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1.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102136

ABSTRACT

Many countries suffered excess all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to identify factors associated with excess mortality rates (EMR) in partaking countries during 2020. Weekly all-cause death counts for 2015-2020 were extracted from national databases for Australia, Austria, Brazil, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Israel, Italy, Mauritius, Norway, Peru, Slovenia, Sweden, USA, Ukraine and UK. EMR per 100,000 population were gauged using a 5-year mean baseline. Separate OLS multiple linear regressions explored pre-pandemic country profiles including healthcare system, geographic, socio-economic and population factors. Feature selection methods detected the main factors contributing to 2020 EMR. The health system model showed that an extra nurse per 1,000 and a 1% increase in Healthcare Access and Quality Index reduces EMR by 41.7% (p = 0.019) and 0.48% (p = 0.034). The model was statistically significant (R

3.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101918

ABSTRACT

Background The debate on vaccination strategies has been periodically involving researchers, policymakers, and also the population. Interest waves have occurred both after a revival of childhood infectious diseases in 2016-2017, due to low vaccine coverages, and during the recent Coronavirus outbreak. This study aimed at overviewing vaccination strategies (and corresponding vaccine coverages) for childhood vaccinations and SARS-CoV-2. Methods Measles was chosen as a childhood vaccination indicator. Policy data were retrieved from health institutions (either European or national/regional) and, for COVID-19, also from press agencies and newspaper websites. Vaccine coverage data were retrieved from the World Bank, World Health Organisation, and UNICEF databases (for childhood vaccines), and from the “Our World in Data” platform for SARS-CoV-2. A qualitative comparison was performed between the two contexts. Results Unlike childhood vaccinations, few countries (and only Austria in Europe) imposed generalised COVID-19 mandates, most countries preferring targeted mandates for higher-risk groups. Many countries confirmed their traditional voluntary vaccination approach also for COVID-19, while countries historically relying on compulsory vaccination strategies, such as Slovenia and Hungary, surprisingly opted for voluntary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, with unsatisfactory results. However, no tangible crude association was generally found between vaccination policies and achieved coverages, although factors such as cultural background, education, and religion appeared to influence the impact of vaccination policies. Conclusions The COVID-19 experience has enriched pre-existent vaccination strategy debates by adding interesting elements concerning attitudes toward vaccines in a novel context. Reading the available results in the frame of vaccine hesitancy determinants can help to understand the relationship between policies and actual coverages. Key messages Few countries have imposed generalised mandates for COVID-19, while many preferred targeted obligations for high-risk groups and some countries surprisingly opted for a voluntary approach. Accurately considering social and cultural determinants allows understanding the chance of success of vaccination strategies, ahead of fostering the right policymaking approach for each population.

4.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101808

ABSTRACT

Nationally published COVID-19 mortality estimates might underestimate the actual mortality burden attributed to COVID-19. Estimations of excess all-cause mortality can provide more accurate estimates of the toll of the pandemic. This study aims to estimate the overall, sex and age-specific excess all-cause mortality in 20 countries, during 2020. Total, sex and age-specific weekly all-cause death counts for 2015-2020 were extracted from national vital statistics databases. Percent excess mortality for 2020 was calculated by comparing average weekly 2020 mortality rates against average weekly mortality rates from the past five years (2015-2019). Comparisons were performed for the total population, per sex, and per age groups (<65 vs. 65+ or < 70 vs.70+) depending on data availability. Percent difference in average weekly mortality between 2020 and 2015-2019 ranged from negative for Australia and Norway, to < 5% for Denmark, Cyprus, Estonia, Israel, and Sweden, 5-10% for Georgia, Mauritius, Ukraine, Austria, France, Scotland and Northern Ireland, to ∼10-21% for England & Wales, Italy, Brazil, USA, Slovenia, and to 89% for Peru. The percent difference in average weekly mortality between 2020 and 2015-2019 for males was higher than for females except for Cyprus, Estonia, Slovenia and the USA. Lastly, in age specific analyses, for the majority of countries the % increase in average weekly mortality between 2020 and 2015-2019, was higher in the oldest age group investigated, however, for Peru and the USA (<65 vs. 65+ years) and for Cyprus and Mauritius (<70 vs. 70+ years), mortality increased similarly in both age groups. This study highlights that the excess mortality burden during the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionally affected specific countries, males, and in most, but not all countries, the oldest age groups. Strengthening of health resilience in the most affected countries, while targeting population groups impacted the most, is of paramount public health importance. Key messages • Excess mortality burden during the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionally affected specific countries, and even within countries specific sex and age groups. • Further investigation into the determinants of excess mortality is needed to suggest steps to strengthen health resilience in the countries and target population groups impacted the most.

5.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101534

ABSTRACT

Background During SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, various studies have shown a significant reduction of Emergency Department (ED) presentations for acute cardiac diseases requiring in-hospital management. The aim of our study was to quantify hospital admission and mortality, comparing pandemic period and pre-pandemic period in different countries. Methods We performed an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify on a large basis the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on patients admitted to the ED for STEMI and NSTEMI. The literature research was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Cochrane database registry on 6 January 2022. We performed a random-effect model meta-analysis. Results A total of 61 studies were included: came from Italy, China, Germany, Israel, Turkey, France, Helvetic Confederation, India, Poland, Spain, US, UK, Albania, Austria, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Ireland, Japan, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia and Canada. Hospital admissions for STEMI decreased in most country. The countries with the high levels of reduction were Italy (IRR = 0.68) and Germany (IRR = 0.69). Mortality rates for STEMI increased differently among countries analyzed: p = 0.003. The highest mortality rate was in Serbia (OR = 2.15), followed by Italy (OR = 1.97), Pakistan (OR = 1.69) and France (OR = 1.55). Among the High-Income countries, the highest mortality rate was in Italy (OR = 3.71), the highest among the Upper-Middle-Income was in Serbia (OR = 2.15) and the highest among Low- Middle-Income was in Pakistan (OR = 1.69). Regarding NSTEMI, hospital admissions showed that Italy had the lowest value for with IRR = 0.59. Among countries, the meta-regression subgroups analysis, showed statistical difference (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis may represent a robust snapshot that might help healthcare systems manage and assist an expected higher number of people coming to the hospitals for severe, post-acute cardiological issues in the future. Key messages • The study shows hospital admission and mortality, comparing pandemic period and pre-pandemic period in different countries. • Epidemiological data suggests that one-fourth to one-third of MI patients, in large areas of the globe, during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, remained at home and did not have access to ED.

6.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101473

ABSTRACT

The WHO European Programme of Work (2020-2025) emphasizes the importance of “supporting local living environments that enable health and well-being”. Through engaging with regulatory arrangements that support an environment that responds to citizens’ concerns for safer, healthier and better living, the EPW intertwines with the aims of the EPH Conference to promote population health and to strengthen health systems. The Covid-19 pandemic shows that health threats do not stop at national borders. Different responses amongst cross-border regions, based on national policies in terms of Public Health and Social Measures (PHSM), may even weaken their effectiveness. The importance of cooperation across border is not only relevant in the framework of pandemic preparedness and responses, but in many other fields: healthcare cooperation, emergency medical care, medico-social cooperation and health promotion. All have shown to be beneficial to population health when developed at the subnational level across border regions. Consequently, cross-border health (care) gained importance in recent years and there are various border regions who showcase successful cross-border cooperation in the field of health. Projects are being implemented along neighbouring European regions, translating into improved access to healthcare for the border populations, promoting prevention and health education as well as increasing healthcare availability and equity. Via various health networks, border regions can learn to engage with neighbours and build up tailor-made health services for their citizens. More so, through active participation in various well-established public health networks, the exchange of ideas, knowledge and solutions to strengthen cross-border health becomes part of region's daily work. Through strong networks and partnerships, joint solutions for a strengthened citizens’ health in rural areas could be found. Creating synergies between the healthcare capacities of the two sides of the border, collaboration between border area medical teams, access to equipment located one or other side of the border can make a positive impact on the users of health services and facilities. In this round table workshop, the role and impact of health networks on a sub-national level (regional) will be further examined. Based on selected well-established health networks, their work and value will be outlined. The Keynote speech will be given by the Coordinator of the WHO Europe Regions for Health Network, Dr. Bettina Menne. Subsequently, 3-4 well-established health networks will take the floor with a short presentation (5 min) in order to present their ‘business case’ and value. The presentations will be followed by a short round table discussion in order to highlight the role and strengths European health networks can bring to regions in order to improve cross-border healthcare (WHO RHN, Healthacross /Lower Austria, euPrevent, AEBR, EUREGHA). Key messages • Role and impact of health networking for cross-border health on a sub-national level. • Outlining the benefits and challenges for border regions to participate in health networks in order to strengthen cross-border health (also during Covid-19).

7.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101391

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there have been increasing instances of cross-border crises, including climate change, terrorism, international trade disputes and global health threats. These emergency situations require large-scale planning for preparedness and response in order for countries to be able to cope with unforeseen challenges. Especially the COVID-19 crisis had a huge impact on European countries and the daily lives of its citizens. The pandemic has proven to be more than a health crisis;it is a human, economic and social crisis, impacting people, societies and economies at their core. The European Commission has recently funded many projects (in the Horizon 2020 program, H2020) to work on different aspects of crisis management, many with a focus on managing pandemics. While each project has distinct aims and challenges, they all work towards a common goal. It is for this reason that thirteen EU-funded H2020 projects, with a combined funding of €72 million, have united to form the PREparedness and resPonse for emergency situAtions in euRopE (PREPARE) cluster. Each of the thirteen projects is tackling challenges specifically looking at the preparedness and response phases of crisis management and working together they aim to achieve stronger results and greater impact for their cause. Together CO-VERSATILE, COVID-X, COVINFORM, EUR3KA, LINKS, NO FEAR, PANDEM-2, PathoCERT, PERISCOPE, PHIRI, RISKPACC, STAMINA and STRATEGY will explore synergies, research opportunities and deliver joint activities to maximise impact. Through mutual support, the cluster will strengthen the response to the ongoing crisis and the aim to be better prepared for future health crises. In a round table discussion, a selection of these H2020 will briefly present their contribution to crisis preparedness and resilience of European countries (25 min). These brief presentations will be followed by a round table discussion (35 min), touching upon topics such as common findings (building trust, health inequalities, training and capacity building, addressing stakeholder diversity);and the dissemination and exploitation of the results to the general public, to researchers, to (public) health professionals and policy makers, Finally, as many of these projects end in 2022/2023, what are the next steps or threats, what should be the highest priority for future Horizon Europe projects? The audience will be able to provide their view on the different topics through an interactive voting poll during the session. Throughout the session, the exchange of knowledge, experiences and opinions with the audience will be facilitated by the chairs. Key messages • The actionable outcomes of the major Horizon 2020 projects provide key-input for political decision-making in preparedness and response scenarios. • The PREPARE cluster builds a sustainable structure for large-scale planning for preparedness and response for countries to be able to cope with unforeseen challenges. Speakers/Panellists Claudia Habl Gesundheit Österreich GmbH, Austrian National Public Health Institute, Vienna, Austria Brigita Kairiene National Public Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Vilnius, Lithuania Claudia Houareau Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany Jil Molenaar University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium Claim Rafalowski Magen David Adom, Or Yehuda, Israel

8.
Age and ageing ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 51.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101335

ABSTRACT

Background Despite the burgeoning literature on the impact of Covid-19 on the lives of older populations, gaps remain in our knowledge around the lived experience of social relationship change during the pandemic, and the implications for longer-term relational well-being. Even with the clear significance of Covid-19 for older populations across Europe, research involving cross-national comparisons of these experiences is largely absent. Addressing these gaps is critical given concerns for some older people’s social connectedness, their future relational embeddedness, and our societal preparedness for pandemic and other public health crises. The aim of this paper is to chart the impact of the pandemic on older people’s subjective lived experience of social connectedness across seven countries, and to contrast the differential impact of public health measures, if any, in these jurisdictions. Methods The analysis draws on 210 semi-structured interviews with men and women aged sixty-five and over across Austria, Czech Republic, Ireland, Israel, Norway, Spain, Sweden (as part of a wider study into exclusion from social relations), with a focus on direct social distancing measures and people’s response to these measures. Results Four themes emerged from the data: reduced informal social contact, depleted social opportunities, fear and lack of social confidence, and relational life course and impacts in context. Given the largely common approach to preventing the spread of the virus, more cross-national similarities than differences, although there were clear exceptions to this in relation to approach, and cultural nuances are evident. Cross-cutting these themes, structural and self-ageism emerged as intensifying formal constraints for some participants, in some settings. Conclusion For most participants, public health measures had a negative impact on their subjective well-being, while others experienced disruption to their relational life course trajectories. The data points to a clear need to consider the social infrastructure of older people, particularly in times of crises.

9.
European journal of public health ; JOUR(Suppl 3), 32.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101298

ABSTRACT

In 2019, Sars-Cov-2 caused the greatest pandemic the modern world has ever faced. The pandemic was unprecedented regarding its effects on all aspects of society. Since the outbreak, debates on vaccines have been elevated in public health. The pandemic also emerged into a game changer regarding health communication and information delivery. With digital communication technologies, the Internet and Social Media being the most important tools to discuss health matters, exchange health knowledge and get advice from peers, every human has been part of a global communication network discussing the pandemic, related policies and vaccines. The digital realm allowed everybody to contribute to the state of Covid-19 related health information and absorb them. Altogether, this led to an overabundance of accurate and false information circulating the digital world, which culminated into the information epidemic (infodemic). Early on in the pandemic, it became obvious that people need competencies enabling them to navigate digital information environments, manage (digital) health information and to use digital health services that were accelerated through Covid-19. While health literacy and vaccine literacy were undervalued at the time, policy makers and practitioners soon highlighted their critical role in mitigating the spread of coronavirus, for protection against infection and increasing adherence to public health emergency measures. In context of the Covid-19 pandemic, health literacy enables people to find, understand and critically appraise relevant information and use it for prevention behaviour. Since it empowers individuals to mitigate the effects of the pandemic, health literacy is seen as a social vaccines. Vaccine literacy is a sub-dimension about health literacy, which especially became important when global roll-out of Covid-19 vaccines began in 2021. Vaccine literacy helps people to understand what a vaccine is, why it is relevant to get vaccinated and how it protects oneself and others. In addition, vaccine literacy empowers people to find vaccine-related information and judge about vaccine claims. The purpose of this roundtable is to discuss research findings on health literacy and vaccine literacy in relation to Covid-19, the determinants of vaccine acceptance, vaccine hesitancy and vaccine attitudes, generated in different European studies: (1) the international trend study HLS-Covid-19 conducted in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, (ii) HLCA-Kids-NRW on coronavirus-specific health literacy in primary schoolchildren (Germany) and (iii) the HLS19 European Health Literacy Survey. While the roundtable aims at introducing empirical findings, each panelist will provide a statement related to the roundtable theme based on the findings of their study. Together with the audiences, we will discuss about lessons learned from the pandemic and how to utilize health and vaccine literacy to increase vaccine acceptance. Key messages • Health literacy is a social vaccine and empowers people to manage health information and increase vaccine acceptance. • Vaccine literacy is a sub-dimension of health literacy and in particular is useful when addressed as part of public health emergency strategies. Speakers/Panellists Orkan Okan Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany Kristine Sørensen Global Health Literacy Academy, Risskov, Denmark Robert Griebler Austrian National Public Health Institute, Vienna, Austria Saskia De Gani Careum Center for Health Literacy, Zürich, Switzerland Torsten Michael Bollweg Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany

10.
European heart journal ; JOUR(Suppl 2), 43.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101266

ABSTRACT

Background For almost two years, the Covid-19 pandemic has posed an enormous challenge to healthcare systems. Recurrent waves of disease brought the health systems to the limit of their resilience. Purpose The Tele-Covid telemedicine care program was installed in December 2020 to monitor high-risk patients in home isolation. Close monitoring allows early detection of disease deterioration and timely intensification of therapy, ideally avoiding intensive care. Conversely, if the course of the disease is stable, unnecessary hospitalisation can be avoided, thus reducing the burden on the healthcare system. Methods Patient acquisition was performed in collaboration with the local public health service and primary care physicians. Covid-19 positive high-risk patients (age >65 years and/or severe comorbidities) from the greater Innsbruck area were fitted with an ear sensor-based home monitoring system. The ear sensor measures SpO2, respiratory rate, body temperature and heart rate. The monitoring team (25 medical students supervised by 6 physicians) provided continuous monitoring of vital signs (24/7). After validation of the measurements, the collected parameters were evaluated using a specially developed risk score. If a defined risk score was exceeded, the patient was contacted by telephone. The combination of the clinical condition and the risk score determined the further course of action: (a) wait and see, (b) notify the primary care physician, or (c) refer for inpatient admission. The program was active from December 2020 to March 2022. In Summer 2021, the program was temporarily paused due to the epidemiological situation. Results A total of 132 patients (59.8% women) were monitored. The median age was 74 years (IQR: [67.3–80.8]). 91 patients (68.9%) had at least one relevant comorbidity. During the monitoring period, hospitalisation was required in 20 patients (15.2%), 3 of whom were transferred to the intensive care unit. Of the hospitalised patients, 3 (15%) patients died. During the same monitoring period, the Austrian Ministry of Health reported a mortality rate of 20.5% of all hospitalised patients in Austria aged 70–79 years. Subjectively, the patients felt safe due to close monitoring. Conclusion The Tele-Covid program is the successful implementation of a remote monitoring system in a pandemic situation. In the future, a broad application of the program is feasible. Funding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: Public grant(s) – National budget only. Main funding source(s): Funded by the Region of the Tyrol

11.
Language, Culture & Curriculum ; JOUR: 1-17,
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2097044

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related school closures have caused educational disadvantages for school children around the world. Against this background, many countries have introduced catch-up programmes to counteract the growing educational inequality. The Austrian summer school was offered as such a supportive measure and primarily targeted learners with learning gaps, lower language skills, and German as an additional or second language (L2). In addition, pre-service teachers (PSTs) were, and still are, mainly involved in teaching during summer school. This study examines the extent to which PSTs believe they have the requisite knowledge and skills concerning linguistically and culturally responsive approaches to teach in multilingual classrooms to support students in catching up with potential learning losses. For this purpose, an online survey study was conducted during the nationwide implementation of the Austrian summer school 2021. Altogether, 109 PSTs in Western and Northeastern Austria were surveyed before and after participating in the summer school. The results show that despite their lack of knowledge and skills around linguistically responsive teaching approaches, PSTs experienced the summer school as a positive learning opportunity that improved their understanding of multilingualism and, according to their own assessments, supported their teaching skills in linguistically and culturally diverse contexts. [ FROM AUTHOR]

12.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097107

ABSTRACT

When coronavirus disease (COVID-19) news along with protective health recommendations first came to people's life, such ambiguous information became a public opinion. Performing protective behaviors can be regarded as an approval of the majority opinion as people have to alter their established health positions and practices. So far, the association between public opinion and protective health behaviors is unclear especially in the pandemic context. This study utilized a survey data collected between 1 and 10 April 2020 in Germany (n = 101), Austria (n = 261), Switzerland (n = 26), and China (n = 267). We compared the protective health behaviors between the Chinese and European participants, as well as examined the associations between the protective health behaviors, peer influence, and fear of social isolation. Protective health behaviors were found similar between Chinese and European participants, although being independent from peer influence and fear of social isolation were related to protective health behaviors in the Chinese sample. Our cross-national findings are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that both official and unofficial health communication show stronger influences in Asian populations. Findings from this study provide advice for public communication strategies to promote protective health behaviors during pandemics.

13.
Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites ; JOUR(3):1056-1062, 43.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091575

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is to show the impact of the introduction of border restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic on the intensity of tourist traffic in European reception countries. The article uses two indicators of the intensity of tourism - Defert's index and Schneider's index. The analysis of the indicators was based on the division of countries due to border control (A countries - partial border closure, B countries - PCR test or quarantine, and C countries - complete border closure for foreign tourists). Based on the research results, it was found that the changes in border crossing were important only in the initial period of the pandemic, later they were not of great importance and the values of both Defert and Schnieder indicators did not differ from those in the pre-pandemic period (i.e. the same period in 2019). The study also indicated that the largest drops in the values of the Defert and Schneider indexes were recorded in Austria and the Czech Republic, i.e. countries with different responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The largest drops in tourist traffic intensity indicators were recorded in countries where the obligatory PCR test and quarantine were introduced. The article fills the research gap and is intended to help the governments of various countries in the future to find the most optimal solution in the context of fighting future epidemic waves. © 2022 Editura Universitatii din Oradea. All rights reserved.

14.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 675-682, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is an effective method of etiotropic therapy for SARS-CoV-2 in patients of high-risk groups of severe COVID-19. Regdanvimab is a single-component monoclonal antibodies immunoglobulin G1, whose mechanism of action is aimed at binding SARS-CoV-2 virus at the RBD site of the spike protein S1 domain. In the Russian Federation, regdanvimab is approved for emergency administration in COVID-19 for adult patients not requiring respiratory therapy who are at high risk of developing a severe course of the disease. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapy with regdanvimab in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in a short-term hospital unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virus-neutralizing therapy with regdanvimab was performed at the short-term hospital unit of the Moscow City Clinic. An open retrospective observational single-center study included 92 adult patients with mild/moderate coronavirus infection. All patients had comorbid chronic diseases and belonged to the high-risk group for the development of a severe COVID-19. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age 18 to 75 years; presence of a verified diagnosis of COVID-19 of mild/moderate COVID-19, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed; one or more chronic diseases; first 7 days from the onset of the first symptoms of COVID-19 (including day 7). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: need for oxygen support. Clinical efficacy was assessed according to the World Health Organization Сlinical Progression Scale and supplemented with laboratory markers at baseline and in dynamics, as well as with monitoring of virus elimination by PCR. STATISTICS: Calculations were performed using the statistical computing environment R 4.1.3 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Austria). For quantitative indices the median (1; 3 quartiles) was indicated. For binomial signs we calculated 95% confidence intervals according to Wilson's method. Time interval analysis was performed according to the KaplanMeier method. The significance level was determined at p0.05. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the severity of clinical manifestations according to the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale was noted by patients by day 4 after regdanvimab administration. All 92 patients in the cohort were discharged from the hospital l on average on day 5 after regdanvimab administration and on day 9 of the disease. On day 4 after drug administration 82% of patients was being PCR negative. No adverse events related to the administration of regdanvimab were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: In real clinical practice, the efficacy and safety of regdanvimab in patients at high risk of severe COVID-19 was confirmed once again, with a positive clinical result observed in a mixed cohort by the causative agent omicron and delta strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Time Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
15.
Viral Lobbying: Strategies, Access and Influence During the COVID-19 Pandemic ; BOOK: 1-200,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2089480

ABSTRACT

Pandemic policies have been the focus of fierce lobbying competition by different social and economic interests. In Viral Lobbying a team of expert authors from across the social and natural sciences analyse patterns in and implications of this 'viral lobbying'. Based on elite surveys and focus group interviews with selected groups, the book provides new evidence on the lobbying strategies used during the COVID 19 pandemic, as well as the resulting access to and lobbying influence on public policy. The empirical analyses reach across eight European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom), as well as the EU-level. In particular, the book draws on responses from approximately 1,600 interest organisations in two waves of a cross-country survey (in 2020 and 2021, respectively). This quantitative data is supplemented by qualitative evidence from a series of 12 focus groups with organised interests in Ireland, Denmark and the Netherlands conducted in spring 2021. © 2022 with the author(s), published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. All rights reserved.

16.
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health ; JOUR(Suppl 2):A9-A10, 5.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2088800

ABSTRACT

14 Table 1National nutrition surveys collecting vitamin D dataCountry Nutrition Survey Vitamin D Indicator Access Europe UK PHE National Diet & Nutrition Survey (NDNS) [2008–19] Serum 25-OHD concentration Supplement intake Open France French national dietary survey (INCA1, INCA2, INCA3) [1998–2017] Serum 25-OHD concentration Supplement intake Open Finland The Finnish National Dietary Survey in Adults and Elderly (FinDiet 2017) Serum 25-OHD concentration Estimated intake (microgram) Application Germany Nationale Verzehrsstudie II: Estimated intake (microgram) Supplement usage Application Israel Mabat First Israeli National Health and Nutrition Survey Estimated intake (microgram) Application Netherlands Dutch National Food Consumption Survey Supplement usage Application Belgium Belgium Health Examination survey (BELHES) Estimated intake (microgram) Application Austria Austrian Nutrition Report (OSES) [2017] Serum 25-OHD concentration N/A Denmark National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) Serum 25-OHD concentration Supplement intake N/A Spain National Food Survey in the adult population, the elderly and pregnant women. (ENALIA) [2012–15] Supplement usage N/A Italy Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI) [2005–06] Estimated intake (microgram) N/A Greece The Greek National Survey on Health and Nutrition (the HYDRIA Project) Serum 25-OHD concentration N/A Greenland Inuit Health in Transition Greenland survey 2005–2010 Serum 25-OHD concentration N/A Nordic Countries Nordic dietary surveys: Study designs, methods, results and use in food-based risk assessments Serum 25-OHD concentration Estimated intake (microgram) N/A North America USA CDC National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) [1999–2018] Estimated intake (microgram) Supplementation usage Open Canada CRDCN Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) [2004–15] Estimated intake Open South America Brazil IBGE Consumer Expenditure Survey [2002–18] Estimated intake (microgram) Open Chile National Health Survey [2009–17] Estimated intake (microgram) Open Argentina National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNyS) [2004–19] Estimated intake (microgram) Supplementation usage N/A Asia South Korea Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) [2019] Serum 25-OHD concentration Application Taiwan Taiwan;Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) Estimated intake (microgram) Supplementation usage Application China China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) Estimated intake (microgram) Application Japan National Health & Nutrition Survey [1994–2020] Estimated intake (microgram) Application Philippines FNRI National Nutrition Survey [2019] Serum 25-OHD conc ntration Estimated intake (microgram) N/A India National Nutritional Survey [2016–18] Serum 25-OHD concentration N/A Africa *Vitamin D data was not collected/reported in national nutrition surveys from South Africa (SANHANES), Kenya (KNMS), Nigeria (NNHS), Ghana (GMS), Ethiopia (NBS), Uganda (DHS/NS) & Tanzania (TNNS). Oceania Australia Australian Health Survey- Biomedical results for Nutrients [2011–12] Serum 25-OHD concentration Open New Zealand Vitamin D Status of New Zealand Adults (from New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey) [2008–09] Serum 25-OHD concentration Open * 25-OHD: 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (nmol/L). N/A – raw data not accessibleConclusionVitamin D data can be combined with COVID-19 incidence and mortality data, to explore the relationship between Vitamin D and COVID-19. Further research can explore inter-individual differences in Vitamin D requirements, optimal therapeutic doses required and how individual requirements can be determined. Findings will improve disease pathway understanding, support the generation of aetiological hypotheses and contribute to COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Substandard diagnosis and reporting in low-middle income countries underestimates disease rates, compared to high income countries. Studies investigating countries across income levels may therefore be affected by case-ascertain ent bias, however also highlight where future resources should be directed to improve overall health and reduce inequalities, as well as reducing the burden of COVID-19.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1016180, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089860

ABSTRACT

Risk prediction is an essential part of clinical care, in order to allocate resources and provide care appropriately. During the COVID-19 pandemic risk prediction became a matter of political and public debate as a major clinical need to guide medical and organizational decisions. We previously presented a simplified risk stratification score based on a nomogram developed in Wuhan, China in the early phase of the pandemic. Here we aimed to validate this simplified risk stratification score in a larger patient cohort from one city in Austria. Age, oxygen saturation, C-reactive protein levels and creatinine levels were used to estimate the in-hospital mortality risk for COVID-19 patients in a point based score: 1 point per age decade, 4 points for oxygen saturation <92%, 8 points for CRP > 10 mg/l and 4 points for creatinine > 84 µmol/l. Between June 2020 and March 2021, during the "second wave" of the pandemic, 1,472 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to two hospitals in Graz, Austria. In 961 patients the necessary dataset to calculate the simplified risk stratification score was available. In this cohort, as in the cohort that was used to develop the score, a score above 22 was associated with a significantly higher mortality (p < 0.001). Cox regression confirmed that an increase of one point in the risk stratification score increases the 28-day-mortality risk approximately 1.2-fold. Patients who were categorized as high risk (≥22 points) showed a 3-4 fold increased mortality risk. Our simplified risk stratification score performed well in a separate, larger validation cohort. We therefore propose that our risk stratification score, that contains only two routine laboratory parameter, age and oxygen saturation as variables can be a useful and easy to implement tool for COVID-19 risk stratification and beyond. The clinical usefulness of a risk prediction/stratification tool needs to be assessed prospectively (https://www.cbmed.at/covid-19-risk-calculator/).

18.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e73, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measures to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have an impact on the mental health of the general population. Drug prescription rates can be used as a surrogate marker to estimate help seeking and health parameters of a population. The aim of this study was to compare psychopharmacologic drug prescriptions in Austria from the start of the pandemic in 2020 over time and with the previous year and to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020. METHODS: Data from the three largest public health insurances in Austria, covering over 98% of the general population, were analyzed. A total of 1,365,294 patients with a prescription of a psychopharmacologic drug in the months March to December in 2019 and 2020 were selected. RESULTS: There was no significant change in prescribed defined daily doses (DDDs) during the lockdowns. However, there was a stockpiling effect before and at the beginning of lockdown 1. The number of new patients initiating psychopharmacologic treatment was significantly reduced during lockdown 1 but not during lockdown 2. CONCLUSIONS: The first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 functioned as a barrier for new psychiatric patients seeking help, whereas the patients with ongoing treatments did not have significant problems. These results have to be taken into account for future planning, but follow-up studies are needed, as our results could be indicative of a change in the effect of the protective measures on the utilization of the healthcare system over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Austria , Communicable Disease Control , Prescriptions
19.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120463, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to provide insights into transverse myelitis (TM) following COVID-19 by analyzing cases treated at tertiary care neurology centers and a systemic review of the literature. METHODS: The retrospective observational multi-center study was conducted at the four university neurology departments in Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, and Austria. We searched for acute myelitis cases that occurred during or after COVID-19. A systemic review of the literature on COVID-19 and transverse myelitis was performed. RESULTS: We identified 76 persons with TM associated with COVID-19, 13 from the multi-center study and 63 from the literature review. Most of the participants (55.6%) had an intermediate latency, 25.4% had short and 19% long latency from COVID-19 symptoms to TM. The clinical presentation consisted of the typical TM signs. More than half of the participants had inflammatory changes in the CSF, with rare patients having intrathecal OCB synthesis and positive serology for anti-MOG or anti-AQP4 antibodies. Persons with autonomic symptoms and CSF pleocytosis were significantly more common to have an intermediate latency of 8 to 21 days from COVID-19 to TM (p = 0.005 and p = 0.003; respectively). According to logistic regression analysis, only participants with lesions evident on spinal cord MRI compared to normal spinal cord MRI had reduced risks for poor recovery. >80% of participants were treated with a combination of corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins or plasma exchange with 73% having incomplete recovery. CONCLUSION: Our study further characterizes clinical, laboratory, and MRI features, as well as treatment of TM associated with COVID-19.

20.
OZS Osterr Z Soziol ; : 1-25, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085549

ABSTRACT

Recent sociological diagnoses suggest that profound social crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic challenge our value orientations and could change them even in the relatively short term. Based on this observation, we investigate whether significant shifts in value priorities according to the Shalom Schwartz scale took place in Austria in the period May 2020 to March/April 2021. The first two waves of the Values in Crisis panel study serve as data material. Two theoretical assumptions are central to the interpretation of the results: first, the thesis of a trend toward conservatism and second, the thesis of the effective power of political discourses in times of (re)emerging populism. The article also pays special attention to a methodological discussion of changes in the meaning of questionnaire items due to the COVID-19 pandemic.The empirical analyses confirm a clear stability of value orientations. Above all, the value of conformity has changed, becoming more important for a significant part of the population; at the same time, the desire for a hedonistic lifestyle lost some of its importance. Conformity became more important, particularly for voters of the governing political parties, while this trend was not apparent, especially among voters of the FPÖ. Since the observed shift in value priorities mainly concerns "pandemic-sensitive" value dimensions, the results suggest a short-term reaction to the crisis rather than a long-term change in values.

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