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J Med Econ ; : 1-21, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625356


AIMS: Estimate the clinical and economic benefits of lenzilumab plus standard of care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in the treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia from the United States (US) hospital perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A per-patient cost calculator was developed to report the clinical and economic benefits associated with adding lenzilumab to SOC in newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients over 28 days. Clinical inputs were based on the LIVE-AIR trial, including failure to achieve survival without ventilation (SWOV), mortality, time to recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use. Base case costs included the anticipated list price of lenzilumab, drug administration, and hospital resource costs based on level of care required. A scenario analysis examined projected one-year rehospitalization costs. RESULTS: In the base case and all scenarios, lenzilumab plus SOC improved all specified clinical outcomes relative to SOC alone. Lenzilumab plus SOC resulted in estimated cost savings of $3,190 per patient in a population aged <85 years with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels <150 mg/L and receiving remdesivir (base case). Per-patient cost savings were observed in the following scenarios: 1) aged <85 years with CRP <150 mg/L, with or without remdesivir ($1,858); 2) Black and African American patients with CRP <150 mg/L ($13,154); and 3) Black and African American patients from the full population, regardless of CRP level ($2,763). In the full modified intent-to-treat population, an additional cost of $4,952 per patient was estimated. When adding rehospitalization costs to the index hospitalization, a total per-patient cost savings of $5,154 was estimated. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the clinical benefits for SWOV, ventilator use, time to recovery, mortality, time in ICU, and time on IMV, in addition to an economic benefit from the US hospital perspective associated with adding lenzilumab to SOC for COVID-19 patients.

American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116(SUPPL):S1189, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1534839


Introduction: Dietary supplementation use has been on an exponential rise for the past few years. Turmeric is one of the most used, with curcumin being its major active ingredient. Recently, cases of turmeric induced autoimmune hepatitis as well as herbal induced liver injury (HILI) have been documented. We present a case of turmeric induced hepatotoxicity in a 64-year-old female. Case Description/Methods: A 64-year-old female with a history of hypertension, presents with jaundice and abdominal discomfort. Vitals were normal. Exam showed scleral icterus with an unremarkable abdominal exam. Lab findings revealed a normal CBC, INR, and a negative blood alcohol level, a total bilirubin of 13.6 mg/dl with a direct bilirubin of 9.2 mg/dl, an ALP of 248 IUnits/L, a GGT of 616 Units/L, an AST of 2789 IUnits/L, and an ALT of 3296 IUnits/L. Hepatitis panel with HEV were negative. ANA, AMA, ASMA, tTg antibody, Ig levels, TSH, and T4 were all negative or within normal limits. Patient had a normal iron saturation, negative ceruloplasmin, Tylenol and ASA levels. COVID19 PCR test was negative. CT abdomen/pelvis was non-diagnostic. An EGD/EUS/ERCP showed a mildly thickened gallbladder wall. Liver biopsy showed portal and lobular hepatitis with spotty necrosis, without evidence of an autoimmune process, suggesting a drug induced liver injury. Patient then admitted to the use of turmeric in the past 3-4 weeks. Turmeric was discontinued and patient's lab values normalized within 1 month. Discussion: Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a spice, and has been linked to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Clinical studies have popularized its use for patients with immune disorders such as autoimmune thyroiditis, and rheumatoid arthritis, despite the associated risk of autoimmune hepatitis in such patients. Curcumin is the major active ingredient in turmeric, however when taken alone, it has a poor bioavailability, with extensive 1st pass metabolism. Turmeric contains Piperine (a black pepper extract), that augments and increases curcumin doses up to 2000-fold by inhibiting hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Multiple RCTs have studied the safety of curcumin showing minimal side effects. In 2013, HILI accounted for 20% of druginduced liver injury cases. Liver enzymes resolve within 1 month of discontinuation. Due to turmeric's possible increased risk for hepatotoxicity, clinicians should highlight this to their patients and make them aware of the potential risks that exist when using turmeric.

Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 9:563-573, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1528917


Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a popular spice that is grown as tropical and subtropical plant throughout the world. The leaf, flower, fruit, and root are the most important elements of the plant. Asexual or vegetative propagation is becoming highly popular, although the sexual approach is still used for pepper vine cultivation. For mass production of the pepper plant, in vitro culture is also used. The bioactive components contained in them are extremely important because of their therapeutic potential against a number of diseases. They are usually classed as functional foods because, in addition to providing basic nutrition, provide physiological benefits and help to avoid chronic illness. The main component of black pepper is piperine. It has a complex phyto-chemistry includes: Volatile oil, alkaloids, and oleoresins. Because of its free-radical scavenging properties, black pepper and its active components can be prevention and control of tumor growth. Piperine, which can bind and inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the sickness, is present in black pepper and has antibacterial and antiviral effects. Piperine, a key alkaloid component of black pepper, it also helps to cognitive brain function, nutritional absorption, and gastrointestinal health. Black pepper is known as the “King of Spices” as well as the “King of Medicinal Agents,” since it includes a wide variety of bioactive compounds with nutraceutical and pharmacological applications. An overview of the most common applications for black pepper, along with a strong evidence is present in this review. © 2021 Ahasan Ullah Khan, Mohammad Samiul Ahsan Talucder, Mitali Das, Sana Noreen, Yunita Sari Pane.

Immunity Boosting Functional Foods to Combat COVID-19 ; : 61-74, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1519107


The world today is badly affected with the deadly Corona virus. Boosting the body's immunity has gained a sudden and intense attention globally as people with better immune are reported to be less affected. Apart from the immunity boosting preparations that people consume, a major role has been played by food in building a better immune mechanism of the body. Protection from different viral and bacterial infections is a vital role of strong immunity. Presently many herbs are being used in different ailments and this trend is increasing rapidly. Many herbs that we use in our day-to-day lives are helpful in boosting the immunity thus helpful in fighting infections. The pungent-smelling herb Garlic, has antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobialproperties and is found to have some compounds that boost the disease-fighting response of some particular white blood cells when they encounter viruses. The extracts or powder of leaves and roots of Ashwagandha can reduce blood sugar and cortisol levels, symptoms of depression and helps in increasing strength and muscle mass. Tulsi is an immunity boosting herb, which helps in relieving many lung-related diseases and is also beneficial in cramping, gastric disorders, reducing sugar, controlling blood pressure and skin-related problems. Amla is full of antioxidants primarily Vitamin C that is helpful in detoxifying the entire organ system for better health and immunity. Neem is another antimicrobial herb whose every part is therapeutic in nature. With detoxification effect on the body it also has the capability to fight fungus, viruses and bacteria. The active compound of turmeric;curcumin found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Ginger has antibacterial properties. Gingerol is a phenolic anti-inflammatory compound found in ginger that helps in relaxing blood vessels and functions as natural blood thinner. Many other herbs like Cinnamon, Giloy, Black pepper, Cloves have important roles in boosting immunity. This paper undertakes a review of available contemporary and basic literature on the role of different herbs in increasing human immunity which can be helpful to stay healthy during this pandemic. © 2021, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Immunity Boosting Functional Foods to Combat COVID-19 ; : 1-211, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1523373


In this book, several functional foods or food ingredients, their mechanism of immune enhancing properties and use in food products have been discussed through seventeen chapters written by eminent authors. There are several medicinal plants which have significant role for immunity boosting such as Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Shatavari, Giloy, Aloe vera, Amla, Neem, licorice, garlic, ginger, turmeric, rosemary, black cumin, cinnamon, sage, thyme,fenugreek, peppermint, black pepper, clove etc. These have been discussed in detail. Note: T&F does not sell or distribute the hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Narendra Publishing House;individual chapters, the contributors. All rights reserved.

IRCT; 2021-11-23; TrialID: IRCT20210804052068N1
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-IRCT20210804052068N1



Covid-19 disease.


Intervention 1: Intervention group: Patients consuming herbal capsules of a combination of black pepper, black seed and turmeric. Intervention 2: Control group: Patients taking placebo containing capsules filled with wheat flour.

Primary outcome:

Age, history of disease, history of use of immunosuppressive drugs, sex, level of education, length of hospital stay, economic status, blood lipids, blood interleukins, hs-CRP. Timepoint: From the first of November 2021to the first of July 2022. Method of measurement: the studied markers are measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA methods.


Inclusion criteria: Patients admitted to covid-19 wards of the hospital
positive pcr test
Age range 20 to 70 years
Willingness to participate in the study

Exclusion criteria: The patient avoids taking the capsule
changing the type and amount of medication taken during the intervention
Any changes in treatment plan and disease conditions
Chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, obesity (body mass index above 30)
History of drug and food allergies
Transfer the patient to the intensive care unit
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International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine ; 12(3):477-481, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1479266


Nowadays, covid_19(SARS_CoV_2) intimidating the world. This disease is spreading by contact with affected droplets. Some of the affected persons are asymptomatic, majority of people suffer from mild illness, meanwhile few were affected , some severe acute respiratory distress (pneumonia) and multi organs dysfunction like Pulmonary oedema, Cardiac failure, Renal failure. Currently doctors and peoples use some spices herb (basil, clove, black pepper, turmeric, garlic, ginger, ajwain , cumin) to prevent and reduce the corona virus infection. Most of these are Bronchodilator herbs. These drugs dilate the respiratory airway and allow more volume of atmospheric air to enter the lungs. Therefore a large amount of oxygen goes into the lungs and dissolves in the respiratory membrane. Furthur more, it's transported through the blood and carried to main organs of the body. So this review article reveals Bronchodilator herbs can reduce the risk factors and prevent the respiratory distress symptoms in covid_19 (SARS_CoV_2) patients.

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264651


AimsThe study estimated the clinical benefits and budget impact of lenzilumab plus standard of care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from the United States hospital perspective. Materials and MethodsAn economic model was developed to estimate the clinical benefits and costs for an average newly hospitalized COVID-19 patient, with a 28-day time horizon for the index hospitalization. Clinical outcomes from the LIVE-AIR trial included failure to achieve survival without ventilation (SWOV), mortality, time to recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use. Base case costs included drug acquisition and administration for lenzilumab and hospital resource costs based on the level of care required. The inclusion of 1-year rehospitalization costs was examined in a scenario analysis. ResultsIn the base case and all scenarios, treatment with lenzilumab plus SOC improved all specified clinical outcomes over SOC alone. Adding lenzilumab to SOC was also estimated to result in cost savings of $3,190 per patient in a population aged <85 years with CRP <150 mg/L and receiving remdesivir (base case). Per-patient cost savings were also estimated in the following scenarios: 1) aged <85 years with CRP <150 mg/L, with or without remdesivir ($1,858); 2) Black and African American patients with CRP <150 mg/L ($13,154); and 3) Black and African American patients from the full population ($2,763). In the full mITT population, a budget impact of $4,952 was estimated. When adding rehospitalization costs to the index hospitalization, a total per-patient cost savings of $5,154 was estimated. ConclusionsThe results highlight the clinical benefits for SWOV, ventilator use, time to recovery, mortality, time in ICU, and time on IMV, in addition to a favorable budget impact from the United States hospital perspective associated with adding lenzilumab to SOC for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Part B ; 58(Special Issue B):55-67, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404408


Indigenous communities throughout the globe respond to COVID-19 by their traditional medicinal systems as primary health care. Our lab was part of an international study that discusses the outcomes of a rapid response, preliminary survey during the first phase of the pandemic among social and community contacts in five metropolises heavily affected by the COVID-19 health crisis (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York, and Rio de Janeiro) and in twelve rural areas or countries initially less affected by the pandemic (Appalachia, Jamaica, Bolivia, Romania, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Cambodia, and South Africa). Primarily, people have relied on teas and spices (“food-medicines”) to prevent and mitigate its symptoms. Urban diasporas and rural households seem to have repurposed homemade plant-based remedies that they use on daily basis to treat the flu and other respiratory problems and hence consider among the healthy foods. The most remarkable shift in many areas has been increased in the consumption of ginger and garlic, followed by onion, turmeric, lemon, chamomile, black tea, nettle, chili pepper, and apple. This study serves as a baseline for future systematic ethnobotanical studies countering COVID-19 and other vicious types of viruses. It aims to inspire in-depth research on how use patterns of plant-based foods and beverages, both “traditional” and “new,” are changing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our reflections in this study call attention to the importance of ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, and ethno-gastronomy research into domestic health care strategies for improving community health. Some of these economically important plants are suggested to be extensively analyzed experimentally, for active ingredients, phytochemicals, and the precursor of vaccines and probable remedy of SARS including COVID-19. © Pakistan Academy of Sciences.

Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10(1):S4-S12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1395519


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 lead to the outbreak of COVID-19, succumbed millions of people across globe and still counting. As demonstrated scientifically, the potent protease enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme2 receptor in cells of infected human beings, leading to health complications, especially respiratory ailments along with cytokine storm. The ancient, traditional medicines treating successfully various antimicrobial and antiviral diseases based on herbs anticipated to emerge as potent therapeutics in treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, this current review is an attempt to discuss mainly on final health complications associated with COVID-19, the overview, major pharmaceutical compounds present, proven earlier therapeutic value, potent use of four widely used spices as inhibitors in respect of SARS-CoV-2 and the underlining mechanisms of pharmaceutical action of cinnamon, clove, black pepper and giloy and their products with the traditional, scientific, molecular docking and clinical studies based reports. The information reviewed may be aiding to discover potent natural alternative medicines in complete treatment of patients suffering from COVID-19.

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(8):OE01-OE07, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1377116


Today, we are living in the era of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic that has affected almost the whole globe. It has rightly been called as the ‘twenty-first-century plague’ which has garnered considerable attention from researchers, pharma companies, policymakers, and media. Though vaccines are being deployed and people are eagerly receiving vaccination;the duration of conferred immunity, the possibility of re-infection of recovered/vaccinated individuals, the consequence of the new mutation in SARS-CoV-2 and its impact and challenge for the efficacy and degree of protection that a potential vaccine could provide is under question. In the absence of any definite answer, people are turning towards natural remedies and spices. India is known globally as the land of spices. Spices like ginger, garlic, black pepper, cardamom, turmeric, clove, cinnamon, etc., are known for their rich aroma, texture, and immunity boosting ingredients. These are rich sources of antioxidants such as flavonoids and alkaloids. The antioxidants present in them, neutralise the free radicals generated inside the body during viral infections and also prevent cellular damage. These exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and have the potential to combat “cytokine storm” in severe COVID-19 infection. Their potential has been realized by the public and has led to a tremendous increase in global demand and consumption. The present review enlists the active ingredients present in important spices and addresses their antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral action. Traditional Indian spices that are not only a cardinal part of the diet but are affordable, easily available can be viewed as the light at the end of the tunnel to combat the current COVID-19 conditions as a preventive measure.

International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics ; 13(4):31-39, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1335498


Piperine, the main bioactive compound found in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), has long been used in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This compound has remarkable potential pharmacological properties, including being anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective. Recent studies have reported piperine activity as an antiviral against SARS-CoV-2, which caused COVID-19. Nevertheless, the clinical use of piperine is still limited, due to its poor water solubility and bioavailability;therefore, various approaches have been developed in order to solve these limitations. This review summarises recent studies (i.e. uploaded to electronic databases in the last 10 y) regarding strategies that have been investigated to improve piperine’s solubility and pharmacokinetic properties, using ‘piperine’, ‘solubility’, ‘bioavailability’, and ‘formulation’ as keywords. Articles that have focused on piperine as the main compound were selected and sorted based on their modification and formulation types. Studies reported various approaches: from derivatives and analogue synthesis, crystal engineering, complexation, particle size reduction (micro-and nanonisation), and lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery systems, to inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles. This review also highlights limitations and challenges for these approaches and encourages further studies to optimise piperine’s potential benefits.

Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics ; 58(2):289-298, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1302841


Food is like fuel for our body. It is said that if we eat proper food no medicine will be required. If we don't eat proper food no medicine will act. A close relationship exists between the immune state and occurrences of diseases. Low immune function of an individual results in poor health but also prevents recovery. The enhancement of host immune response has been recognised as a possible means of defence against pathogen attack. Immunomodulation through natural substances, i.e. our food and food supplement through herbs may be considered as complimentary for the prevention and cure of diseases as food after all is the best medicine for our body. Traditionally, our food includes a large number of immunity boosters such as milk, spices like garlic, onion, turmeric, ginger and black pepper, vegetables such as drum stick, cucumber, carrot and red capsicum, mushroom, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, peas, fruits like pine apple, watermelon and other with vitamin C, herbs like tulsi, amla, lemon, etc. Grains and seeds such as pumpkin and flaxseed which are enriched with immunity booster minerals like zinc and selenium and omega-3 fatty acids have been parts of our traditional food. Pulses such as lentil and soybean, egg and cheese are also good source of immunomodulating substances. Herbs under the category "Rasayana" in Ayurveda such as Ashwagandha, Giloe, Shatavari, etc. are being prescribed as immunomodulator since ancient time.

Futur J Pharm Sci ; 7(1): 121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270940


Background: COVID-19 has mutation capability, and there are no specific drug therapies that are available to fight or inhibit the proteins of this virus. The present study aims to investigate the binding affinity of the bioactive and synthetic compounds with the main protease (Mpro) enzymes and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) by computational approach. PASS prediction, pharmacokinetics, and toxicological properties prediction studies were performed through the Google PASS prediction and Swiss ADME/T website. Besides, molecular docking studies were accomplished by BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2020, UCSF Chimera, and PyRx autodock vina. Results: The docking scores were inferred and the selected compounds showed results varying from -3.2 to -9.8 (kcal/mol). Theaflavin scored the highest docking score to the 5REB, 6VW1, and 1R42 enzymes and showed the binding affinity as -6.3 kcal/mol, -9.8 kcal/mol, and -8.6 kcal/mol, respectively. Again, kaempferol showed the best binding affinity to the 7BQY (-7.1 kcal/mol) and 6Y2FB (-6.6 kcal/mol) enzymes. All the chemical constituents showed better probability in action in pass prediction analysis. Besides, no ligands (except theaflavin) have any conflict with Lipinski's rules of five, which authorized the drug probability of these ligands. Conclusion: Therefore, the selected compounds could be considered a potential herbal treatment source against SARS-CoV-2.

CTRI; 27-05-2021; TrialID: CTRI/2021/05/033816
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-CTRI202105033816



Health Condition 1: B972- Coronavirus as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere


Intervention1: Yoga and naturopathy Home remedies: Yogasanas:
1. Hand in and out breathing 5 rounds ´ 1 minute
2. Hand stretch breathing ´ 10 rounds 2 mins
3. Skanda chalasana ( shoulder rotation) ´ 5 rounds ´ 3 minutes
4. Gomukhasana ´ 1 round 1 minute
5. Makarasana ´ 1 minute 1 round. (note: if there is any difficulty in breathing, change to a comfortable posture immediately)


1. Vibhagiya pranayama- 5 rounds ´ 3minutes
2. Nadishuddhi ´ 10 -15 rounds (internal breath retention for 5 seconds)
3. Bhramari pranayama ´ 10 -15 rounds ( Note: U can do it according to your capacity. DO NOT STRAIN, but repeat it after sometime)
4. Guided meditation or deep relaxation technique (YouTube link will be sent). Do it in a comfortable posture.

Naturopathy Diet:

1. Easily digestible food. (vegetable soups, khichdi, jowar/ bajra/ red rice/ single polished rice with boiled vegetable with added mild spices ´ jeera,dhania powder, hing, ginger, garlic ( crushed 1 pod), chat masala, black pepper (1 pinch), jaljeera with luke warm water after food.
2. Saunf - less than ¼ tsp after food ( 3times a day)
3. Ajwain ka kadha - 150ml of water + 1/4 tsp of ajwain + jaggery 1/4 tsp - boil it on low flame for 10mins. Consume it 100ml 1/2 an hour before food. ( 3 times a day)
4. Steam inhalation ´ 2 drops of eucalyptus oil and ajwain 1 pinch ´ 2 ´ 3 times per day
5. Apply eucalyptus oil on the back and chest region before going to bed. And inhale the same fragrance for 5 minutes.
6. Acupressure
In addition to this the patients will be continuing with their standard of care interventions as per ICMR protocols. The total duration of yoga therapy will be for 45 mins daily for 14 days. Other dietary advises will be given one time at the baseline as a part of da

Primary outcome:

Reduction in Anxiety and depression assessed by DASS 21 scale, improvement in QOL assessed by WHO-Bref, Improvement in symptomsTimepoint: At baseline Baseline

Anxiety and depression assessed by DASS 21 scale, Quality of Life assessed by WHO-BREF

At 14th Day from baseline

Anxiety and depression assessed by DASS 21 scale, Quality of Life assessed by WHO-BREF


Inclusion criteria: All positive mild and moderate COVID-19 cases who are receiving standard care and are in home quarantine.

Patients willing to consent to participate in the study

Exclusion criteria: All positive mild and moderate COVID-19 cases who are in hospital care

Patients who require supplemental oxygen therapy

Pregnant and lactating mothers

Patients who are under 18 years of age

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 12(3):1342-1351, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1147042


Spices, nature's gift to mankind are the reservoir of secondary metabolites - alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycerides, sulfides, and other oxygen/nitrogen compounds that can effectively treat viral infections, bacterial infections, and respiratory problems. Since ancient days they have been used for its anti-inflammatory, carminative, antioxidant, anti-clotting, anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, and cardiotonic properties. In search of identifying a natural therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, this review investigates the pharmacological nature of some commonly used spices (ajwain, asafoetida, black pepper, cinnamon, clove, coriander, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, long pepper and turmeric) with special reference to the mechanism of vasodilatory property. Among the selected commonly used spices, turmeric and ginger especially have been reported to alter the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to exert its vasodilatory property. The study could lead to a novel exploration of vaccines/drugs aided with a detailed investigation of individual bioactive compounds as well as their synergic effects.

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences ; 9:43-50, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1106181


BACKGROUND: In early 2020, many scientists are rushing to discover novel drugs and vaccines against the coronavirus, and treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), because, the disease which was named as COVID-19, a life-threatening viral disease affected first in china and quickly spread throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: In the present article, in silico studies have been performed to explore the binding modes of chemical constituents for natural remedies such as pepper, ginger, and garlic against COVID-19 (PDB id-5R82) targeting coronavirus using Schrodinger suit 2019-4. METHODS: The docking studies are performed by Glide module, in silico ADMET screening was performed by qik prop module and binding energy of ligands was calculated using Prime Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born Surface Area module. RESULTS: From the results, the chemical constituents from pepper like Piperdardiine, Piperanine and from ginger like 8-Gingerol, 10-Gingerol, significantly active against COVID-19 with significant Glide score when compared to currently used drug Hydroxychloroquine (-5.47). The docking results of the compounds exhibited similar mode of interactions with COVID-19, and the residues SER46, MET49, HIE41, GLN189, ARG189, ASP187, MET165, HIE164, THR24, THR25, LEU27, ASN142, and GLY143 play a crucial role in binding with ligands. CONCLUSION: The chemical constituents from pepper such as Piperdardiine, Piperanine, and from ginger like 8-Gingerol, 10-Gingerol are significantly active against COVID-19 which are useful for further development.

CTRI; 23-02-2021; TrialID: CTRI/2021/02/031484
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-CTRI202102031484



Health Condition 1: - Health Condition 2: J069- Acute upper respiratory infection,unspecified Health Condition 3: B972- Coronavirus as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere Health Condition 4: B975- Reovirus as the cause of diseasesclassified elsewhere


Intervention1: Under Behavioural therapy:: Hand Hygiene with soap and water 4 times per day,

Social or Physical Distancing should be maintained at least 2 metres,

Sleep: at least 8 hours of sound sleep.

Gargle with warm water, turmeric, and common salt 3 times per day,

All these procedures to be followed for 15 days
Intervention2: Under Physical therapy:: Yogasanas, Pranayama, Dhyna and Prayers should be performed every morning around 5 am for about 2 hours and in the evening at 7pm for about one and half hour. Total duration of the therapy is for 15 days.
Intervention3: Under Food additives category:: Hot Drinking water (250ml/ glass) at least 8 glass per day for 15 days.

Turmeric milk (Curcuma longa) 250 ml night time before sleep for 15 days.

Boiled Black seeds water (Kalonji; Nigella sativa L.)
250 ml per day as oral intake for 15 days.

Almonds (Prunus dulcis) 8-10 per day orally for 15 days.

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)25 gm per day orally for 15 days.

Flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) 5 gm per day orally for 15 days.

Jaggery/Guda, unrefined product of Saccharum officinarum 5 gm per day orally for 15 days.

Herbal tea contains Honey, Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), Cinnamon bark
(Cinnamon zeylanicum) or
(Cinnamon cassia), Cardamom
(Amomum subulatun), Pepper
Black and White
(Piper nigrum L), Ginger
(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) 150 ml 2 times per day orally for 15 days.

Herbal paste contains Zeera
(Cuminum cyminum),Ajwain
(Carom seeds or Trachyspermum Ammi) 2gm per day orally for 15 days.

Saunf (Fennel seeds or
Foeniculum vulgare) 2 gm per day after lunch and dinner for 15 days.

Mulethi (Licorice or
GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA or YASTIMADHU)2 gm per day for chewing for 15 days.

Lemon (Citrus limonum) with salad during lunch for 15 days.

Primary outcome:

To implement holistic traditional natural complementary alternative medicine (HTNCAM) protocols based on hygiene, nutrition and mind-body-soul relaxation and assess immune, metabolic, clinical and psychosocial outcomes of pre and post interventions in Covid -19 suspects and isolated.Timepoint: until patient is discharged


Inclusion criteria: Suspected, Isolated admitted subjects for SARS COV-2 infection, clinically assigned score 4-8 as stable moderate dedicated to COVID Health Centre

Age â?¥ 18

The patient who will be cooperative and want to participate in the study

Not intake of any medications, herbs, or other complementary therapy in recent 8 weeks

Exclusion criteria: Allergic or sensitive to any food item included in this study design

Critical patients with comorbidities of metabolic, psychiatric, neurological illness, or autoimmune disorders

Secondary malignancy

On steroid therapy

Patients very weak and unstable

Pregnant women

Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 9(2):80-96, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1063574


COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is likely to cause oxidative stress like other RNA viruses. The cytokine storm mechanism includes pulmonary alveolar membranes hyalinization, hyper-inflammation and lethal respiratory distress. Persons with diabetes, asthma and heart problems already have oxidative stress;viral infection increases stress and, thus contribute to COVID-19 severity. Traditional Indian spices will serve as boosters of energy and immunity and prepare the body for the prevention of infection and immunization. The spices which were included in this article are: Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), Bay leaves (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees and C. H. Eberm., Laurus nobilis L.), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), Asafoetida (Ferulaassa-foetida L.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Nutmeg and Mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), Garlic (Allium Sativum L.), Allspice (Pimenta officinalis (L.) Merr.), Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L./Mentha balsamea Wild), Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum baccatum L., Capsicum annuum L.), Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.), Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill), Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl.), Cardamom (Alpinia cardamomum (L.) Roxb.;Amomum cardamomum L.), Mustard (Brassica nigra (L.) Koch) and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). The use of spices can help in decreasing the severity and help in the prevention of coronavirus infection. These spices contain polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices can potentiate health functionality by acting on various pathological processes. The risks of coronavirus (COVID-19) can be mitigated with a special reference the respiratory health by the use of these spices every day, which strengthens the natural protection mechanism (immunity) of the body. Spices acting as immunity boosters not only helps to stay healthy from seasonal flu, but also possesses anti-viral properties to combat coronavirus. The Ministry of Ayush, Government of India also endorses these immunity boosting spices and their proper use. In this study, numerous conventional spices and their bioactive components and effects have been compiled and discussed to help improve our immune system and also play a key role in the battle against microbial infections, like COVID-19. This paper will help researchers and industries to recognize and analyze possible spices that can satisfy their interests for various applications, including the development of herbal/Ayurvedic antiviral drugs.

Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry ; 11(4):11122-11134, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1013644


As of now, Coronavirus (COVID-19) is spreading overall quickly, and its control is troublesome because there is no compelling immunization or medications accessible in the medical sector. This contagious disease has been associated with numerous respiratory issues. Thus, there is a crucial need to elucidate plant-derived compounds that display inhibitory potential against potential targets of coronavirus and boost the human body's immunity. This infection can contaminate the individuals and cause diseases of the respiratory lot. This research has focused on exploiting the medicinal properties of phytocompounds of three plants that have shown significant anti-inflammatory potential and had been effective against numerous respiratory disorders. This research's main objective was to study the inhibitory potential of these selected twenty-seven phytocompounds derived from Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale roscoe against protease of COVID-19. We performed screening of selected phytocompounds with antivirus action by employing different in silico approaches, including Lipinski rule of five, adme analysis, and molecular docking tools. In silico investigation has revealed the inhibitory potential of these selected ligands (phytocompounds), two crucial targets of coronavirus, including 6LU7 and 7JTL. Out of 27 selected phytocompounds guaiol and gingeronone A has displayed significant inhibitory potential against coronavirus's selected targets. Thus our research findings strongly recommended that phytocompounds derived from black pepper, clove, and ginger could be very useful in battling the COVID-19 pandemic era. © 2020 by the authors.