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Ann Biomed Eng ; 48(10): 2371-2376, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734076


The unique resource constraints, urgency, and virulence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has sparked immense innovation in the development of barrier devices to protect healthcare providers from infectious airborne particles generated by patients during airway management interventions. Of the existing devices, all have shortcomings which render them ineffective and impractical in out-of-hospital environments. Therefore, we propose a new design for such a device, along with a pragmatic evaluation of its efficacy. Must-have criteria for the device included: reduction of aerosol transmission by at least 90% as measured by pragmatic testing; construction from readily available, inexpensive materials; easy to clean; and compatibility with common EMS stretchers. The Patient Particle Containment Chamber (PPCC) consists of a standard shower liner draped over a modified octagonal PVC pipe frame and secured with binder clips. 3D printed sleeve portals were used to secure plastic sleeves to the shower liner wall. A weighted tube sealed the exterior base of the chamber with the contours of the patient's body and stretcher. Upon testing, the PPCC contained 99% of spray-paint particles sprayed over a 90s period. Overall, the PPCC provides a compact, affordable option that can be used in both the in-hospital and out-of-hospital environments.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(8): 1840-1845, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611514


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic influences a lot of aspects of human life. Particularly, hygienic habits are affected. OBJECTIVES: Changes in washing and cosmetic standards during the pandemic toward the past are in the focus of our interest. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire study was conducted anonymously in 140 women. The examination concerned pre- and during-pandemic routine hygiene activities such as hands washing, hair washing, bathing, the use of disinfectants, and use of specific type of cosmetics. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Compared were data before and during pandemic. Responders declared increased handwashing and taking shower after coming back home and after using local city transportation. We found also that increased use of disinfectants during COVID-19 pandemic. In contrary to that, number of people washing their hair decreased slightly. Work documents that profile of used cosmetics was changed; increasing hand cream use and decreasing in makeup cosmetics. Nearly, half of the respondents declare that they will maintain new habits also after the pandemic has ended.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hygiene/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cosmetics/administration & dosage , Cosmetics/standards , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/standards , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013582, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99717


BACKGROUND: This review is one of a series of rapid reviews that Cochrane contributors have prepared to inform the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. When new respiratory infectious diseases become widespread, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers' adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines becomes even more important. Strategies in these guidelines include the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as masks, face shields, gloves and gowns; the separation of patients with respiratory infections from others; and stricter cleaning routines. These strategies can be difficult and time-consuming to adhere to in practice. Authorities and healthcare facilities therefore need to consider how best to support healthcare workers to implement them. OBJECTIVES: To identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers' adherence to IPC guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases. SEARCH METHODS: We searched OVID MEDLINE on 26 March 2020. As we searched only one database due to time constraints, we also undertook a rigorous and comprehensive scoping exercise and search of the reference lists of key papers. We did not apply any date limit or language limits. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included qualitative and mixed-methods studies (with a distinct qualitative component) that focused on the experiences and perceptions of healthcare workers towards factors that impact on their ability to adhere to IPC guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases. We included studies of any type of healthcare worker with responsibility for patient care. We included studies that focused on IPC guidelines (local, national or international) for respiratory infectious diseases in any healthcare setting. These selection criteria were framed by an understanding of the needs of health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors independently assessed the titles, abstracts and full texts identified by our search. We used a prespecified sampling frame to sample from the eligible studies, aiming to capture a range of respiratory infectious disease types, geographical spread and data-rich studies. We extracted data using a data extraction form designed for this synthesis. We assessed methodological limitations using an adapted version of the Critical Skills Appraisal Programme (CASP) tool. We used a 'best fit framework approach' to analyse and synthesise the evidence. This provided upfront analytical categories, with scope for further thematic analysis. We used the GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach to assess our confidence in each finding. We examined each review finding to identify factors that may influence intervention implementation and developed implications for practice. MAIN RESULTS: We found 36 relevant studies and sampled 20 of these studies for our analysis. Ten of these studies were from Asia, four from Africa, four from Central and North America and two from Australia. The studies explored the views and experiences of nurses, doctors and other healthcare workers when dealing with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1, MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), tuberculosis (TB), or seasonal influenza. Most of these healthcare workers worked in hospitals; others worked in primary and community care settings. Our review points to several barriers and facilitators that influenced healthcare workers' ability to adhere to IPC guidelines. The following factors are based on findings assessed as of moderate to high confidence. Healthcare workers felt unsure as to how to adhere to local guidelines when they were long and ambiguous or did not reflect national or international guidelines. They could feel overwhelmed because local guidelines were constantly changing. They also described how IPC strategies led to increased workloads and fatigue, for instance because they had to use PPE and take on additional cleaning. Healthcare workers described how their responses to IPC guidelines were influenced by the level of support they felt that they received from their management team. Clear communication about IPC guidelines was seen as vital. But healthcare workers pointed to a lack of training about the infection itself and about how to use PPE. They also thought it was a problem when training was not mandatory. Sufficient space to isolate patients was also seen as vital. A lack of isolation rooms, anterooms and shower facilities was a problem. Other important practical measures described by healthcare workers included minimising overcrowding, fast-tracking infected patients, restricting visitors, and providing easy access to handwashing facilities. A lack of PPE, and equipment that was of poor quality, was a serious concern for healthcare workers and managers. They also pointed to the need to adjust the volume of supplies as infection outbreaks continued. Healthcare workers believed that they followed IPC guidance more closely when they saw the value of it. Some healthcare workers felt motivated to follow the guidance because of fear of infecting themselves or their families, or because they felt responsible for their patients. Some healthcare workers found it difficult to use masks and other equipment when it made patients feel isolated, frightened or stigmatised. Healthcare workers also found masks and other equipment uncomfortable to use. The workplace culture could also influence whether healthcare workers followed IPC guidelines or not. Across many of the findings, healthcare workers pointed to the importance of including all staff, including cleaning staff, porters, kitchen staff and other support staff when implementing IPC guidelines. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers point to several factors that influence their ability and willingness to follow IPC guidelines when managing respiratory infectious diseases. These include factors tied to the guideline itself and how it is communicated, support from managers, workplace culture, training, physical space, access to and trust in personal protective equipment, and a desire to deliver good patient care. The review also highlights the importance of including all facility staff, including support staff, when implementing IPC guidelines.

Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Guideline Adherence/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Universal Precautions