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1.
ACS Applied Polymer Materials ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096627

ABSTRACT

Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) was used to inactivate the infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) trapped in a polypropylene (PP) melt-blown filter. We used a dielectric barrier made of polyimide films with hexagonal holes through which air flowed. In a cylindrical wind tunnel, the SDBD device supplied reactive oxygen species such as ozone to the SARS-CoV-2 trapped in the PP filter. A plaque assay showed that SDBD at an ozone concentration of approximately 51.6 ppm and exposure time of 30 min induced more than 99.78% reduction for filter-adhered SARS-CoV-2. A carbon catalyst after SDBD effectively reduced ozone exhaust below 0.05 ppm. The combination of SDBD, PP filter, and catalyst could be a promising way to decrease the risk of secondary infection due to indoor air purifiers.

2.
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry ; JOUR(5):523-539, 58.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092254

ABSTRACT

Modern civilization, providing economic and social progress, at the same time objectively creates—sometimes close to ideal—conditions for the spread of various infections. The catastrophic consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic clearly indicate that homo sapiens appeared to be unable to effectively resist the onslaught of the coronavirus. The purpose of this publication is an attempt to fill the gap in the development of effective methods and means for microbiological decontamination that are optimal in terms of critical parameters. The observational data indicate that a significant number of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infections occur by air without a direct contact with the source, including over a long time interval. Precipitation helps to cleanse the air from pollutants and viruses, reducing noncontact contamination, which additionally brings up to date the problem of optimal microbiological decontamination of the air environment and surfaces. A thermodynamic approach has been used to optimize microbiological sterilization. It is shown that irreversible chemical oxidation reactions are the shortest way to achieve sterility, and they are capable of providing high reliability of decontamination. It has been established that oxygen is an optimal oxidant, including from the point of view of ecology, since its reactive forms harmoniously fit into natural exchange cycles. The optimal method for obtaining reactive oxygen species for disinfection is the use of low-temperature (“cold”) plasma, which provides the energy-efficient generation of oxidative reactive forms: atomic oxygen (O), ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032842

ABSTRACT

An increasing body of evidence in the literature is reporting the feasibility of using medical ozone as a possible alternative and adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 patients, significantly reducing hospitalization time, pro-inflammatory indicators, and coagulation markers and improving blood oxygenation parameters. In addition to the well-described ability of medical ozone in counteracting oxidative stress through the upregulation of the main anti-oxidant and scavenging enzymes, oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) therapy has also proved effective in reducing chronic inflammation and the occurrence of immune thrombosis, two key players involved in COVID-19 exacerbation and severity. As chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are also reported to be among the main drivers of the long sequelae of SARS-CoV2 infection, a rising number of studies is investigating the potential of O2-O3 therapy to reduce and/or prevent the wide range of post-COVID (or PASC)-related disorders. This narrative review aims to describe the molecular mechanisms through which medical ozone acts, to summarize the clinical evidence on the use of O2-O3 therapy as an alternative and adjuvant COVID-19 treatment, and to discuss the emerging potential of this approach in the context of PASC symptoms, thus offering new insights into effective and safe nonantiviral therapies for the fighting of this devastating pandemic.

4.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 99(4. Vyp. 2): 22-29, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ozone therapy in rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial included 51 patients aged 29 - 78 years with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (J12.8). Patients were divided into 3 comparable groups depending on the complex of rehabilitation. In the first (control) group (n=17), a 10-day course included daily breathing exercises and physiotherapy for the lungs (drug electrophoresis and low-frequency magnetotherapy). In the second (main) group (n=18), rehabilitation was combined with daily intravenous infusions of ozonized saline with ozone concentration of 2.0 mg/l within 5 days with subsequent standard rehabilitation. In the third group (n=16), patients received 5 ozone therapy procedures every other day. To determine the effectiveness and safety of systemic ozone therapy in rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19, we analyzed oxygen saturation, laboratory data (D-dimer and C-reactive protein), need for oxygen support before and after rehabilitation course. Complaints and quality of life throughout the rehabilitation program were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire. RESULTS: All patients had positive changes of all parameters. There were no adverse reactions throughout the rehabilitation program and 2 months later. We observed higher effectiveness of rehabilitation with systemic ozone therapy. Moreover, daily ozone therapy had a better effect on laboratory parameters compared to ozone therapy every other day. CONCLUSION: Ozone therapy is safe and effective in complex rehabilitation of patients with previous COVID-19. Further studies of large samples are needed to determine indications and appropriate criteria for this rehabilitation program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ozone , Humans , Lung , Ozone/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 2312(1):012012, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991987

ABSTRACT

Air sterilizer is one of the essential components in combating the Covid-19. A wind tunnel model of the air sterilizer using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma is proposed to destroy the virus by direct contact with the plasma. Dangerous ozone production in the plasma reactor should be controlled to a safe level. Two parameters affecting the ozone concentration, i.e., electrical power and airflow, were investigated. The DBD reactor was a cell constructed from an array of alternate electrodes. The plasma was generated by an AC high voltage generator with a range of 2kV -3kV. The power and the high voltage were varied by controlling the DC input voltage of the generator. The airflow was varied by controlling the speed of an exhaust fan from 0.5 m/s to 3.0 m/s. The state was characterized using optical emission spectroscopy in the range of 200 nm – 1000 nm. The results showed that both parameters played a significant role in ozone concentration. The trend of the ozone is strongly correlated with the OH species, which reacts with oxygen. The highest ozone concentration of 4.51 ppm was observed at the DC voltage around 19 volts or the power of 34.2 watts. However, a decrease of the ozone concentration at a voltage higher than 19 volts related to 2.9 kV was observed. In general, the data showed that faster airflow decreases ozone concentration. A drastic decrease of the nitrogen species sustaining the plasma occurred at the airflow higher than 2 m/s.

6.
J Water Process Eng ; 49: 103077, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983593

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has put the risk of virus contamination in water bodies on the horizon of health authorities. Hence, finding effective ways to remove the virus, especially SARS-CoV-2, from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has emerged as a hot issue in the last few years. Herein, this study first deals with the fate of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in WWTPs, then critically reviews and compares different wastewater treatment methods for combatting COVID-19 as well as to increase the water quality. This critical review sheds light the efficiency of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to inactivate virus, specially SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Although several physicochemical treatment processes (e.g. activated sludge) are commonly used to eliminate pathogens, AOPs are the most versatile and effective virus inactivation methods. For instance, TiO2 is the most known and widely studied photo-catalyst innocuously utilized to degrade pollutants as well as to photo-induce bacterial and virus disinfection due to its high chemical resistance and efficient photo-activity. When ozone is dissolved in water and wastewater, it generates a wide spectrum of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are responsible to degrade materials in virus membranes resulting in destroying the cell wall. Furthermore, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes act through direct oxidation when pathogens react at the anode surface or by indirect oxidation through oxidizing species produced in the bulk solution. Consequently, they represent a feasible choice for the inactivation of a wide range of pathogens. Nonetheless, there are some challenges with AOPs which should be addressed for application at industrial-scale.

7.
Xi'an Dianzi Keji Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Xidian University ; 49(3):238-244, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1924845

ABSTRACT

Ozone is a highly effective and broad-spectrum non-residual gas disinfectant.The global COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected public safety and health, and low concentrations of ozone can inactivate the novel coronavirus.The negative ion generator is a safe and efficient method to generate ozone.Through corona discharge on the needle plate, an ion current can be formed between the needle-plate electrodes and a certain concentration of ozone can be released.In the research on the relationship between the electrode-to-plate distance and ozone release in the negative ion generator, different experimental observations show contradictory results, making the theoretical explanation very difficult and complicated.As the needle-to-plate electrode distance increases, the continuous exponential decreasing trend of ozone emission rate changes to a non-continuous step-wised decreasing pattern, which is defined as the Quantum Ozone Emission Effect (QOEE).The QOEE was observed in all negative ion generators when the plate material was aluminium, stainless steel, yellow brass, or copper.The observed quantum ozone emission effect in negative ion generators may be related to the gas ionization potential of the oxygen molecule and to the electron avalanche theory.The quantum effect of ozone emission is a manifestation of the quantum behavior of the microscopic electron world in the macroscopic world.The ozone emission quantum effect provides a novel technical method for measuring the microscopic properties and corona discharge characteristics of materials. © 2022, Editorial Department of Journal of Xidian University. All right reserved.

8.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant public health problem worldwide, favoring multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was negatively associated with the increase in antimicrobial resistance, and the ESKAPE group had the most significant impact on HAIs. The study evaluated the bactericidal effect of a high concentration of O3 gas on some reference and ESKAPE bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four standard strains and four clinical or environmental MDR strains were exposed to elevated ozone doses at different concentrations and times. Bacterial inactivation (growth and cultivability) was investigated using colony counts and resazurin as metabolic indicators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. RESULTS: The culture exposure to a high level of O3 inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains tested with a statistically significant reduction in colony count compared to the control group. The cell viability of S. aureus (MRSA) (99.6%) and P. aeruginosa (XDR) (29.2%) was reduced considerably, and SEM showed damage to bacteria after O3 treatment Conclusion: The impact of HAIs can be easily dampened by the widespread use of ozone in ICUs. This product usually degrades into molecular oxygen and has a low toxicity compared to other sanitization products. However, high doses of ozone were able to interfere with the growth of all strains studied, evidencing that ozone-based decontamination approaches may represent the future of hospital cleaning methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Ozone , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Humans , Ozone/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268049, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910627

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the instant inactivation effect of dielectric filter discharge (DFD) on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosols. The filter consisted of one layer of ZrO2 beads covered by aluminum mesh electrodes; this porous structure of DFD part generates filter-type surface discharge and reactive oxygen species. In a closed cylindrical chamber, DFD treated air flow containing SARS-CoV-2 aerosols, primarily composed of particle diameters of ≤ 1 µm. A polypropylene melt-blown filter collected the treated bioaerosols for inactivation analysis. Plaque and polymerase chain reaction assays showed that the aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 that passed through the filter were more than 99.84% inactivated with degradation of SARS-CoV-2 genes (ORF1ab and E). However, ozone exposure without DFD passage was not found to be effective for bioaerosol inactivation in plaque assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal ; 21(4):559-568, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1893979

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2) commonly known as COVID-19, a nationwide lockdown came into effect in India from 24th March midnight, 2020, which slowed down the movement of vehicles, operation of industries etc. Due to this reason a drastic change in the environment occurred and it caused the reduction of pollution level in the environment. The study mainly focuses on the positive impacts of lockdown in India. Studies have shown that after the implementation of lockdown, the level of the various major air pollution constituents of such as particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, etc.), NO2, CO and ozone etc. in the air has reduced substantially. The air quality index data have clearly shown the difference in the level of air pollution between the year 2019 and 2020. The study was mainly focused on the comparison of air quality parameters such as particulate matter, NO2, CO and ozone etc. as well as the water pollution parameters such as Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) for the River Yamuna and it was observed that there was substantial amount of positive change in pollutants after lockdown compared to what was before lockdown. The observations are carried out in atime frame manner such as before lockdown and after lockdown and results have been found with a huge difference in reduction of air pollution as well as water pollution.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 871645, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834463

ABSTRACT

Medical oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) is a successful therapeutic approach accounting on the assessed beneficial action of ozone in the range 30-45 µg/ml (expanded range 10-80 µg/ml according to different protocols), as in this dosage range ozone is able to trigger a cellular hormetic response via the modulating activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as signaling molecules. The ozone-dependent ROS-mediated fatty acid oxidation leads to the formation of lipid ozonization products (LOPs), which act as signal transducers by triggering ROS signaling and therefore mitohormetic processes. These processes ultimately activate survival mechanisms at a cellular level, such as the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE system activation, the AMPK/FOXO/mTOR/Sir1 pathway and the Nrf2/NF-kB cross talk. Furthermore, indirectly, via these pathways, LOPs trigger the HIF-1α pathway, the HO-1 signaling and the NO/iNOS biochemical machinery. Ozone-driven shift of cytokine activation pathways, from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory immediately afterwards, also exert direct immunoregulatory effects on regulatory T lymphocytes as well as on the intestinal microbiota, which in turn can affect immune response thus influencing the progression of the disease. In this review, we will describe the biological and biochemical mechanisms of action of ozone therapy with the aim of evaluating both positive and critical aspects of ozone use as a therapeutic adjuvant in the light of emerging viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 and microbiome-associated disorders related to SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):11090-11099, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812881

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, is the newest member of the Coronaviridae family of viruses and is the third coronavirus crossing animal species barriers to infect human populations. Systemic ozone therapy can be potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2. The rationale and mechanism of action has already been proven clinically with other viral infections similar to SARS-CoV-2. Here we report the history of ozone therapy, its activity against infectious agents, and techniques which are likely to be the most efficient in culling the massive virion waves that viremic episodes spawn. Ozone is reported to activate the immune system in infectious diseases to improve the utilization of oxygen and stimulate release of growth factors and other mediators that may re-activate the immune system and reduce ischemia in vascular disease, now known to be a significant contributor to adverse Covid-19 outcomes. Ozone therapy may be an important adjuvant to more conventional therapies such as vaccines in severe infectious disease and pandemics including that caused by SARS- CoV-2.

13.
2021 World Congress on Engineering, WCE 2021 ; 2242:340-345, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1733297

ABSTRACT

A fundamental aspect of the fight against the Coronavirus and against any other virus, is represented by the sanitization of the sites and objects contained therein. This operation is normally carried out using mixtures of ozone and steam and it is certainly effective but also limited due the damages that the vapor can cause to rooms and objects. The following paper introduce machines able to overcome this issue thanks to innovative systems based on the principles of Engineering 4.0. Those systems reproduce the Chapman cycle in the to-be sanitized environments which allows producing ozone in a gaseous state, in the proper quantity and for the time necessary for sanitization. At the end of the operation, the ozone will be converted back into oxygen, leaving the environment re-habitable by humans and pets in a short time. The operation has low costs and times and guarantees positive results. This is therefore a real revolution to be considered today against the COVID-19. © 2021 Newswood Limited. All rights reserved.

14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705625

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) method for decontamination of PPE (N95 respirators and gowns) using a surface DBD source to meet the increased need of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A system is presented consisting of a mobile trailer (35 m3) along with several Dielectric barrier discharge sources installed for generating a plasma ROS level to achieve viral decontamination. The plasma ROS treated respirators were evaluated at the CDC NPPTL, and additional PPE specimens and material functionality testing were performed at Texas A&M. The effects of decontamination on the performance of respirators were tested using a modified version of the NIOSH Standard Test Procedure TEB-APR-STP-0059 to determine particulate filtration efficiency. The treated Prestige Ameritech and BYD brand N95 respirators show filtration efficiencies greater than 95% and maintain their integrity. The overall mechanical and functionality tests for plasma ROS treated PPE show no significant variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Reactive Oxygen Species , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators
15.
Environ Pollut ; 301: 119027, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700515

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O3). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (Ox≡O3+NO2, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O3 by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced Ox, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, Ox was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM2.5 levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM2.5 mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O3 formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324137

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 results in a pandemic throughout the world, however, there are currently no specific treatments available. We report the first case of ozonated autohemotherapy for a critically ill patient with COVID-19. The patient was diagnosed with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and life-threatening refractory hypoxemia within 72 hours of the intensive-care unit (ICU) admission. To improve the oxygen delivery, the ozonated autohemotherapy was performed with 40 µg/ml of ozone in 100 ml of blood for 5 days on this patient, who then recovered from ARDS uneventfully and discharged from hospital after viral clearance. This case suggests ozonated autohemotherapy might be an alternative non-invasive medical treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314640

ABSTRACT

Almost all the countries around the world are experiencing high levels of air pollution. How does pollution impact our body in times of COVID-19? Air pollution and related climatic-environmental changes is one of the prime concern and biggest challenge globally in 21st century faced by most of the nations. The global impact of this public health problem can be assessed and understood from the data of morbidity and mortality as well as DALY (disability adjusted life years) & QALY (quality adjusted life years), YLL (years of life lost) measurements. Today global air is having several varieties and types of air pollutants which are taking lives of people on daily basis and the death count may be more as compared to COVID-19 deaths. The finest and smallest particulate matters present in air as byproducts of several human and industry related activities are able to infiltrate the respiratory system through inhalation while breathing, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular system(CVS) diseases, reproductive and central nervous system(CNS) diseases and malfunctioning as well as various carcinoma. Ozone (O3) protects us from harmful effects of UV (ultra violet) radiations which can cause cancers, skin diseases as well as mutations etc but at the same time it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Added to this other pollutants present in air such as nitrogen oxide(NO), sulfur dioxide(SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are all important air pollutants which are known to be harmful to human beings. Carbon monoxide (CO) can bind with haemoglobin (Hb) very tightly (not allowing oxygen to be released at tissue level causing tissue hypoxia) forming carboxy-haemoglobin which can cause poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals for example lead (Pb) can lead to direct poisoning (plumbinism or saturnism) or chronic intoxication can lead to a variety of CNS, GIT(gastrointestinal tract), and reproductive system diseases, depending on the exposure. Air pollution usually causes respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions, and cutaneous diseases. Added to this, the climate change resulting from environmental pollution affects the geographical distribution of many infectious diseases like natural disasters as well as affects social and environmental determinants of health. The only way to tackle this problem is through public health awareness, strategies to reduce air pollution as well as environmental protection measures with a multidisciplinary Intersectoral approach by scientific experts of national and international organizations. The global leaders must address the emergence of this threat and propose sustainable and suitable solutions to deal this challenging issue.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314613

ABSTRACT

The most important natural resource on the planet earth is air because people, animals and plants (vegetation) need to breathe in clean air that is not polluted in order to be alive. Breathing is a vital natural process which is called respiration. In the process of respiration, also known as “cellular respiration”, a living subject or thing takes in oxygen from the air and expels carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product. Therefore, if the respiration of ambient air is intoxicated by the gaseous or chemical substances produced by air pollution (PM 10, 2.5, or 0.5), the lives of people, animals and plants, will be in serious danger. The environment, structures and the ecosystem will also suffer destruction and depletion of the ozone layer (effects of the ozone hole). This Article strives to scientifically investigate, analyse and demonstrate that the actual public international law rules put in place have not substantively provisioned the remedies and constitutional or treaty mechanisms which should tackle air pollution effectively. Legal Scholar will draw on the public international law instruments of this research question in order to make a preliminary proposed reform that should remedy the devastating effects of air pollution in the World. The Article envisages to substantiate on how air pollution has contributed in increasing the number of deaths on the coronavirus-19 patients around the globe. The study moves on to advice COVID-19 victims on the tortious liability actions they could engage against their national Governments, if they can substantiate that, air pollution aggravated their COVID-19 situations, which injuriously caused them any substantiated loss or harm. Researcher will move on with his conclusion by inciting Nation-States and the United Nations Organizations, to study the reform he has proposed in this introductory Article and make use of such. The continuation of the greater part of the project will comparatively analyse and investigate on how the national and public international law rules of air pollution countries like France, Britain, the USA, China and India regulate air pollution? The complete project of which this Article is the first part, will be concluded through the presentation of a proposed public international law instrument that should effectively regulate air pollution. Such an instrument will be in the form of a model drafted international treaty of a jus cogens character. It will aim at drastically curbing air pollution and imposing compliance on all Members and non-Members of the United Nations Organization (UNO), who have ratified or not the proposed reform, if adopted by the United Nation Organization (UNO).

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315883

ABSTRACT

There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. One current focus is drug repurposing research, but those drugs have limited therapeutic efficacies and known adverse effects. The pathology of COVID-19 is essentially unknown. It is therefore challenging to discover a successful treatment to be approved for clinical use. This paper addresses several key biological processes of reactive oxygen, halogen and nitrogen species (ROS, RHS and RNS) that play crucial physiological roles in organisms from plants to humans. These include why superoxide dismutases, the enzymes to catalyze the formation of H2O2, are required for protecting ROS-induced injury in cell metabolism, why the amount of ROS/RNS produced by ionizing radiation at clinically relevant doses is ~1000 fold lower than the endogenous ROS/RNS level routinely produced in the cell and why a low level of endogenous RHS plays a crucial role in phagocytosis for immune defense. Herein we propose a plausible amplification mechanism in immune defense: ozone-depleting-like halogen cyclic reactions enhancing RHS effects are responsible for all the mentioned physiological functions, which are activated by H2O2 and deactivated by NO signaling molecule. Our results show that the reaction cycles can be repeated thousands of times and amplify the RHS pathogen-killing (defense) effects by 100,000 fold in phagocytosis, resembling the cyclic ozone-depleting reactions in the stratosphere. It is unraveled that H2O2 is a required protective signaling molecule (angel) in the defense system for human health and its dysfunction can cause many diseases or conditions such as autoimmune disorders, aging and cancer. We also identify a class of potent drugs for effective treatment of invading pathogens such as HIV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), cancer and other diseases, and provide a molecular mechanism of action of the drugs or candidates.

20.
5th International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering, ICNBME 2021 ; 87:489-504, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626608

ABSTRACT

Presented observational data indicate that a significant number of infections with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus occur by air without direct contact with the source, in addition, in a tangibly long time interval. It is noticed that atmospheric precipitations help to cleanse the air from pollution and at the same time from viruses, reducing non-contact infections. These facts additionally actualize the problem of optimal microbiological decontamination of air and surfaces. In order to optimize microbiological sterilization, a thermodynamic approach is applied. It is shown that irreversible chemical oxidation reactions are the shortest way to achieve sterility, they being capable of providing one hundred percent reliability of decontamination. It is established that oxygen is optimal as an oxidant, including ecologically, because it and all of its reactive forms harmoniously fit into natural exchange cycles. The optimal way to obtain reactive oxygen species for disinfection is the use of low-temperature (“cold”) plasma, which provides energy-efficient generation of oxidative reactive forms - atomic oxygen (O), ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (⋅OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 −), singlet oxygen O2(a1Δg). Due to the short lifetime for most of the above forms outside the plasma applicator, remoted from the plasma generator objects should be sterilized with ozone (O3), the minimum lifetime of which is quite long (several minutes). It is substantiated that microwave method of generating oxygen plasma is optimal for energy efficient ozone production. A modular principle of generation is proposed for varying the productivity of ozone generating units over a wide range. The module is developed on the basis of an adapted serial microwave oven, in which a non-self-sustaining microwave discharge is maintained due to ionizations produced by radionuclides-emitters. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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