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International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine ; 13(3):699-705, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2167728


Background & Objectives: The recovery and mortality statistics for COVID-19 first wave considerably differed in different states & Union territories (UT) of India. Spices are an essential part of Indian cuisine. Apart from adding flavors and colors to the food, their importance is traditionally known in disease prevention and cure. Thus, present study was carried out to assess relation of spice consumption with COVID-19 first wave statistics in India. Methods: The spice consumption data of ginger, garlic, cumin, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, chili, tamarind and 'other spices' were retrieved from 'Household Consumption of Various Goods and Services in India' from 68th round (2011-12) of survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). The first wave data for individual states and UTs were retrieved as total number of cases, number of cured/discharged/migrated cases and total number of deaths, in a cumulative normalized form. The correlation of these was analyzed. Results and Conclusions: Spices were consumed across India with a varied range. The highest consumed spice was ginger. The highest consumption of 'Other spices' were observed in Lakshadweep (149 gm/30 days), which incidentally reported zero cases. Tamarind had positive correlation (r = 0.4724) with total number of cases and recovered/migrated/cured cases (r = 0.4948). Cumin consumption exhibited weak positive correlation (r = 0.5011) with total deaths per million population. However, most of these correlations were statistically insignificant. These findings can help to predict preventive/mitigating or curative usage of these spices. The unspecified and under-explored 'Other spices' category showed promising correlation.

Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 11:64-71, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121617


Ayurveda is a traditional medicine that was used under numerous copious of medicine to cure and prevent various diseases. The sudden outbreak of coronavirus which was a major threat to life came into existence in 2020 and had an adverse effect on the immune system of the people, so to fight against coronavirus various home remedies were consumed as an immunity booster during COVID-19. The survey was conducted to study the practices of using home remedies by middle-aged people (40-60) as in this period, the aginge process started which causes a decline in the competence of immune function to fight against the virus. It was conducted on 120 subjects, of which 60 males and 60 females were selected of Udaipur city, Rajasthan. A well-structured questionnaire was developed and the data was collected randomly on the ease of availability of the subjects. From the findings, it was concluded that the (75%) majority of middle-aged people consumed home remedies;the major spices and herbs consumed were Tulsi, Giloy, Turmeric, Black pepper, and Ginger and most of them have partaken in the form of Kadha and Turmeric milk on sometimes basis, whereas other Ayurveda rasayana consumed was Chyawanprash and other than spices and herbs, vitamin C and probiotic foods were also consumed during COVID-19 to keep the immune system healthy.

Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences ; 7(3):192-199, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2119039


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a challenge for health-care systems worldwide. Presently for the management and treatment of COVID-19, efficacy of therapeutic drugs is uncertain. Ayurvedic products and decoctions as immunity boosters might help combat this dreaded pandemic. The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of consumption of natural products and Ayurvedic decoctions “kadha” as immunity-boosting measures during the initial phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was undertaken on the usage of immunity-boosting measures and Ayurvedic decoctions “kadha” among the adult residents of Delhi belonging to different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 540 responses were included with a mean age of 25.9 ± 9.8 years. Approximately, 76% of the study participants used kadha as an immunity booster during COVID-19 pandemic. Among the participants who consumed kadha, approximately 94% were preparing the kadha at home. The most common ingredients being used in the preparation of kadha were Shunthi (ginger)—Zingiber officinale Roscoe (91.0%), Tulsi (holy basil)—Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (88.6%), Kali mirch (black pepper)—Piper nigrum L. (80.5%), Laung (clove)—Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (77.4%), and Dalchini (cinnamon)—Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (67.2%). With regard to the frequency of consumption of kadha, 32.1% of the participants consumed kadha once daily, whereas 26.8% consumed on alternative days. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the trust and conviction in traditional Indian herbs as well as condiments for combating infections including COVID-19 through Ayurvedic practices.

Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society ; 67(3):5656-5661, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092177


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread across the worldwide. It becomes a global pandemic and risk to the healthcare system of almost every nation around the world. In this study thirty natural compounds of 19 Indian herbal plants were used to analyze their binding with eight proteins associated with CO VID-19. Based on the molecular docking as well as ADMET analysis, isovitexin, glycyrrhizin, sitosterol, and piperine were identified as potential herbal medicine candidates. On comparing the binding affinity with Ivermectin, we have found that the inhibition potentials of the Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) and Piper nigrum (black pepper) are very promising with no side-effects.

11th IGRSM International Conference and Exhibition on Geospatial and Remote Sensing, IGRSM 2022 ; 1064, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989220


The proceedings contain 55 papers. The topics discussed include: monitoring of black pepper growth at different elevation using ground data and NDVI time series;assessment of heavy metals and nutrients availability in oil palm plantation effected by bauxite mining using geostatistical and multivariate analyses;monitoring green biomass utilizing remote sensing techniques for agriculture and forest areas in East Malaysia;a review of GIS spatiotemporal analysis and web-based mapping for COVID-19;plastic waste mapping and monitoring using geospatial approaches;monitoring of mangroves changes in Pulau Kukup using geographical information system (GIS);smartphone distance measurement application using image processing methods;production of drone orthomosaic map of UTHM wetland conservation research station using UAV photogrammetry;and terrain mapping for the southwestern desert of Iraq using interferometry method from Sentinel-1A images.

Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1284, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967448


BACKGROUND: Turmeric (curcumin) is a commonly used over-the-counter herbal product whose uses include diarrhea, arthritis, cancer and even COVID-19. Recently turmeric has been implicated in cases of clinically apparent liver injury with jaundice. The aim of this case series is to describe the clinical, histologic and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations of turmeric-associated hepatotoxicity as seen in the U.S. Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) Prospective Study. METHODS: All adjudicated cases enrolled in DILIN between 2003-2020 with turmeric as an implicated product were reviewed. Causality was assessed using a 5-point expert opinion score. Available products were collected and analyzed for the presence of turmeric using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Genetic analyses included HLA sequencing. RESULTS: Of 1697 cases of drug-induced liver injury judged to be definite, highly likely or probable (high confidence), nine (0.5%) were attributed to turmeric, all of which were enrolled since 2012, and 6 since 2017 (Figure). The 9 cases included 7 women, 8 whites, with a mean age of 51 years (range, 35-62 years) and BMI 25 kg/m2 (range, 15-40). Seven patients used alcohol, but none to excess, and none had underlying liver disease. Turmeric was used for an average of 102 days before onset of injury (range, 30-425 days). Initial mean ALT was 1179 U/L (range, 328-2245), ALP 211 U/L (41-441), total bilirubin 5.9 mg/dL (1.2-10.8), and INR 1.0 (0.9-1.2). Six patients developed jaundice, and serum bilirubin peaked at 9.6 mg/dL (0.8-26), and INR 2.3 (1.0- 9.7). Liver injury was hepatocellular in 8 patients (mean R = 22). Five patients had elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer and two anti-smooth muscle (ASM) antibody, but none were treated with corticosteroids. Liver biopsy in 5 patients showed portal and lobular mixed inflammatory infiltrates with lymphocytes and eosinophils typical of drug-induced liver injury. Five patients were hospitalized, and one patient died of acute liver failure. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of turmeric in all 7 products analyzed;3 also contained piperine (black pepper), and none contained green tea. Of 7 patients with HLA typing available, 4 carried HLA-B*35:01, a class I HLA allele previously implicated in both green tea and Polygonum multiflorum hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Liver injury due to turmeric appears to be increasing, perhaps, reflecting usage patterns or increased combination with black pepper, which increases its absorption. Turmeric liver injury, similar to that caused by other polyphenolic herbal products, is typically hepatocellular, with a latency of 1 to 6 months, and is linked to HLA-B*35:01. While most cases are self-limited, the injury can be severe and result in death or liver transplantation.

Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113456, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966381


Dexamethasone acts as an immunosuppressive drug and has been used recently in the management of specific coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases; however, various adverse effects could limit its use. In this work, we studied the mitigation effects of black pepper oil (BP oil) on glycemic parameters, dyslipidemia, oxidative and nitrosative stress and pancreatic fibrosis in dexamethasone-treated rats. Animals were divided into five groups that were treated with vehicle, dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, SC) or black pepper oil (BP oil, 0.5 mL, or 1 mL/kg) or metformin (50 mg/kg) plus dexamethasone for 4 consecutive days. Serum insulin, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the dexamethasone group vs the control group and decreased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Pancreatic nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and malondialdehyde levels were increased in the dexamethasone group vs the control group and decreased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Pancreatic endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced glutathione were declined in the dexamethasone group vs the control group. They were increased in BP oil and metformin groups relative to the dexamethasone group. Moreover, the pancreatic islets diameter and collagen deposition were assessed and found to be higher in the dexamethasone group vs the control group. BP oil and metformin groups showed to regress this effect. In conclusion, BP oil may alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and pancreatic structural derangements and fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress, increasing endogenous antioxidant levels, modulating nitric oxide signaling, preventing pancreatic stellate cells transition and collagen deposition.

Dexamethasone , Metformin , Pancreas , Piper nigrum , Plant Oils , Animals , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Insulin Resistance , Metformin/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pancreas/drug effects , Pancreas/pathology , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1064(1):012001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960954


Implementation of remote sensing in agriculture helps to enhance crop growth monitoring especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. To enhance black pepper growth condition, a study was conducted at two study sites in Bintulu, Sarawak. Hence, this study aims (i) to construct a black pepper growth monitoring at different levels of elevation in Suka Farm (SF) and Taime Farm (TF);and (ii) to integrate limited ground data and NDVI time series from Landsat 8OLI for black pepper growth monitoring. Elevation maps were generated using Natural Neighbor (NN) based on the ground data analysed using ArcGIS 10.4 Software. Three elevation levels were classified into the lower, middle, and upper levels. Observational ground data and NDVI time series of Landsat 8 OLI were calculated using SAS 9.4 software. All parameters then correlating with the elevation levels using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Optimum growth of black pepper growth in SF and TF was identified at an elevation range between 39m–50m. The NDVI time series also indicated equivalent results as the ground data. This study proposed that the elevation of an area gives a significant impact on black pepper growth. Besides, the NDVI time series of Landsat 8 OLI was feasible for monitoring black pepper growth.

Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; : 100640, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926649


COVID-19 has quickly spread across the globe, becoming a pandemic. This disease has a variable impact in different countries depending on their cultural norms, mitigation efforts and health infrastructure. This study aims to assess the herbal plants in the pursuit of potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors using in silico approaches. We have considered 16 extracted compounds of 10 different species of these plants. In order to explain their inhibition properties and chemical reactivity pattern, we have performed the density functional theory based calculations of frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential surface and chemical reactivity descriptors. Our calculated lipophilicity, aqueous solubility and binding affinity of the extracted compounds suggest that the inhibition potentials in the order;harsingar > aloe vera > giloy > turmeric > neem > ginger > red onion > tulsi > cannabis > black pepper. On comparing the binding affinity with hydroxychloroquine, we note that the inhibition potentials of the extracts of harsingar, aloe vera and giloy are very promising. In order to validate this, we have also performed MD simulation and MM-PBSA binding free energy analysis. Therefore, we believe that these findings will open further possibilities and accelerate the works towards finding an antidote for this malady.

International Journal of Phytomedicine ; 12(2):35-41, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897033


Ayurveda and Siddha systems are the two ancient medical systems originated in India more than 4000 years ago had given many formulary and treatment methods against influenza like infections. Kabasura churan from Siddha system and Maha sudharshan churan from the Ayurvedic system are the two major formulations along with many other individual herbs mentioned in the texts to treat Influenza like infections. Kabasura churan and Maha Sudarshan churan both have antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Both formulations were prepared according to Siddha and Ayurvedic texts. Herbs mentioned in both formulations like Turmeric, Tulsi (Basil), Kalmegh (Andrographis), Black Pepper, Liquorice (Mulethi), and Dronapushpi (Leucas) etc., had direct antiviral effect. Herbs like Aswagandha, Ginger, Guduchi (Tinospora), Kulanjan (Galangal) etc., had immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect. Active compounds from different herbs were selected to study their antiviral activity through molecular docking algorithm. Application of modern of tools like Bioinformatics and Highthroughput screening methods can predict the efficacy of the ancient documented formulations and can be compared as per their literature. Compounds like curcumin, Glycyrrhizin, Ursolic acid, Quercetin, Andrographolide, Coumarins etc. were showed polyspecific activity like inhibition of Spike protein, Furin, Main Protease (Mpro) and Papain like Proteases (PLpro). Thus we propose use of Kabasura churan and Maha Sudharshan churan as alternative complementary medicine as a palliative treatment against COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 by conducting proper Randomized Clinical Trials.

medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.06.08.22275684


Background & Objectives: The recovery and mortality statistics for COVID-19 first wave considerably differed in different states & Union territories (UT) of India. Though dependent on several factors, relation of diet and immunity is well-established. Spices are an essential part of Indian cuisine. Apart from adding flavors and colors to the food, their importance has been traditionally known in disease prevention and cure. Thus, present study was carried out to assess relation of spice consumption with COVID-19 first wave statistics in India. Methods: The spice consumption data were retrieved from Household Consumption of Various Goods and Services in India from 68th round (2011-12) of survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). Spices for which, consumption data was available, viz., ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), black pepper (Piper nigrum), chili (Capsicum annuuam), tamarind (Tamarandus indica) and other spices were selected for analysis. The COVID-19 first wave data for individual states and UTs were retrieved as total number of cases, number of cured/discharged/migrated cases and total number of deaths due to COVID-19, in a cumulative form. It was normalized per million population of respective states and UT. The correlation of individual spice consumption and COVID-19 statistics was analyzed. Results and Conclusions: Spices were consumed across all India with a varied range. The highest consumed spice was ginger. Its highest consumption was in Mizoram (185 gm/30 days) and least in Jammu & Kashmir (23gm/30 days). The highest consumption of Other spices were observed in Lakshadweep (149 gm/30 days), which incidentally reported zero COVID-19 cases. Tamarind consumption showed positive correlation (r = 0.4724) with total number of cases per million population, recovered/migrated/cured cases (r = 0.4948). The consumption of cumin exhibited a weak positive correlation (r = 0.5011) with total deaths per million population. However, most of these correlations were statistically insignificant. The findings from this study provide a basic framework and understanding for future studies. These findings can help to predict preventive/ mitigating or curative usage of these spices. Should similar scenario occur in future, these findings can provide some vital base to act as adjuvant management. As the unspecified and under-explored Other spices category showed promising correlation, more attention needs to be given to them too, along with mostly studied spices like ginger and turmeric.

COVID-19 , Death
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1838945


SARS-CoV-2 infection associated respiratory disease- COVID-19 has evolved into a pandemic but, being a new form of virus, pathogenesis of disease causation is not fully understood and drugs and vaccines against this virus are still being tested so that no effective drugs or vaccines have been advised by regulatory authority. In this context, the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India has recommended 'Ayush Kwath' to improve the immunity and combat the infection. Our objective of this literature review is to review the role of immunity in pathogenesis of COVID-19 and role of Ayush Kwath against the virus and regulation of immunity. Current review was conducted using a search of available literature on COVID-19 and immunity, Vyadhikshamatwa, Ayurveda and COVID-19, Rasayana, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, immunomodulatory effects of medicinal plants;Tulsi/Holy Basil/Ocimum sanctum, Dalchini/Cinnamon/Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Sunthi/Ginger/Zingiber officinale and Marich/Black Pepper/Piper nigrum. Ayurveda, being an ancient science have both medicinal and cultural values and had stimulated our kitchen and influenced what we ate in different seasons and the remedies we used for common ailments. Herbs such as Tulsi, Marich, Sunthi, Dalchini are the most commonly used and easily available drugs in home. Thus, Ayush Kwath due to its immune-modulatory, antiviral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anti-atherosclerotic, hepato-protective, reno-protective properties;seems to be effective in immuno-regulation for controlling viral infections like COVID-19. Further pre-clinical and clinical trials need to be done for the evaluation of safety and efficacy of this polyherbal formulation.

Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):11524-11529, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1824458


The nationwide lockdown which has been in force from 24th March 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic had a severe economic impact on agriculture sector. This has been in spite of the exemptions given to the sector after two weeks of lockdown. The agriculture has been seen by many in the post-COVID scenario as the bright spot in the economy. But, the pepper crop is uniquely located in the sense that its consumption is largely driven by food processing industries which had been affected by the pandemic. Not only that the two back-to-back floods in 2018 and 2019 had severely affected the pepper production in Idukki district of Kerala which accounts for the largest production share. The district even faced a spate of farmer suicides in the recent times. This paper is an exploration into the various impacts of the present pandemic on the pepper economy of Kerala. It also tries to come up with some policy recommendations to revive the pepper production in the post-COVID economic structure.

Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820341


Piper nigrum, or black pepper, produces piperine, an alkaloid that has diverse pharmacological activities. In this study, N-aryl amide piperine analogs were prepared by semi-synthesis involving the saponification of piperine (1) to yield piperic acid (2) followed by esterification to obtain compounds 3, 4, and 5. The compounds were examined for their antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 main protease activities. The new 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenyl piperamide 5 exhibited the most robust biological activities with no cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines, Vero and Vero E6, as compared to the other compounds in this series. Its half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was 15.46 ± 3.09 µM, and its antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum was 24.55 ± 1.91 µM, which were fourfold and fivefold more potent, respectively, than the activities of piperine. Interestingly, compound 5 inhibited the activity of 3C-like main protease (3CLPro) toward anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at the IC50 of 106.9 ± 1.2 µM, which was threefold more potent than the activity of rutin. Docking and molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the potential binding of 5 in the 3CLpro active site had the improved binding interaction and stability. Therefore, new aryl amide analogs of piperine 5 should be investigated further as a promising anti-infective agent against human African trypanosomiasis, malaria, and COVID-19.

Alkaloids , Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Piper nigrum , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Benzodioxoles , Humans , Mammals , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/chemistry , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry ; 14(1):55-61, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1754347


According to Various surveys has conducted on home remedies during Covid-19, among a wide range of group of peoples in different age group from various country, found taking Kadha of Black pepper for combating infection and boosting immunity. [...]we conclude from survey and available literature that spice Black pepper plays an important role against viral infections and boosting immunity more significantly. [...]according to the Ayurveda, the king of the medicine, Black Pepper is an important candidate consists of the dried, unripe fruit of Piper nigrum L. belongs to Piperaceae. With advancement in chemistry and in biology we have several ways for obtaining powerful and specific drugs. [...]presentlyNDDS new drug discovery system are facing major challenges.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423


Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.

COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
9th Edition of IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference, R10-HTC 2021 ; 2021-September, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672862


It is an undisputed fact that the COVID-19 recovery rate of 97.6% and the death per million of 314 in India (as of 28 Aug 2021) are significantly better than the corresponding values in the USA, UK, France, Italy, Spain, and most of Europe, which have much better health infrastructure. Even though the population of the USA is only one-fourth that of India, the number of lives lost in the USA due to COVID is unfortunately 1.5 times that of India. Similarly, the population of Brazil is marginally lower than that of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, but the fatalities in Brazil are 32.2% higher than that of the whole of India. Clearly, this necessitates a detailed scientific study on the causative factors behind these striking differences. It is time to study what factors cause recovery with minimal medical intervention and what lifestyle and other factors are correlated to serious complications, leading to belated recovery and sometimes death. Obesity, excessive consumption of alcohol, soft drinks, ultra-processed meat, processed food, and maida-sugar baked items may have a role to play in the health scenario in USA. On the other hand, the use of turmeric, black pepper, ginger, lemon, etc. in daily cooking and the enormous increase in awareness and the consequent consumption of Indian gooseberry, Tulasi, different decoctions (Kashaya) and the practice of various immune-boosting and breathing exercises and yogasanas might have had a role in the Indian medical scenario. A detailed study involving a sizable number of cases of recovery and death in India, Brazil, the USA, and some European countries will throw light on the causative factors behind the significant differences. The results shall provide crucial learning for managing future waves and pandemics. © 2021 IEEE.

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research ; 56(1):199-206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1667561


Multidrug resistance (MDR) bacterial infection is the next pandemic waiting behind the COVID-19 with annual mortality rate 700000 worldwide. Among the MDR bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are showing average resistance of 50 to 80% to ampicillin, amoxicillin, third-generation cephalosporin’s and fluoroquinolone and even to combinations antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. To make the antibiotic resistance issue worst, pharmaceutical industry is reluctant to invest in research and development of new antibiotic typically due to low returns on investment. Accordingly, use of combination of two or more antibiotics or use of the antibiotic adjuvants are only available ways in combatting the ever growing Multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacteria. The present paper is designed to analyze the synergistic potential of black pepper phyto-constituents as the amoxicillin adjuvants in comparison with isolated piperine against the MDR E. coli. using in-silico molecular docking. The result indicates that binding energy (Kcal/mol) and torsion free energy (Kcal/mol) of piperine (-6.23, +0.89), beta caryophyllene (-6.36, +0.00), beta selinene (-6.93, +0.30), beta-Thujene (-5.42, +0.30) is less for the emrD efflux pump as compared to amoxicillin (-5.85, +2.93) respectively indicating strong inhibition for EmrD of MDR E-coli than amoxicillin. The results are also indicating that black pepper extract containing all aforementioned phyto-constituents has synergistic effect in comparison with isolated piperine against the MDR E. coli. ADMET of these phyto-constituents also indicates their safety profile in combination with amoxicillin.

Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science ; 11(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1652180


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection Attack mainly on the immune system of the body. The herbs like holy basil, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper are highly available, accessible and widely used in the kitchen and are convenient to educate and train about its use to community health workers, community and even to all public that they can have cost effective treatment with herbal home remedies. Zinc highly important for adequate T cell differentiation, and this observed is triggered by long-lasting changes in intracellular zinc levels due to induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) cells and dampening of pro-inflammatory Th17 and Th9 cells.5 * Zn Can Directly Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Replication: Using recombinant SARS-CoV nsp12, that Zn2+ directly inhibited the in vitro RdRp activity. Earlier, it was also shown that Zn2+ inhibited the proteolytic processing of replicase polyprotein.6 Increasing concentration of intracellular zinc inhibits the replication of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other viruses.7 Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are suitable targets for novel antiviral drugs, since their activity is strictly virus-specific and may be blocked without severely affecting key cellular functions.

REBEC; 23/01/2022; TrialID: RBR-3f8dm6q
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-RBR-3f8dm6q



Anosmia; parosmia


Classic olfactory training group (COT): 50 patients with post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction will undergo olfactory training with 4 essential oils (carnation, rose, eucalyptus and lemon). Modified olfactory training group (MOT): 50 patients with post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction will undergo olfactory training with 12 essential oils (carnation, rose, eucalyptus, lemon, tangerine, jasmine, thyme, mint, bergamot, tuberose, rosemary and lemon grass), with 4 oils used each month and repeated cyclically. Advanced olfactory training group (AOT): 50 patients with post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction will undergo olfactory training with 24 essential oils (carnation, rose, eucalyptus, lemon, tangerine, jasmine, thyme, mint, bergamot, tuberose, rosemary, lemon grass, citronella, vanilla, cedar, cinnamon, cardamom, tonka bean, sandal, black pepper, orange blossom, lavender, orange, vetiver), with 8 oils used each month and repeated in a cyclic manner. All groups will perform olfactory training twice a day for 15 seconds on each essence for 12 months. They will be reassessed at 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after starting the proposed treatment, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) will be performed at each visit.;D10.627.675;G16.500.275.640

Primary outcome:

The primary outcome assessed will be improvement in olfaction (periods 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after starting treatment). The evaluation of smell is based on the comparison of results from before and after the olfactory rehabilitation obtained from a single method of the two methods: olfactory identification results obtained from the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT); Subjective assessment of patients using a visual analogue scale for the following complaints: loss of ability to smell; loss of ability to sense flavors; nasal symptoms in the last 14 days; how much the difficulty in smelling bothers; how much the difficulty in feeling flavors bothers.


Inclusion criteria: Patients who complain of anosmia or hyposmia after SARS-CoV-2 infection less than 3 months after symptom onset; convalescing from her COVID-19 disease, with onset of disease symptoms for at least 4 weeks; Patients who underwent RT-PCR test at symptom onset, with detection of SARS-CoV-2; Patients who can give valid written informed consent; Patients motivated to participate in the study; Adult patients aged 18-60 years.

Exclusion criteria: Patients who cannot give valid written informed consent; Patients with a previous history of more than one SARS-CoV-2 infection Patients with nasosinusal diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal masses; History of previous traumatic brain injury with olfactory sequelae; History of olfaction disorder prior to SARS CoV-2 infection; Patients with any diagnosed neurological disease known to affect olfactory function; Patients unable to read Portuguese; Patients who are already using an oral glucocorticoid; Patients who have already started some form of therapy for the olfactory disorder caused by COVID-19; Known hypersensitivity to any item used in any of the proposed olfactory training;