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1.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 11:585308, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-890349

ABSTRACT

Old-age loneliness is a global problem with many members of the scientific community suspecting increased loneliness in the elderly population during COVID-19 and the associated safety measures Although hypothesized, a direct comparison of loneliness before and during the pandemic is hard to achieve without a survey of loneliness prior to the pandemic This study provides a direct comparison of reported loneliness before and during the pandemic using 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) on a pre- and a peri-pandemic sample of elderly (60+ years) individuals from Lower Austria, a county of Austria (Europe) Differences on a loneliness index computed from the short De Jong Gierveld scale were found to be significant, evidencing that loneliness in the elderly population had in fact risen slightly during the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated safety measures Although the reported loneliness remained rather low, this result illustrated the effect of the "new normal" under COVID-19 As loneliness is a risk factor for physical and mental illness, this result is important in planning the future handling of the pandemic, as safety measures seem to have a negative impact on loneliness This work confirms the anticipated increase in loneliness in the elderly population during COVID-19

3.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20216788

ABSTRACT

Governments around the globe have started to develop and deploy digital contact tracing apps to gain control over the spread of the novel coronavirus (Covid-19). The appropriateness and usefulness of these technologies as a containment measure have since sparked political and academic discussions globally. The present paper contributes to this debate through an exploration of how the national daily newspapers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland reported on the development and adoption of digital contact-tracing apps during early and after stages of the lockdown. These countries were among the first in Europe to develop apps and were critical voices in the debate of decentralized vs. centralized data processing. We conducted thematic analysis on news coverage published between January and May 2020 in high-circulation national daily newspapers (print) from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. A total of 148 newspaper articles were included in the final analysis. From our analysis emerged six core themes of the development and adoption of digital contact tracing apps: 1) data governance; 2) role of IT giants; 3) scientific rigor; 4) voluntariness; 5) functional efficacy; 6) role of the app. These results shed light on the different facets of discussion regarding digital contact tracing as portrayed in German-speaking media. As news coverage can serve as a proxy for public perception, this study complements emerging survey data on public perceptions of digital contact tracing apps by identifying potential issues of public concern.

4.
BRICS Law Journal ; 7(3):52-80, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-886365

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has severely impacted the performance of contracts across the globe In some situations, the outbreak may render the performance of contracts impossible as a result of governmental restrictions in the form of national lockdowns to curb the spread of the virus In other situations, the pandemic may adversely impact the execution of contractual obligations by dramatically affecting the price of the performance and, thus, resulting in hardship or commercial impracticability, while in certain situations the pandemic may be legally construed to not affect the performance of a contract In domestic contracts, the consequences of such non-performance would depend on the principles of national law In comparison, agreements with a foreign element (international contracts) are likely to increase the complexity of deciding claims arising from the non-performance of contracts due to the COVID-19 outbreak The rights and liability of the parties would chiefly depend on the law that will govern the agreement – which differs across the globe Some contracts would include a force majeure clause to exonerate the parties from performance on the occurrence of an event such as a pandemic The courts’ interpretations of such force majeure clauses similarly differ across the globe The laws of some countries would excuse the parties from performing their contractual obligations even if the pandemic resulted in hardship Others would strictly construe the terms of such clauses and would invalidate them if the occurrence of the pandemic did not make the performance impossible This paper examines the non-performance of transnational contracts due to the COVID-19 outbreak when they are governed by Indian law It highlights the situations when an international contract for the sale of goods or services whose performance has been allegedly hindered due to COVID-19 would (a) frustrate and (b) breach the agreement under Indian law The paper provides a comparative analysis of Indian law with jurisdictions such as France, Germany, Austria, China, the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States to demonstrate that Indian law is not well equipped to deal with complex lawsuits arising due to the non-performance of contracts as a result of the pandemic © 2020, University of Tyumen All rights reserved

5.
Israel Economic Review ; 18(1):33-46, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-884308

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus epidemic has instigated an economic crisis emanating from public health policies involving economic lockdown as well as behavioral reactions of workers and employers The developed world has not seen such an extent of economic damage since at least the Second World War We compare Israel’s battle against the first wave of the pandemic with that of other countries and show that while the infection rate in Israel was similar to that in other countries, the mortality rate was lower Compared to Austria, by the end of May about 80 percent of the mortality gap can be ascribed to Israel’s younger population, while the remainder is due to advantages in the health-care system and some particularly Israeli behavioral modes We find that under a conservative assumption concerning the infection rate, the cost of a life-year saved in Israel exceeds that inferred from the Israeli health-basket committee’s decisions on the inclusion of new medical technologies Contrary to other countries, the Israeli government’s support of workers and businesses was raising uncertainty, as it was defined over shorter time spans, which were then extended from time-to-time It seems that this served to deepen the crisis relative to that in benchmark countries that are similar to Israel in population size and human capital but characterized by higher per-capita GDP and lower poverty rates © 2020, Bank of Israel All rights reserved

6.
Journal of Criminal Justice ; : 101756, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-872219

ABSTRACT

Purpose Facing the COVID-19 pandemic, police officers are confronted with various novel challenges, which might place additional strain on officers This mixed-method study investigated officers' strain over three months after the lockdown Methods In an online survey, 2567 police officers (77% male) from Austria, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Spain participated at three measurement points per country in spring, 2020 Three-level growth curve models assessed changes in strain and its relation to stressor appraisal, emotion regulation, and preparedness through training To add context to the findings, free response answers about officers' main tasks, stressors, and crisis measures were coded inductively Results On average, officers seemed to tolerate the pandemic with slight decreases in strain over time Despite substantial variance between countries, 66% of the variance occurred between individuals Sex, work experience, stressor appraisal, emotion regulation, and preparedness significantly predicted strain Risk of infection and deficient communication emerged as main stressors Officers' reports allowed to derive implications for governmental, organizational, and individual coping strategies during pandemics Conclusion Preparing for a pandemic requires three primary paths: 1) enacting unambiguous laws and increasing public compliance through media communication, 2) being logistically prepared, and 3) improving stress regulation skills in police training

7.
Herz ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-871430

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in December 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world at a rapid pace causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Originating from the Chinese province Hubei, more than 29 4 million people globally have now been confirmed to have contracted the coronavirus and more than 930,000 patients have died so far from COVID-19 (situation as of 15 September 2020) The virus is mainly spread during close contact by small droplets and aerosols During the close contact in medical examinations, such as echocardiography, the risk of contracting the virus is increased Therefore, the use of personal protective equipment is recommended for the protection of patients and medical personnel alike This article summarizes the current recommendations of international societies and describes the local implementation in Austria

8.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20214767

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe corona crisis hit Austria at the end of February 2020 with one of the first European superspreading events. In response, the governmental crisis unit commissioned a forecast consortium with regularly projections of case numbers and demand for hospital beds. MethodsWe consolidated the output of three independent epidemiological models (ranging from agent-based micro simulation to parsimonious compartmental models) and published weekly short-term forecasts for the number of confirmed cases as well as estimates and upper bounds for the required hospital beds. FindingsHere, we report om four key contributions by which our forecasting and reporting system has helped shaping Austrias policy to navigate the crisis and re-open the country step-wise, namely (i) when and where case numbers are expected to peak during the first wave, (ii) how to safely re-open the country after passing this peak, (iii) how to evaluate the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions and (iv) provide hospital managers guidance to plan health-care capacities. InterpretationComplex mathematical epidemiological models play an important role in guiding governmental responses during pandemic crises, provided they are used as a monitoring system to detect epidemiological change points. For policy-makers, the media and the public, it might be problematic to distinguish short-term forecasts from worst-case scenarios with undefined levels of certainty, creating distrust in the legitimacy and accuracy of such models. However, when used as a short-term forecast-based monitoring system, the models can inform decisions to ease or strengthen governmental responses.

9.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 107(7/8):156-163, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-865217

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infectious diseases in the suckling period of pigs are common and cause financial losses To improve the health of the piglets and decrease the use of antibiotic drugs, sufficient immunological protection is necessary In suckling piglets, the oral intake of antibodies is a highly effective measure for protection We tested whether antibodies in spray-dried blood plasma of pigs can be absorbed by newborn piglets after oral application Materials and Methods: The spray-dried plasma was positive for antibodies against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), the porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, the porcine parvovirus and others The study was conducted on 210 suckling piglets in a pig breeding farm in Austria The newborn piglets were randomly divided into four groups: K, P, P+bov and P24 Group K received no treatment;group P received spray-dried plasma orally before the first intake of colostrum;group P+bov received spray-dried plasma dissolved in bovine colostrum;and group P24 received spray-dried plasma 24 hours after birth In addition to blood samples of the mother sows, blood samples were taken from the piglets on days zero, one, seven, ten and 14 after application of the spray-dried plasma The serum was tested by ELISA for the antibodies in the spray-dried plasma The antibody resorption and clinical outcome were compared between the groups

10.
28th Interdisciplinary Information Management Talks: Digitalized Economy, Society and Information Management, IDIMT 2020 ; : 153-164, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-860085

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the novel Corona Virus, SARS-CoV-2, in the first half of 2020, resulted in a massive strain of multiple and diverse crisis management structures all over the world Interoperability of governmental and non-governmental responder organizations as well as of analysis and communication infrastructure were put under a real stress test and concepts of the response to this pandemic outbreak were rapidly set up, modified, changed, and applied according to multiple integrated and changing data sources Austria, as a country with a relatively mild development of the COVID effects, will be selected as a use case provider to exemplify lessons learned This paper will give a comprehensive overview of the dynamic development of the initial and follow up steps Examples from a public service provider AGES, the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, the research organization and technology provider AIT, and the first responder and social services organization Johanniter Unfallhilfe, will show lessons learned, good practice, but also challenges and open questions or gaps in the wake of this complex crisis scenario © 2019 by the authors

11.
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals ; 139, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-856532

ABSTRACT

Starting with the power law for the total number of detected infections, we propose differential equations describing the effect of momentum epidemic management Our 2-phase formula matches very well the curves of the total numbers of the Covid-19 infection in many countries;the first phase is described by Bessel functions It provides projections for the saturation, assuming that the management is steady We discuss Austria, Brazil, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, and the USA, including some analysis of the second waves © 2020

13.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 9(8):4473-4475, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-854343

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the epidemiology of COVID-19 based on the coronavirus update publication image in the world and in Iran Countries such as Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are among the first countries involved due to their proximity to China Japan is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19, where officials say was the first to have a cruise ship According to Japanese officials, the first cases belonged to cruise ship passengers Following the global outbreak of COVID-19, especially in Asia, the first cases of COVID-19 in Iran were approved by the Ministry of Health on February 19, 2020 On the last day of February this year, 2 patients died due to respiratory complications in Qom, Iran, that raised doubts about the COVID-19 presence in Iran Respiratory diseases spread among the citizens of Qom, and a positive test of fatal patients confirmed COVID-19 in the province, and Qom was identified as the primary focus of the new coronavirus disease Evidence suggests the Chinese workers may have transmitted the virus to the province Continued direct air communication with China, as COVID-19 spreads widely in China, led to the entry of the virus into Iranian borders So Iran has been a hub for Chinese travelers between countries for a short time Italy is, among other European countries where the spread of the disease is extremely worrying The number of cases in the country has reached 80,589 by March 26, 2020 In addition, European countries such as Spain, Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, and UK have also reported high cases of COVID-19 conflict Also, the first positive case of the new coronavirus in Latin America relates to a Brazilian citizen who recently traveled to Italy All of this evidence points to the importance of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 A statistical study of COVID-19 in China demonstrated that 55% of the cases were male, and women had a lower occurrence of the virus The aforementioned study indicated that the mean age of patients was 46 years, and the mean age of patients who died at the time of diagnosis was 70 years The study also shows that less than 3% of patients under the age of 15 years Although the death rate of patients with this disease is less than many contagious diseases, but the rate of spread is of great importance among humans

14.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 11, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-854036

ABSTRACT

Background: As evidenced by several studies, mental distress increased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic In this period, citizens were asked to exercise a high degree of self-control with regard to personal and social health behavior At the same time, we witnessed an increase of prosocial acts and shared creative expressions, which are known to serve as sources of meaning Meaning in life and self-control are acknowledged psychological resources Especially in times of crisis, meaning in life has been shown to be a crucial factor for resilience and coping However, threatening and stressful situations can also jeopardize existential security and trigger crises of meaning The present study aimed to document levels of acute COVID-19 stress and general mental distress in Germany and Austria during the lockdown and in the weeks thereafter In order to identify potential risk factors related to demographics and living conditions, their associations with COVID-19 stress were analyzed exploratively The primary objective of the study, however, was to investigate the buffering effect of two psychological resources—meaningfulness and self-control—with regard to the relation between acute COVID-19 stress and general mental distress Finally, a potential aggravation of mental distress due to the occurrence of crises of meaning was examined Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online during lockdown (survey group 1) and the subsequent weeks characterized by eased restrictions (survey group 2) A total of N = 1,538 German-speaking participants completed a questionnaire battery including a novel measure of acute COVID-19 stress, meaningfulness and crisis of meaning (SoMe), self-control (SCS-KD), and a screening of general mental distress, measured by core symptoms of depression and anxiety (PHQ-4) In a first step, associations between living conditions, demographics, and COVID-19 stress were explored Second, a moderation and a mediation model were tested Meaningfulness, a measure of presence of meaning in life, as well as self-control were proposed to serve as buffers in a time of crisis, thus moderating the relation between acute COVID-19 stress and general mental distress (double moderation) Crisis of meaning, operationalizing an experienced lack of meaning in life, was proposed to mediate the relationship between acute COVID-19 stress and general mental distress, with an assumed moderation of the association between COVID-19 stress and crisis of meaning by survey group (lockdown versus eased restrictions after lockdown), and a hypothesized moderation of the link between crisis of meaning and general mental distress by self-control (dual moderated mediation) Results: COVID-19 stress was slightly right-skewed Scores were higher during lockdown than in the weeks thereafter The rate of clinically significant general mental distress was high, exceeding prevalence rates from both the general population and clinical samples of the time before the pandemic In the weeks following the lockdown (group 2), general mental distress and crisis of meaning were significantly higher than during lockdown (group 1), whereas meaningfulness and self-control were significantly lower Demographically, age had the strongest association with COVID-19 stress, with older participants perceiving less acute stress (r = − 21) People who were partnered or married suffered less from COVID-19 stress (η2 = 01) Living alone (η2 = 006), living in a room versus a flat or house (η2 = 008), and being unemployed due to the pandemic (η2 = 008) were related to higher experience of COVID-19 stress COVID-19 stress and general mental distress were strongly related (r = 53) Both meaningfulness and self-control were negatively associated with general mental distress (r = − 40 and − 36, respectively) They also moderated the relationship between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress: When meaningfulness was high, high COVID-19 stress was related to substantially lower PHQ-4 scores than when meaningfulness was low The s me held for self-control: High scores of self-control were associated with lower PHQ-4 scores especially when COVID-19 stress was high Crisis of meaning mediated the relationship between COVID-19 stress and PHQ-4 There was a higher likelihood of crises of meaning occurring when COVID-19 stress was high;crisis of meaning, in turn, was associated with general mental distress Survey group moderated the first path of this mediation, i e , the relationship between COVID-19 stress and crisis of meaning: High scores of COVID-19 stress were associated more strongly with crisis of meaning in the second survey group (after the lockdown) Self-control moderated the second path, i e , the relationship between crisis of meaning and PHQ-4: When a crisis of meaning was present, self-control could buffer its effect on general mental distress Conclusions: Also in the present study among German-speaking participants, general mental distress was high Scores were higher after than during the lockdown, indicating an ongoing destabilization for a significant part of the population People who saw a meaning in their lives and who were capable of self-control reported substantially less mental distress Meaningfulness and self-control also served as buffers between COVID-19 stress and general mental distress: When COVID-19 stress was high, the presence of meaningfulness and self-control accounted for lower general mental distress Moreover, people who suffered strongly from COVID-19 stress were more likely to develop a crisis of meaning which, in turn, was associated with higher general mental distress This suggests that ongoing anxiety and depression might (also) be based on existential struggles Again here, self-control buffered the impact of crisis of meaning on general mental health We conclude from these findings that public health policies can support citizens in coping with large-scale crises by enabling experiences of meaningfulness, e g , through transparent and reliable modes of communicating goals and necessary intermediate steps Moreover, health professionals are well advised to invite individuals to confront existential questions and struggles, and to encourage them to exercise self-control The latter can be boosted by keeping higher-order goals salient—which again is inherently linked to an understanding of their meaning

15.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-840887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 16, 2020, the federal government of Austria declared a nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic Since the lockdown, screening examinations and routine checkups have been restricted to prevent the spread of the virus and to increase the hospitals' bed capacity across the country This resulted in a severe decline of patient referrals to the hospitals OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the rate of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers in Austria METHODS: Data of 2077 patients from 18 centers in Austria with newly diagnosed gynecological or breast cancer between January and May 2019 and January and May 2020 were collected Clinical parameters, including symptoms, performance status, co-morbidities, and referral status, were compared between the time before and after the COVID-19 outbreak RESULTS: Our results showed a slight increase of newly diagnosed cancers in January and February 2020 as compared with 2019 (+2 and +35%, respectively) and a strong decline in newly diagnosed tumors since the lockdown: -24% in March 2020 versus March 2019, -49% in April 2020 versus April 2019, -49% in May 2020 versus May 2019 Two-thirds of patients diagnosed during the pandemic presented with tumor-specific symptoms compared with less than 50% before the pandemic (p<0 001) Moreover, almost 50% of patients in 2020 had no co-morbidities compared with 35% in 2019 (p<0 001) Patients, who already had a malignant disease, were rarely diagnosed with a new cancer in 2020 as compared with 2019 (11% vs 6%;p<0 001) CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown led to a decreased number of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers The decreased accessibility of the medical services and postponed diagnosis of potentially curable cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a step backwards in our healthcare system and might impair cancer treatment outcomes Therefore, new strategies to manage early cancer detection are needed to optimize cancer care in a time of pandemic in the future

17.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-835552

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is caused by antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) or human neutrophil antigens (HNAs), and is one of the most serious complications associated with transfusion medicine Prevention strategies like testing allo-exposed female blood donors have not yet been introduced nationwide in Austria To assess the need and feasibility of routine leukocyte antibody testing, the prevalence of leukocyte-reactive antibodies in an Austrian female donor population was been determined using classical cell-based methods which were compared with a high-throughput bead-based method Methods: Sera from 1,022 female blood donors were screened using a granulocyte aggregation test (GAT) and a white blood cell immunofluorescence test (WIFT) after retesting and specification of positive samples by granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of granulocyte antigens (MAIGA) Potential HLA reactivities were confirmed using the microbeads assay LabScreenTM Mixed The results in 142 donor sera and 38 well-defined reference sera were investigated by the microbeads assay LabScreenTM Multi and compared with classical cell-based methods Results: Reactivity with either granulocytes and/or lymphocytes was detected in 79 sera (7 7%), with the majority being HLA-specific Antibodies against HNA were obtained in 7 samples (0 7%) The aggregating potential of the detected antibodies was observed in 9 cases (0 9%) Most of the leukocyte-reactive antibodies occurred at a donor age of between 35 and 59 years (n = 61) LabScreen Multi showed good agreement (κ = 0 767) for HNA antibody detection by cell-based assays, but double/multiple specificities (100% of 7 anti-HNA-1b sera) as well as false-negative results (40% of 15 HNA-3-specific sera) occurred Discussion: Leukocyte-reactive antibody screening is advised in Austrian female donors for safe blood transfusion, including single-donor convalescent plasma treatment of COVID-19 that may be implemented soon For the introduction of LabScreen Multi, the combination with GAT should be considered to ensure correct anti-HNA-3a detection

19.
Revista de Derecho Civil ; 7(2):9-14, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-832607

ABSTRACT

The most relevant measures adopted by the Federal Republic of Austria in the field of civil law for situations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are the following: regarding (i) rental contracts on housing: limiting the effects legal for the delay in the payment of the rents and to extend the contracts of determined duration;Regarding (ii) payment of debts in general: limit default interest as well as exclude execution costs and compliance with conventional penalties;finally, regarding (iii) consumer loans: postpone the due date of payments © 2020 Notyreg Hispana All rights reserved

20.
Sustainable Cities and Society ; 62, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-830979

ABSTRACT

The socio-demographic factors have a substantial impact on the overall casualties caused by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) In this study, the global and local spatial association between the key socio-demographic variables and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the European regions were analyzed using the spatial regression models A total of 31 European countries were selected for modelling and subsequent analysis From the initial 28 socio-demographic variables, a total of 2 (for COVID-19 cases) and 3 (for COVID-19 deaths) key variables were filtered out for the regression modelling The spatially explicit regression modelling and mapping were done using four spatial regression models such as Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), Spatial Error Model (SEM), Spatial Lag Model (SLM), and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Additionally, Partial Least Square (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) was performed to estimate the overall explanatory power of the regression models For the COVID cases, the local R2 values, which suggesting the influences of the selected socio-demographic variables on COVID cases and death, were found highest in Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, Italy The moderate local R2 was observed for Luxembourg, Poland, Denmark, Croatia, Belgium, Slovakia The lowest local R2 value for COVID-19 cases was accounted for Ireland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Cyprus, Romania Among the 2 variables, the highest local R2 was calculated for income (R2 = 0 71), followed by poverty (R2 = 0 45) For the COVID deaths, the highest association was found in Italy, Croatia, Slovenia, Austria The moderate association was documented for Hungary, Greece, Switzerland, Slovakia, and the lower association was found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Netherlands, Cyprus This suggests that the selected demographic and socio-economic components, including total population, poverty, income, are the key factors in regulating overall casualties of COVID-19 in the European region In this study, the influence of the other controlling factors, such as environmental conditions, socio-ecological status, climatic extremity, etc have not been considered This could be the scope for future research © 2020 The Author(s)

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