Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 69
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514697

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has had an inordinate influence on people's lives, including impacts on food behaviours. This study explored the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis and ensuing public health restrictions on food-related practices of families living on a tight budget on the Island of Ireland. Methods Photovoice and creative mapping methods were used whereby parents were requested to take photos of factors influencing food-related decisions and draw maps of their food environments. These items were then used during qualitative interviews with 28 parents from across the Island of Ireland as a reference for discussions around the food environment and food decision-making processes of economically disadvantaged parents. Data were analysed using deductive thematic analysis. Results The findings were situated in Bronfenbrenner's Social Ecological Theoretical framework, conceptualising the COVID-19 crisis as an exogenous socio-historical factor that exerted significant influence on the food-related practices of families in Ireland. The pandemic and responses to it altered patterns of food purchasing, preparation, decision-making and consumption. Changes to practices included increased unhealthy snacking and grazing and consuming fewer meals outside the home. Participants on particularly low incomes relied more on benefits and subsidised food sources and consumed more cheap, processed and frozen foods. Conclusions This study provides insight into the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on dietary habits. The observed changes to food practices may compound food insecurity and already high levels of obesity, particularly among children and young people, and have future implications on prevalence of nutrition-related conditions. This highlights the need for healthcare professionals and policy-makers to be cognisant of the mounting health issues that will need to be addressed in the wake of COVID-19. Key messages The COVID-19 crisis significantly impacted on family food related behaviours in Ireland. Post-COVID health promoters should re-focus efforts on healthy eating initiatives.

2.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):1018A-1019A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508756

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The mainstay of treatment involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary changes to prevent the progression of liver disease. Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), research efforts have focused on the influence of liver disease on COVID-19 and the impact of COVID-19 on those living with liver disease. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle behaviors of patients with NAFLD. Methods: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dietary and lifestyle habits in patients with NAFLD using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to patients identified to have a diagnosis of NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) through a search of the hospital electronic medical records system. Demographic information, anthropometric data, and dietary and lifestyle habits before and during the pandemic were inquired. The survey was conducted from December 2020 to March 2021. Results: A total of 360 out of 2,800 individuals responded to the survey. Incomplete surveys were excluded. Among the 312 respondents included, 84.6% identified ethnically as Caucasian, 60.6% were female, and 77.4% described themselves as overweight or obese. The mean age was 60.7 years. Of the respondents, 39.6% (p=0.002) and 51.4% (p<0.001) felt that their dietary habits and lifestyle habits significantly worsened, respectively. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and water increased while the consumption of salty snacks, frozen desserts, and sugary beverages decreased during COVID-19 (Table 1). Moreover, there was a marked decrease in fast food consumption and increase in homecooked meals (Table 1). There was a decrease in physical activity and an increase in screen time on working and non-working days primarily due to entertainment and boredom. Conclusion: Patients with NAFLD felt that their dietary and lifestyle habits were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthy dietary modifications were made in food and beverage consumption patterns before and during the pandemic. However, there was an increase in sedentary behaviors reflected by decreased physical activity and increased screen time. Our findings signify the importance of recognizing the impact of a global pandemic on healthy lifestyle and its downstream effects on patients with NAFLD.

3.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 854(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1506969

ABSTRACT

The first case of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus-2 was reported in December 2019 in China. The disease spread globally quickly, causing the 2019–2021 COVID-19 pandemic. The meat industry became concerned over the possibility of transmitting the virus in the slaughterhouse environment. The level of air exchange strongly affects the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 aerosols within the slaughterhouses. The adsorption of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the surface of the frozen meat is dictated mainly by the interplay of electrostatic forces between the virion and tissue (pH) and environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) in the vicinity of adsorption micro-location. Suppose the virus contaminates the meat surface, whereby pH is 5.5 or less. In that case, it firmly adsorbs due to bonds established by protonated amine group and a hydrogen bond between the COOH group of the viral protein and oxygen in hydroxyl groups present on meat surfaces. The meat surface, coated with a thin water film, interacts with the SARS-CoV-2 virions by establishing strong hydrogen bonds. Although there is no proof of COVID-19 contraction by food consumption, the strong surface adsorption and ability of SARS-CoV-2 to survive meat freezing indicate a potential risk of virus transmission by meat.

4.
Journal of Food Safety and Quality ; 12(17):6735-6742, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1498859

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause severe respiratory syndrome in humans. Since the outbreak in 2019, it has been interfering with people's normal life. Retrospective study and news showed that SARS-CoV-2 was found on the outer packaging and surface of many imported cold chain foods, especially the infection case of port handlers in Qingdao, which once again pointed the spearhead at cold chain transportation. A large number of studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can survive at low temperatures and maintain high infectivity. Meanwhile, it also showed strong survivability and stability on the surface of plastic packaging and various foods, making imported cold chain food a medium and triggering another outbreak of the disease. This paper mainly summarized the biological characteristics and transmission process of SARS-CoV-2 in cold chain logistics, and the prevention and control measures for cold chain transmission, which provides guidance for the control of cold chain logistics and frozen food in the future, and provides certain reference for food quality and safety and epidemic prevention and control.

5.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 27427, 2020.
Article in English | NBER, Grey literature | ID: grc-748229

ABSTRACT

We investigate how the coronavirus pandemic affected the demand for online food shopping services using data from the largest agri-food e-commerce platform in Taiwan. We find that an additional confirmed case of COVID-19 increased sales by 5.7% and the number of customers by 4.9%. The demand for grains, fresh fruit and vegetables, and frozen foods increased the most, which benefited small farms over agribusinesses. Online food shopping was highly responsive to COVID-19 media coverage and online content. Because Taiwan did not impose a stay-at-home order, the demand for online food shopping may be similar in other countries after they lift mobility restrictions.

6.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 11(3):1-22, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1483718

ABSTRACT

Learning outcome: At the end of this case study, students should be able to identify issues relating to the external and internal environment of a business;explain how traditional marketing differ to social media marketing strategy and how digital marketing could be applied for frozen food company, identify alternatives to address the production capacity issue and challenges of contract manufacturing;identify and discuss measures that a company could adopt to effectively manage the working capital;apply various business management tools, concepts and theories in different decision-making settings – tools or concepts such as Porter’s five forces, SWOT analysis, PESTEL;and use analytical and logical skills through problem solving. Case overview/synopsis: This case presents Khir, CEO of Mamart Food, facing several challenges in the post Covid-19 pandemic. Mamart Food is a SME manufacturing company located in Peninsular Malaysia. It competes in a frozen food industry. The case highlights the turbulence which Khir had to face due to the production capacity issue. He had the dilemma of balancing between the opportunity to boost sales and the capacity to meet demand. The dilemma emerged during the Movement Control Order in place and was expected to continue in the post MCO period. Quite a number of frustrated stockists over the unmet demand have started to aggressively voice out their dissatisfaction. Seeing the growing number of complaints, Khir had to act fast. Being the CEO, Khir must resolve the tension between Suliana, the production manager and Hisham, the sales and marketing manager. Failing which, it could be detrimental to the survival of Mamart Food. The most effective strategy for Mamart Food therefore needs to be formulated immediately. Complexity academic level: This case is designed mainly for final year students in Accounting or Business undergraduate programmes. Supplementary materials: Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code: CSS 11: Strategy. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
Blood Transfusion ; 19(SUPPL 3):s261-s262, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1481685

ABSTRACT

Background. Psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic caused multifaceted challenges in clinical and therapeutic practices. Particularly, several published reports described growth in alcohol and food addiction diseases. According to this, during the last months, we noticed an increase of cases of Acute Pancreatitis due to severe Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG-AP) requiring urgent Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE), compared to the previous 10 years. Case report. Between January 2020 and February 2021, at the Therapeutic Apheresis Unit of the Padua University Hospital, we treated 6 patients with HTG-AP, of which 4 patients during the last 2 months. The total amount of HTG-AP patients treated with TPE from 2011 to 2021 is 10 (7 male and 3 female, 1 patient was treated twice). All were treated with a single session of TPE, by exchanging one total plasma volume with 2/3 4% albumin solution and 1/3 fresh frozen plasma (in one patient only albumin solution has been used). Triglycerides (TG) values before TPE were higher than 22,6 mmol/L (2.000 mg/dL) in all cases. Following a single apheresis session, within 48 hours, there were a statistically significant reduction in TG values (Figure 1, p <.0001), with an observed median value reduction of 90% (range 56-94%). Common comorbidities were alcohol abuse, hyperlipemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. All patients recovered from HTGAP and were discharged from hospital after a mean of 12 days (range 7-21). Conclusions. The recent increase of patients with HTGAP treated with TPE seems meaningful, considering that from 2011 to 2019 we treated only 4 patients for HTG-AP, although the total number of TPE sessions has been comparable throughout this period (about 1.100 procedures per year) and however higher than overall TPE sessions performed in 2020, i.e., 822 procedures. Besides this, retrospective cohort studies have been published describing the onset of acute pancreatitis during COVID-19 infection even if, to date, there is still insufficient evidence to establish causality. Anyway, COVID-19 pandemic translated in changes of overall disease prevalence scenario and therefore it is crucial to provide a proper reorganization of the Therapeutic Apheresis activity.

8.
Journal of Social Studies Education Research ; 12(3):144-174, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1479227

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study are first, to analyze the coping strategies of informal sector traders amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic;and second, to take the results of this research as social studies teaching materials in realizing sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study uses a qualitative approach with a case study method. The data collection techniques are in-depth interviews, observations, and documents of micro business actors, especially street food and food stalls. The two groups are some of the micro-entrepreneurs affected by social distancing policies. The results of the study show that there are various strategies carried out by food stall businesses and food street vendors, including online trading, storage and conversion into frozen food, and finding strategic locations. Online food application features are a mainstay for expanding marketing. Meanwhile, moving to a trading location becomes a rational choice when there are additional rules because of the COVID-19 transmission prevention policy, such as limiting business time, and not being allowed to accept food orders on the spot. To reduce losses due to the fluctuating purchasing power of customers, they process their food into frozen food and sell it via social network. The ability to adapt to this pandemic situation is material for teaching students, especially junior high schools, about adaptive economic activities. Moreover, human efforts in overcoming economic problems, so as not to increase the poverty level as expected in the SDG's are required;this can take the form of efforts to minimize poverty and develop sustainable production and consumption. © 2021, Association for Social Studies Educa. All rights reserved.

10.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; 42(8):1360-1364, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1468523

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the contamination status of SARS-CoV-2 in imported frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship in Qingdao and to analyze the risk factors for infection in local stevedores. Methods The method of "two-stage, full coverage and mixed sampling" was used to collect the seafood packaging samples for the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. A unified questionnaire was designed to investigate 71 stevedores in two shifts through telephone interview. The stevedores were divided into two groups, with 23 in the shit with two infections was group A and 48 in the shift without infection was group B. Software Epi Info7.2 was used to identify the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infections in the stevedores. Results In the frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship, the total positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood was 11.53% (106/919). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A (14.29%,70/490) was significantly higher than that in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B (8.39%, 36/429) (χ2=7.79, P=0.01) and the viral loads detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A were higher than those detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B. The scores of personal protection and behaviors in the stevedores in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05), and toilet use, smoking and improper hand washing before meals were the risk factors for the infection. Conclusions The imported frozen seafood was contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the contamination distribution was uneven. Supervision and management of personal occupational protection and behaviors of workers engaged in imported frozen food transportation should be strengthened. It is suggested that a closed-loop monitoring and management system for the whole process of "fishing-transport-loading/unloading" should be established by marine fishery authority.

11.
Journal of Food Safety ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1450564

ABSTRACT

COVID‐19 has brought speculations on potential transmission routes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), the causal agent of the pandemic. It is reported that the main route of virus transmission to be person‐to‐person by respiratory droplets;however, people have raised concerns on the possible transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 to humans via food and packaging and its potential effects on food safety. This review discusses food safety issues in the COVID‐19 pandemic and reveals its possible transmission in cold‐chain food. The first outbreak of COVID‐19 in late 2019 was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, while the second outbreak of COVID‐19 in June 2020 was also related to a seafood market in Beijing, China. As of 2020, several frozen seafood products linked with SARS‐CoV‐2 have been reported in China. According to the current survey and scientific studies, the risk of infection by SARS‐CoV‐2 from cold‐chain food, food products, and food packaging is thought to be very low. However, studies on food cold chain contamination have shown that SARS‐CoV‐2 remained highly stable under refrigerated (4°C) and even in freezing conditions (−10 to −80°C). Since one mode of SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission appears to be touching contaminated surfaces, it is important to clean and sanitize food contact surfaces properly. Understanding food safety hazard risks is essential to avoid potential negative health effects and SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission in the food supply chain during the COVID‐19 pandemic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Food Safety is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

12.
Environmental Footprints and Eco-Design of Products and Processes ; : 191-226, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1446114

ABSTRACT

The food processing sector is a very prominent section of the international market and increased up to approximately $4.5 trillion by 2024 (Businesswire in Global food processing market report, 2019: trends, forecasts, and competitive analysis (2013–2024), 2019 [1]). The increasing demand for healthy fruits and vegetables, organic processed foods, nutraceuticals and functional foods, seafood with packaged food products like ready-to-eat, and frozen processed foods is expected to drive the market growth after pandemic COVID-19 incidence. During processing and handling of horticultural crops, generate large volumes of wastes annually and become a major concern to the whole world. Fruits and vegetables have many bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, organic acids, aroma, and flavoring agents, etc.) which have a positive impact on human health because of anti-inflammation, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-atherogenic, and antioxidants properties, depending upon extraction their methods from wastes, efficacy, and bioavailability to the body. Applications of conventional (soxhlet, maceration, percolation, hydro-distillation) and green techniques (solid-phase, supercritical, accelerated solvent, microwave, and ultrasound extractions) for the valorization of horticultural wastes’ conversion in many bioactive components are followed by the potentiality, scalability, and sustainability of the extraction process and highlight the concept of the circular economy as “Waste to Wealth.” © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ; 21(6):18170-18191, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1436457

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, has resulted in high mortalities and global socio-economic disruptions. As knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 evolves, the public requires up to date and appropriate information in order to keep safe in the absence of a proven vaccine. This review of the literature was written to provide the latest information on the virus and the disease. SARS-CoV-2 bears a higher genomic homology to SARS-CoV-1 than MERS-CoV-1. Globally, COVID-19 has caused more than 4.07 million deaths and infected over 188 million people by 16th July, 2021. In Africa, more than 4.5 million and over 106,000 people have been infected and died, respectively. In Kenya, over 191,000 have been infected and 3,746 people have died from COVID-19 by the date. The figure for Kenya is much lower than the over 150,000 deaths from the Spanish flu of 1918-20. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted through expiratory droplets and direct contact, while faecal and airborne transmission have been documented, but not confirmed. It enters the body through nasal passages, conjunctiva or mouth. It can survive on bank notes, vinyl plastic, mobile phone, glass, cardboard, cloth fabric and stainless steel for varying periods. At 50% Rh, it can survive on stainless steel, vinyl plastic and glass at 20, 30 and 40oC for 28, 7 days and less than a day, respectively. On cotton fabrics, it can survive for 7, 3 days and less than 24 hr at 20, 30 and 40oC, respectively. Age, late hospitalization, diabetes co-morbidity, obesity, chronic lung disease and hypertension are the major risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. Age and laboratory indicators are predictors of mortality. Vaccines allowed for emergency use include the Oxford/AstraZeneca, Pfizer/Biontech, Moderna, Sinopharm, SINOVAC, Sputnik V and Johnson and Johnson. Although they all have shown high efficacy against the original COVID-19 strains globally, they have lower efficacy against the Brazilian P.1, the UK B.1.1.7, Finnish FIN-796H, the New Jersey/New York B.1.526, the South African B.1.351 and the Indian Delta mutant. Regular hand washing, face masking, avoiding overcrowding, physical distancing, outdoor communing, seeking immediate medical attention and isolating when infected, all can minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Potential infection from frozen foods packaging, frozen foods and food preparation surfaces has been demonstrated. However, good hygiene practices can minimize infection from foods, shopping bags, take-out containers and groceries. Animal foods should not be consumed raw, while groceries require thorough washing with potable water during preparation. Despite concerns posed by the continuing evolution of virulent mutants of SARS-CoV-2, researchers are working to develop effective vaccines in order to eliminate the threat of the virus.

14.
Obes Med ; 26: 100366, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428291

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze changes in food consumption among teachers of state schools in Minas Gerais in the context of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is a cross-sectional study of teachers at elementary, middle, and high schools in Minas Gerais. An online questionnaire was made available to all participants through the Google Forms platform. For the analysis, sociodemographic, economic, occupational profile, health conditions, and behavioral/habitual variables were used. Food consumption was assessed through the weekly frequency of eating foods considered healthy and unhealthy before and during the pandemic. The changes observed in the frequency were classified as: decreased intake, no change in intake, and increased intake during the pandemic. Statistical analysis was performed using bivariate and multiple analysis using the Multinomial Logistics Regression model. The data were tabulated with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 18.0. A total of 15,641 teachers participated in this study, with an average age of 42.96 (±9.27) years, and most of them were female (81.9%). During the pandemic, approximately 40% reported altered sleep quality and alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity with 60.4% of the professionals categorized as overweight. During this period, there was an increase in the consumption of sweets (19.5%), soft drinks (13.3%), sausages (12.0%), frozen foods (8.9%), salty foods (6.3%), vegetables (13.1%), fruits (12.6%), and wholegrain products (8.3%). In the regression analysis, several factors were found to be associated with changes in teachers' food consumption in a bidirectional way when associated with variables related to sociodemographic characteristics, occupational profile, general health, and lifestyle.

15.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389465

ABSTRACT

The food sector includes several large industries such as canned food, pasta, flour, frozen products, and beverages. Those industries transform agricultural raw materials into added-value products. The fruit and vegetable industry is the largest and fastest-growing segment of the world agricultural production market, which commercialize various products such as juices, jams, and dehydrated products, followed by the cereal industry products such as chocolate, beer, and vegetable oils are produced. Similarly, the root and tuber industry produces flours and starches essential for the daily diet due to their high carbohydrate content. However, the processing of these foods generates a large amount of waste several times improperly disposed of in landfills. Due to the increase in the world's population, the indiscriminate use of natural resources generates waste and food supply limitations due to the scarcity of resources, increasing hunger worldwide. The circular economy offers various tools for raising awareness for the recovery of waste, one of the best alternatives to mitigate the excessive consumption of raw materials and reduce waste. The loss and waste of food as a raw material offers bioactive compounds, enzymes, and nutrients that add value to the food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper systematically reviewed literature with different food loss and waste by-products as animal feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products that strongly contribute to the paradigm shift to a circular economy. Additionally, this review compiles studies related to the integral recovery of by-products from the processing of fruits, vegetables, tubers, cereals, and legumes from the food industry, with the potential in SARS-CoV-2 disease and bacterial diseases treatment.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/methods , Drug Industry , Food Industry , Waste Products/economics , Agriculture/economics , Cosmetics/economics , Edible Grain , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Food-Processing Industry/methods , Fruit , Plant Roots , Plant Tubers , Vegetables
18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262477

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCountries continue to debate the need for decontamination of cold-chain food packaging to reduce possible SARS-CoV-2 fomite transmission among workers. While laboratory-based studies demonstrate persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, the likelihood of fomite-mediated transmission under real-life conditions is uncertain. MethodsUsing a quantitative risk assessment model, we simulated in a frozen food packaging facility 1) SARS-CoV-2 fomite-mediated infection risks following worker exposure to contaminated plastic packaging; and 2) reductions in these risks attributed to masking, handwashing, and vaccination. FindingsIn a representative facility with no specific interventions, SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to a susceptible worker from contact with contaminated packaging was 2{middle dot}8 x 10-3 per 1h-period (95%CI: 6{middle dot}9 x 10-6, 2{middle dot}4 x 10-2). Implementation of standard infection control measures, handwashing and masks (9{middle dot}4 x 10-6 risk per 1h-period, 95%CI: 2{middle dot}3 x 10-8, 8{middle dot}1 x 10-5), substantially reduced risk (99{middle dot}7%). Vaccination of the susceptible worker (two doses Pfizer/Moderna, vaccine effectiveness: 86-99%) combined with handwashing and masking reduced risk to less than 1{middle dot}0 x 10-6. Simulating increased infectiousness/transmissibility of new variants (2-, 10-fold viral shedding) among a fully vaccinated workforce, handwashing and masks continued to mitigate risk (2{middle dot}0 x 10-6 -1{middle dot}1 x 10-5 risk per 1h-period). Decontamination of packaging in addition to these interventions reduced infection risks to below the 1{middle dot}0 x 10-6 risk threshold. InterpretationFomite-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection risks were very low under cold-chain conditions. Handwashing and masking provide significant protection to workers, especially when paired with vaccination. FundingU.S. Department of Agriculture

19.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103871, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366529

ABSTRACT

Between November 2018 and May 2019, Canada experienced a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak linked to the presence of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis in frozen profiteroles. Analysis of the implicated food products revealed low levels of Salmonella ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 MPN/100g. Water activity and pH of the food samples ranged from 0.9479 to 0.9867 and 4.6-6.8 respectively indicating conditions conducive to bacterial growth. Higher levels of the hygiene indicators Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were associated with Salmonella positive samples compared to Salmonella negative samples. Investigation of the relationship between storage conditions, temperature, and pathogen levels during thawing revealed that the profiteroles reached temperatures permissive to pathogen growth (≥5 °C) much sooner than pathogen growth was observed and that the composition of the food matrix can influence bacterial levels upon thawing. Collectively these data can be used to inform guidance to minimize the risk of infection from the consumption of contaminated cream-filled frozen desserts.


Subject(s)
Chocolate/microbiology , Frozen Foods/microbiology , Salmonella Food Poisoning/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Canada/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/growth & development , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Salmonella Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/growth & development
20.
Appetite ; 167: 105639, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347492

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected the health and well-being of almost every American. The aim of this study was to examine the sustained impacts of COVID-19 prevention measures on the diet and exercise habits, risk for food insecurity, and quality of life among adults in the U.S. We conducted a longitudinal study using a convenience sample of participants recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform between March 30 and April 7, 2020, and 8 months into the outbreak, from November 2 to November 21, 2020. We compared self-reported diet and exercise habits and risk for food insecurity shortly after the pandemic began, in April, to those reported in November. We also measured changes in quality-of-life using the PROMIS-29 + 2 (PROPr) scale. A total of 636 respondents completed both surveys. Compared to reports in April, respondents ate lunch and dinner out more frequently in November and consumed more take-out and fast food. Weekly frequencies of consuming frozen food and the number of daily meals were slightly lower in November than they were in April. 54% of respondents screened positively for being at risk for food insecurity in April, reducing to 41% by November. In April, survey respondents were found to have lower quality-of-life relative to U.S. population norms, but by November levels of depression and cognitive function had improved. Our findings underscore how the initial effects of the pandemic on diet, exercise, risk for food insecurity, and quality of life have evolved. As U.S. states re-open, continued efforts to encourage healthy eating and support mental health, especially to reduce feelings of anxiety and social isolation, remain important to mitigate the potential long-term effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Diet , Food Insecurity , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...