distancing is better than facemasks during exercise and optimal utilization rather than exploitation of facemasks during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Hypercapnia/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Pulmonary Ventilation , Air Microbiology , Anaerobiosis , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Exercise/physiology , Guidelines as Topic , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Hypercapnia/blood , Hypercapnia/immunology , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/immunology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , World Health Organization
19.
A A Pract ; 14(7): e01237, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601324

ABSTRACT

We evaluated a full-face snorkel mask with an airway circuit filter to protect health care providers against airborne pathogens. First, a quantified N95 fit test was performed using aerosolized saline. Second, cardiorespiratory variables (heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, and inspired fraction of carbon dioxide) were measured at rest and during moderate exercise. The modified mask passed the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) N95 respirator (N95) fit test requirements with a fit factor of 142. Neither hypercapnia nor hypoxemia occurred. This modified mask has the potential to protect providers who care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Design , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Heart Rate , Humans , Masks , Oximetry , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
20.
Apunts Sports Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-549135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Due to the mandatory use of a mask, and the authorization to do outdoor sports in Catalonia, we try to assess the physiological impact of the hypercapnia hypoxia generated by the masks during aerobic sports practice. Methods: Eight subjects (2 women) were assessed at baseline with and without a mask, and then a 21-flex test was performed following the Ruffier protocol with a mask. Control of HR (heart rate), concentration of O2 and CO2 inside the mask and SatO2. The test was carried out in ambient air in squares in the city of Barcelona. Results: A decrease in O2 was recorded comparing the three conditions, baseline 20.9%, baseline mask 18.3%, post-exercise 17.8% (p <0.001). An increase in CO2 in the three preconditions (464, 14162, 17000 ppm;p <0.001). Basal saturation O2 was 97.6 ± 1.5% and post exercise 92.1 ± 4.12% (p 0.02). Conclusions: The use of masks in athletes causes hypoxic and hypercapnic breathing, being more evident in effort. The use of masks during a short exercise with an intensity around 6-8 METS, decreases O2 by 3.7% and increases the CO2 concentration by 20%.

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