Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 475
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(20):10778, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1470840

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a recognised source of information for pandemic management. In this study, we investigated the correlation between a SARS-CoV-2 signal derived from wastewater sampling and COVID-19 incidence values monitored by means of individual testing programs. The dataset used in the study is composed of timelines (duration approx. five months) of both signals at four wastewater treatment plants across Austria, two of which drain large communities and the other two drain smaller communities. Eight regression models were investigated to predict the viral incidence under varying data inputs and pre-processing methods. It was found that population-based normalisation and smoothing as a pre-processing of the viral load data significantly influence the fitness of the regression models. Moreover, the time latency lag between the wastewater data and the incidence derived from the testing program was found to vary between 2 and 7 days depending on the time period and site. It was found to be necessary to take such a time lag into account by means of multivariate modelling to boost the performance of the regression. Comparing the models, no outstanding one could be identified as all investigated models are revealing a sufficient correlation for the task. The pre-processing of data and a multivariate model formulation is more important than the model structure.

2.
Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht ; 68(4):306-311, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470738

ABSTRACT

Summary: In contrast to Germany and Switzerland, in Austria schools were closed three times during the COVID-19 pandemic. The school lockdowns and their effects on all stakeholders have been intensively researched;with, for example, over 20 surveys (N> 50,000 people) on the first lockdown in Austria. The findings from these studies are only partially consistent with those from Germany and Switzerland. However, initial comparative show that in Austria and Germany the psychological stress perceived by students and their parents increased significantly over the past year. At the same time, initial performance studies from Germany indicate that no dramatic COVID-19-related learning losses were observed. As in Germany, an increase in the use of digital media in schools and in the learning time at home can be observed in Austria. These findings nourish the hope of similarly low learning losses in Austria. Nevertheless, the pandemic has highlighted the weaknesses and strengths of the Austrian school system. Policymakers are called upon to support in particular those groups that suffered most from the system’s weaknesses during the pandemic. For this purpose, remedial measures for socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or low-performing students are particularly important. Finally, the scientific community is called upon to research characteristics of (crisis-)resilient school systems, schools and teaching in order to be able to derive implications for the future. © Ernst Reinhardt Verlag München Base

3.
Assessment ; : 10731911211052483, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470596

ABSTRACT

The Brief COPE (Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced) is a frequently used questionnaire assessing 14 theoretically derived coping mechanisms, but psychometric research has suggested inconsistent results concerning its factor structure. The aim of this study was to investigate primary and secondary order factor structures of the Brief COPE during the COVID-19 pandemic by testing 11 different models by confirmatory factor analyses and to assess differences between sex, age groups, and relationship status. Altogether, 529 respondents from Austria and Germany participated in a web-based survey. Results supported the originally hypothesized 14-factor structure but did not support previously described higher-order structures. However, bass-ackwards analyses suggested systematic overlap between different factors, which might have contributed to different factor solutions in previous research. Measurement invariance across sex, age groups, and relationship status could be confirmed. Findings suggest that cultural and situational aspects as well as the functional level should be considered in research on theoretical framing of coping behavior.

4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291377

ABSTRACT

In this article we report the observations of our field study which investigates the success rates of online hypnosis for smoking cessation. Following an international call in Germany, Austria and Switzerland for subjects willing to stop smoking $83$ participants contributed to this study, which took place during the lockdowns of the COVID-19 pandemic. All subjects received two online hypnosis sessions in small groups and additionally got two MP3 audio files for invididual intensification. The participants sent back several questionnaires, from which we present the evaluation results, and we discuss the problems observed during the study. It turned out that $86\%$ of the participants are smoke-free after $6$ months as long as they participated according to the intervention protocol. Among all smokers after six months we have observed a reduction of $32\%$ in cigarette consumption. This report shall be seen as a statistical evaluation of the collected data and not as the report of a fully pre-designed study in a narrower sense.

5.
Equilibrium ; 16(3):577-615, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1468948

ABSTRACT

Research background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the reduction in income or the total loss of jobs have affected the financial behaviour of consumers worldwide. Managing the budget in times of turbulence and crisis has posed a challenge for households. Purpose of the article: The aim of the article is to determine to what extent the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the financial behaviour of the inhabitants of various countries and how Poland has stood out from the rest. Methods: Due to the orderly nature of the questions analysed, non-parametric tests were used in the analysis. The distribution of current expenditure in comparison with the period before the pandemic was analysed, as well as the results of comparative analyses with Mann-Whitney U tests for comparison of Poland with Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, France (974), Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the USA. A study was carried out on the relationship between planning for the future, having debts and savings and financial behaviour after the COVID-19 pandemic and the metric variables in the group of Poles via Chi square and a series of - Kendall's tests. Findings & value added: There has been a fall in expenditure compared to the period before the pandemic, which may explain the lack of opportunities to spend money, the fall in revenue and the freezing of expenditure for fear of an uncertain future. There has also been a change in the way payments are made. Payment cards and purchases made over the Internet are increasingly popular. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, consumers are trying to save more, but not everyone can afford to do so. Long-term value added of this paper is analysis of change in the model of financial behavior of households under the shock of the pandemic in international comparisons of the analysed countries.

6.
Sustainability ; 13(19):11076, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1468491

ABSTRACT

Urban allotment gardens (AGs) provide a unique combination of productive and recreational spaces for the inhabitants of European cities. Although the reasons behind the decision to have a plot, as well as the mode of use and gardening practices, are well recognised in the literature, these issues are mainly considered in relation to particular case studies within a single country. The regional diversity of European allotment gardens is still poorly understood, however. This knowledge gap became an incentive for us to carry out the present study. The research was conducted in seven countries: Austria, Estonia, Germany, France, Portugal, Poland and the UK. Surveys were used to assess the motivations of users regarding plot uses and gardening practices. Information was also collected during desk research and study visits, making use of available statistical data. Allotment gardens in Europe are currently very diverse, and vary depending on the historical, legal, economic and social conditions of a given country, and also as determined by geographical location. Three main types of plots were distinguished, for: cultivation, recreation–cultivation, and cultivation–recreation. The recreational use of AGs has replaced their use for food production in countries with a long history of urban gardening. The only exception is the UK. In some countries, the production of food on an AG plot is still its main function;however, the motivations for this are related to better quality and taste (the UK), as well as the economic benefits of self-grown fruits and vegetables (Portugal, Estonia). Among the wide range of motivations for urban gardening in Europe, there is increasing emphasis on active recreation, contact with nature and quality food supply.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 509, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the COVID-19-pandemic hit different countries with varying degrees of severity, so that differences in the type and level of emergency measures were also necessary. It can be assumed that the psychological burden was higher in countries subjected to a more severe course of the pandemic (Italy) than in countries subjected to a less severe one (Germany, Austria). OBJECTIVE: To investigate and contrast the wellbeing of the population in Italy, Austria, and Germany in the early phase of the first lockdown. METHOD: Online survey on N = 4289 individuals. The questionnaire comprised a self-administered section, exploring the dimensions: perceived severity of COVID-19, perceived risk of disease, concerns related to COVID-19, emergency measure acceptance and emotional distress due to emergency measures; and standardized scales to record emotional state and coping: Stress-Coping-Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. RESULTS: The three countries displayed significant differences in all investigated dimensions (p < .001). Italian participants assessed the COVID-19 virus as much more dangerous (p < .001), but despite the prevalence of the virus, the subjective risk of disease was perceived to be lower in Italy (p < .001). This could be a positive effect of the restrictive curfews set by the government in Italy. The emergency measures were generally perceived to be very effective in all three countries, but due to the duration and the severity of the measures, the fear and stress-reaction were the strongest among Italian participants (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The stricter measures in Italy prevented an application of many positive stress processing strategies, which, in turn, fostered the perpetuation of stresses and fear.

8.
Viruses ; 13(10):2014, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463836

ABSTRACT

Currently countries across the globe are preparing for the fourth wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections, which is mainly driven by the rapid spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. Austria and, in particular, the capital city of Vienna, witnessed a disproportionally steep rise in SARS-CoV-2 infection rates during the last wave of infections. By the end of January 2021, the government of Vienna launched an innovative, state-wide SARS-CoV-2 screening program based on PCR analysis of self-collected mouthwash samples. More than 400,000 mouthwash samples were collected in Vienna during the third wave of infection from January to March 2021. All preanalytical and analytical steps were carried out in a highly standardized manner at a single certified testing center. SARS-CoV-2 specific PCR analysis revealed in these samples a positivity rate of 0.43%. The relative proportion of N501Y positive virus samples increased continually to 68% of weekly samples. Mutation K417N was detected only in three samples. With this study, we were able to map the temporal occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 variants in a highly unbiased manner. Positivity rates and variant prevalence rates in this study were lower than in other nationwide programs. The results presented in this study indicate that actual virus prevalence tends to be overestimated by surveillance programs such as results of cluster analysis or contact tracing programs.

9.
Comparative Migration Studies ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1463273

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the question of how the Covid-19 pandemic has affected the labour market integration support (LMIS) organised for refugees in Austria and Sweden, and the potential consequences of the changes unfolding. LMIS for refugees is a complex phenomenon involving actors at different interwoven levels—the macro-national level, the meso-organisational level and the micro-individual level. However, the complexities and consequences of such processes for the labour market integration of refugees have so far received limited attention. The current Covid-19 pandemic actualises the need to gain a better understanding of how integration support is organised across the different levels and how the pandemic itself impacts such support. Thus, the article seeks to understand how the pandemic affects the LMIS organised for refugees in Austria and Sweden, two countries with a large refugee population and diverging responses to the pandemic. Based on 29 semi-structured interviews and three focus group workshops, the results highlight in particular three developments: (a) a further entrenching of broader, macro-national level developments related to integration support already underway prior to the pandemic;(b) further mainstreaming of activities;and (c) increased volatility of work. Overall, the pandemic has brought to the fore the interrelation of different levels in the organising of LMIS for refugees and has contributed to a stabilisation of already ongoing activities.

10.
Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues ; 24(Special Issue 1):1-4, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1459877

ABSTRACT

In Europe, there are currently two vaccines against COVID-19 recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for children aged 12 and older: Spikevax (Moderna) and Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech). At the moment, about half of European countries have decided to age 12 as the minimum age for vaccination against COVID-19. In addition to Italy, France, Spain, Austria, Slovenia, Hungary, Czechia, Slovakia, Denmark, Switzerland, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Others (Germany, UK, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Finland) recommend vaccination only for children in textual conditions facing COVID-19 or living with frail people. The Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) has approved the extension of the therapeutic indications for Comirnaty on May 31 and for Spikevax on July 29, 2021. The various scientific societies in Italy (SIPPS, SIP) agreed in favor of vaccinating children from 12 years old. However the problem of informed consent to COVID-19 vaccination in minors is absolutely emerging, in Italy as well as in other countries (Heuerman, 2021). According to national and international conventions, he should be informed, listened to and must participate in the co-decision process regarding medical treatment. Achieving a “triple” medical-parent-child therapeutic alliance is the main goal at this time of the pandemic, but this is not always possible (Morgan, 2021). The main key legal and ethical issues on the matter are represented below. © 2021, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues. All Rights Reserved.

11.
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459950

ABSTRACT

Fragility fractures are a frequent and costly event. In Austria, 92,835 fragility fractures occurred in patients aged ≥ 50 years in 2018, accruing direct costs of > 157 million €. Due to demographic aging, the number of fragility fractures and their associated costs are expected to increase even further. INTRODUCTION: Fragility fractures are frequently associated with long hospital stays, loss of independence, and increased need for care in the elderly, with consequences often leading to premature death. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of fragility fractures and associated healthcare costs in Austria in 2018. METHODS: The number of in-patient cases with relevant ICD-10 diagnoses in all Austrian public hospitals was derived from discharge documentation of diagnoses and procedures covering all public hospitals in Austria. Fractures resulting from falls from standing height in patients aged ≥ 50 years were used as a proxy for fragility fractures, and the number of in-patient and out-patient cases was estimated. The direct costs of these cases were calculated using the average cost of the corresponding in-patient hospital stay and the average cost for the out-patient stay. RESULTS: The present study estimated the number of fragility fractures (pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebra, hip, humerus, rib, forearm, and tibia) for 2018 at 92,835 or just over half of all fractures in patients aged ≥ 50 years, corresponding to a prevalence of 2,600 per 100,000 inhabitants of this age group. A constant increase in the proportion of fragility fractures among all fractures was observed with increasing age in both men and women. These fractures amounted to direct costs of > 157 million €. CONCLUSION: Fragility fractures are a frequent and costly event in Austria. Due to the aging of the population, the number of fragility fractures and their associated costs is expected to increase even further.

12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 676, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19, preventative public health measures, including lockdown strategies, were declared in most countries to control viral transmission. Recent studies and anecdotes have reported changes in the prevalence of perinatal outcomes during national COVID-19lockdowns.The objective of this rapid review was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and stillbirth. METHODS: Two reviewers searched EMBASE, CORD-19, LitCovid (PubMed), WHO Global research on corona virus disease (COVID-19), and MedRxiv for studies published in English from the first reports on COVID-19 until 17 July 2021. Perinatal outcomes of interest included LBW (< 2500 g), PTB (< 37 weeks), and stillbirth. RESULTS: Of the 1967 screened articles, 17 publications met the inclusion criteria (14 cohort studies, 1 case control and 2 cross-sectional studies). Studies included data from Denmark, UK, Ireland, Nepal, Italy, Israel, Botswana, Australia, China, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Austria, Zimbabwe, India, and Spain. The total sample size ranged from 3399 to 1,599,547 pregnant women. Thirteen studies examined PTB with conflicting results, reporting both an increase and a decrease in PTB incidence, with odds ratios [95% CI] ranging from 0.09 [0.01, 0.40] to 1.93 [0.76, 4.79]. Three studies found a decrease in LBW rates during lockdowns, one of which was statistically significant, with a rate ratio of 3.77 [1.21, 11.75]. Ten studies examined stillbirth rates, including four studies reporting a statistically significant increase in stillbirth rates, with adjusted relative risk ranging from 1.46 [1.13, 1.89] to 3.9 [1.83, 12.0]. Fourteen studies contained data that could be combined in a meta-analysis comparing perinatal outcomes before and during lockdown. We found that lockdown measures were associated with a significant risk of stillbirth with RR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.04, 1.69] when compared to before lockdown period. However, lockdown measures were not associated with a significant risk of PTB, LBW and VLBW compared to prepandemic periods. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides clues about the severity of the indirect influence of COVID-19 lockdown implementation; however, the criteria that lead to unexpected changes in LBW, PTB, and stillbirth remains unclear. Large studies showed conflicting results, reporting both increases and decreases in selected perinatal outcomes. Pooled results show a significant association between lockdown measures and stillbirth rates, but not low birth weight rates. Further studies examining the differences in other countries' lockdowns and sociodemographic groups from low to middle-income countries are needed. Exploration of perinatal outcomes during COVID-19 lockdown poses an opportunity to learn from and make changes to promote the reduction of the leading causes of childhood mortality worldwide.

13.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455509

ABSTRACT

Austria partly spared its healthcare system from the catastrophic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic with an early lockdown. This led to a marked decrease in visits to the paediatric emergency department (PED) at the Medical University of Innsbruck. The PED is the central point of contact for patients under the age of 18 with any health concerns, except trauma. Approximately 18,700 patients visit the PED per year and 17.6% are admitted to the hospital.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456083

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher educational institutions worldwide switched to emergency distance learning in early 2020. The less structured environment of distance learning forced students to regulate their learning and motivation more independently. According to self-determination theory (SDT), satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and social relatedness affects intrinsic motivation, which in turn relates to more active or passive learning behavior. As the social context plays a major role for basic need satisfaction, distance learning may impair basic need satisfaction and thus intrinsic motivation and learning behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between basic need satisfaction and procrastination and persistence in the context of emergency distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in a cross-sectional study. We also investigated the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in this relationship. Furthermore, to test the universal importance of SDT for intrinsic motivation and learning behavior under these circumstances in different countries, we collected data in Europe, Asia and North America. A total of N = 15,462 participants from Albania, Austria, China, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Kosovo, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, North Macedonia, Romania, Sweden, and the US answered questions regarding perceived competence, autonomy, social relatedness, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, persistence, and sociodemographic background. Our results support SDT's claim of universality regarding the relation between basic psychological need fulfilment, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, and persistence. However, whereas perceived competence had the highest direct effect on procrastination and persistence, social relatedness was mainly influential via intrinsic motivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Motivation , Procrastination , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Autonomy , Young Adult
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 221, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a direct impact on the employment of older people. This adds to the challenge of ageism. The World Health Organization has started a worldwide campaign to combat ageism and has called for more research and evidence-based strategies that have the potential to be scaled up. This study specifically aims to identify solutions to combat the adverse effects of COVID-19 on the global ageing workforce. METHODS: We present 15 case studies from different countries and report on what those countries are doing or not doing to address the impact of COVID-19 on ageing workers. RESULTS: We provide examples of how COVID-19 influences older people's ability to work and stay healthy, and offer case studies of what governments, organizations or individuals can do to help ensure older people can obtain, maintain and, potentially, expand their current work. Case studies come from Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Germany, Israel, Japan, Nigeria, Romania, Singapore, Sweden, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Across the countries, the impact of COVID-19 on older workers is shown as widening inequalities. A particular challenge has arisen because of a large proportion of older people, often with limited education and working in the informal sector within rural areas, e.g. in Nigeria, Thailand and China. Remedies to the particular disadvantage experienced by older workers in the context of COVID are presented. These range from funding support to encouraging business continuity, innovative product and service developments, community action, new business models and localized, national and international actions. The case studies can be seen as frequently fitting within strategies that have been proven to work in reducing ageism within the workplace. They include policy and laws that have increased benefits to workers during lockdowns (most countries); educational activities such as coaching seniorpreneurship (e,g, Australia); intergenerational contact interventions such as younger Thai people who moved back to rural areas and sharing their digital knowledge with older people and where older people reciprocate by teaching the younger people farming knowledge. CONCLUSION: Global sharing of this knowledge among international, national and local governments and organizations, businesses, policy makers and health and human resources experts will further understanding of the issues that are faced by older workers. This will facilitate the replication or scalability of solutions as called for in the WHO call to combat ageism in 2021. We suggest that policy makers, business owners, researchers and international organisations build on the case studies by investing in evidence-based strategies to create inclusive workplaces. Such action will thus help to challenge ageism, reduce inequity, improve business continuity and add to the quality of life of older workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workforce
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258205, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: How effective have lockdowns been at reducing the covid-19 infection and mortality rates? Lockdowns influence contact among persons within or between populations including restricting travel, closing schools, prohibiting public gatherings, requiring workplace closures, all designed to slow the contagion of the virus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of lockdown measures on the spread of covid-19 and test a theoretical model of the covid-19 pandemic employing structural equation modelling. METHODS: Lockdown variables, population demographics, mortality rates, infection rates, and health were obtained for eight countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The dataset, owid-covid-data.csv, was downloaded on 06/01/2020 from: https://github.com/owid/covid-19-data/tree/master/public/data. Infection spread and mortality data were depicted as logistic growth and analyzed with stepwise multiple regression. The overall structure of the covid-19 data was explored through factor analyses leading to a theoretical model that was tested using latent variable path analysis. RESULTS: Multiple regression indicated that the time from lockdown had a small but significant effect (ß = 0.112, p< 0.01) on reducing the number of cases per million. The stringency index produced the most important effect for mortality and infection rates (ß = 0.588,ß = 0.702, ß = 0.518, ß = 0.681; p< 0.01). Exploratory and confirmatory analyses resulted in meaningful and cohesive latent variables: 1) Mortality, 2) Infection Spread, 3) Pop Health Risk, and 4) Health Vulnerability (Comparative Fit Index = 0.91; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.08). DISCUSSION: The stringency index had a large impact on the growth of covid-19 infection and mortality rates as did percentage of population aged over 65, median age, per capita GDP, diabetes prevalence, cardiovascular death rates, and ICU hospital beds per 100K. The overall Latent Variable Path Analysis is theoretically meaningful and coherent with acceptable fit indices as a model of the covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Databases, Factual , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis
17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450385

ABSTRACT

AIM: Anticoagulation was associated with improved survival of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in large-scale studies. Yet, the development of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and the mechanism responsible for improved survival of anticoagulated patients with COVID-19 remain largely elusive. This investigation aimed to explore the effects of anticoagulation and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in particular on patient outcome, CAC development, thromboinflammation, cell death, and viral persistence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 586 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three different regions of Austria were evaluated retrospectively. Of these 419 (71.5%) patients received LMWH and 62 (10.5%) received non-vitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) during hospitalization. Plasma was collected at different time points in a subset of 106 patients in order to evaluate markers of thromboinflammation (H3Cit-DNA) and the cell death marker cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Use of LMWH was associated with improved survival upon multivariable Cox-regression (hazard ratio = 0.561, 95% confidence interval: 0.348-0.906). Interestingly, neither LMWH nor NOAC was associated with attenuation of D-dimer increase over time, or thromboinflammation. In contrast, anticoagulation was associated with a decrease in cfDNA during hospitalization and curtailed viral persistence was observed in patients using LMWH leading to a four-day reduction of virus positivity upon quantitative polymerase chain reaction (13 [interquartile range: 6-24] versus 9 [interquartile range: 5-16] days, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Time courses of hemostatic and thromboinflammatory biomarkers were similar in patients with and without LMWH, indicating either no effects of LMWH on hemostasis or that LMWH reduced hypercoagulability to levels of patients without LMWH. Nonetheless, anticoagulation with LMWH was associated with reduced mortality, improved markers of cell death, and curtailed viral persistence, indicating potential beneficial effects of LMWH beyond hemostasis, which encourages use of LMWH in COVID-19 patients without contraindications. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The data gathered in this retrospective multicenter observational study could confirm an association of improved survival and anticoagulation and could link LMWH use to improved biomarkers of cell death and curtailed persistence of SARS-CoV-2. This encourages the use of this drug in patients without known contraindications in case this effect can be consolidated in randomized controlled trials. Currently performed prospective trials using LMWH in COVID-19 should focus on viral persistence in order to explore an additional field of application for LMWH during this pandemic.

18.
J Health Econ ; 80: 102531, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450160

ABSTRACT

We investigate the effect of social capital on health outcomes during the Covid-19 pandemic in independent analyses for Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. Exploiting detailed geographical variation within countries, we show that a one-standard-deviation increase in social capital leads to between 14% and 34% fewer Covid-19 cases per capita accumulated from mid-March until end of June 2020, as well as between 6% and 35% fewer excess deaths per capita. Our results highlight the positive health returns of strengthening social capital.

19.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1446789

ABSTRACT

Objectives COVID-19 can be a life-threatening illness, especially for older patients. The COVID-19 outbreak created a dramatic organizational challenge in treating infected patients requiring surgical treatment, like those suffering a proximal femur fracture, in a pandemic setting. We investigate the impact of a COVID-19 infection in patients with a proximal femur fracture not only on mortality but also on quality of life (QoL), length of stay, and discharge target. Design Retrospective cohort analysis from July 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. The Registry for Geriatric Trauma collected the data prospectively. Patient groups with and without COVID-19 infection were compared using linear and logistic regression models. Setting and Participants Retrospective multicenter registry study including patients aged 70 years or above with proximal femur fracture requiring surgery from 107 certified Centers for Geriatric Trauma in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Measures The occurrence and impact of COVID-19 infection in patients suffering a proximal femur fracture were measured regarding in-house mortality, length of stay, and discharge location. Moreover, QoL was measured by the validated EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Results 3,733 patients were included in our study. Of them, 123 patients tested COVID-19 positive at admission. A COVID-19 infection resulted in a 5.95-fold higher mortality risk (odds ratio (OR) 5.95, p < 0.001), a length of stay prolonged by 4.21 days (regression coefficient (ß) 4.21, p < 0.001), a reduced QoL (ß -0.13, p = 0.001), and a change in discharge target, more likely to their home instead of another inpatient facility like a rehabilitation clinic (p = 0.013). Conclusions and Implications The impact of a COVID-19 infection in patients suffering a proximal femur fracture is tremendous. The infected patients presented a dramatic rise in mortality rate, were significantly less likely to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility, had a longer in-hospital stay and a reduced QoL.

20.
1st Conference on Information Technology for Social Good, GoodIT 2021 ; : 115-120, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1443644

ABSTRACT

The ADAPT project started during the most critical phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Europe when the demand for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) from each country's healthcare system surpassed national stock amounts. Due to national shutdowns, reduced transport logistics, and containment measures on the federal and provincial levels, the authorities could not meet the rising demand from the health care system on the PPE equipment. Fortunately, the PPE production capacities in China have regained (and expanded) their available capacities through which Austria now can get the demand of PPE to protect its citizens. ADAPT develops an adaptive and autonomous decision-making network to support the involved stakeholders along the PPE supply chain to save and protect human lives. The ADAPT decentralized blockchain platform optimizes supply, demand, and transport capacities between China and Austria with transparent, real-time certification checks on equipment, production documentation, and intelligent decision-making capabilities at all levels of this multidimensional logistic problem. © 2021 ACM.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...