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Drug Discov Ther ; 16(6): 258-272, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217405


As an indispensable part of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese patent medicines have played an important role in preventing and treating diseases in China. Since they are easy to use, easy to store, and cost-effective, Chinese patent medicines have been generally accepted and widely used in Chinese clinical practice as a vital medical resource. In recent years, as TCM has developed and it has been accepted around the world, many Chinese patent medicine companies have gained international market access and successfully registered several Chinese patent medicines as over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs in regions and countries that primarily use Western medicine such as the EU, Russia, Canada, Singapore, and Vietnam. Moreover, several Chinese patent medicines have been obtained the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval conducting phase II or III clinical trials in the US. The current work has focused on several Chinese patent medicines that have been successfully registered or that have been submitted for registration abroad. Summarized here are recent advances in the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of these Chinese patent medicines to treat respiratory infectious diseases (Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Jinhua Qinggan granules, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsules), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, Huatuo Zaizao pills, and Tongxinluo Capsules), cancers (a Kanglaite injection and a Shenqi Fuzheng Injection), and gynecological diseases (Guizhi Fuling Capsules). The hope is that this review will contribute to a better understanding of Chinese patent medicines by people around the world.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nonprescription Drugs , Humans , Capsules , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27372, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191071


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in many countries is still very serious. At present, there is no specific and effective drug for this disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a great role in fighting against COVID-19. However, their effectiveness and safety are still obscure and deserve further investigation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM assisted in conventional treatment in the treatment of mild and common COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMbase, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials of TCM assisted in conventional treatment. The RCT research quality was evaluated by Cochrane 5.1.0 bias risk scale and the non-randomized controlled trial research quality was evaluated by Newcastle Ottawa scale, and the statistical analysis was conducted by Revman 5.3 and R software. The bias and sensitivity of the statistical results were analyzed by STATA 14.0. Registration number: CRD42020210619. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included with 7 RCT studies and 8 retrospective cohort studies, involving a total of 1623 patients. Compared with the control group, TCM can improve the main index clinical effective rate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% Confidence interval (CI) [1.94,3.59], P < .00001). The results of Begg test (Pr > z = 0.266) and sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable. Toujie Quwen (OR = 4.9, 95%CI [1.9,14.0]), Shufeng Jiedu (OR = 2.9, 95%CI [1.5,5.7]), and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = 2.4, 95%CI [1.6,3.6]) were with the best. It can also improve the main clinical symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, and the regression time of the 3 symptoms), severe conversion rate, and computed tomography improvement rate. Its safety was not significantly compared with conventional treatment. However, in terms of safety of a single TCM, Shufeng Jiedu (OR = -0.86, 95%CI [-1.89,0.09]) and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = -0.49, 95%CI[-0.94,-0.05]) were lower than those of conventional treatment. CONCLUSION: TCM as an adjuvant therapy combined with conventional treatment has good curative effect on mild and common type of COVID-19 patients. Its advantages lie in clinical efficacy and improvement of symptom group, and can prevent patients from transforming to severe disease. In terms of clinical efficacy and safety, Shufeng Jiedu and Lianhua Qingwen have obvious advantages, which are worthy of clinical promotion.

COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
Biosci Trends ; 17(1): 14-20, 2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202798


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been an unprecedented disaster for people around the world. A point particularly worth noting is that herbal medicines have made great contributions to the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in China. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the critical functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. It can bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S protein), which is responsible for the entry of the coronavirus into host cells. Therefore, ACE2 can be regarded as an important intervention target for COVID-19. Recently, many herbal medicines have exhibited a high affinity for ACE2 in treating COVID-19. The current work summarized these herbal medicines including formulas (such as Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Xuebijing injection, Qingfei Paidu Decoction, Huashi Baidu formula, Shufeng Jiedu capsules, and Maxing Shigan decoction), single herbs including Ephedra sinica Stapf (Mahuang), Scutellariae radix (Huangqin), Lonicera japonica (Jinyinhua), and Houttuynia cordata (Yuxingcao), and active ingredients (such as ursodeoxycholic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, salvianolic acid, quercetin, and andrographidine C), which have exhibited a high affinity for ACE2 in treating COVID-19. We hope this work may provide meaningful and useful information on further research to investigate the mechanisms of herbal medicines against SARS-CoV-2 and follow-up drug discovery.

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Capsules , Protein Binding
Journal of Chinese medicinal materials ; 44(1):253-266, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2145396


Objective: To study the mechanism of Shufeng jiedu granules in treating Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19)based on network pharmacology. Method(s): TCMSP database was used to search and screen the active components of Shufeng jiedu granules, GeneGards database was used to predict and screen disease targets, the common targets of the above two were input into the STRING database to obtain the target protein interaction network, the PPI network and the "traditional Chinese medicines-components-targets-diseases" network were constructed by using Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, and the GO function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were carried out by using Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, R software and the corresponding program package. Result(s): A total of 207 active components and 1 006 traditional Chinese medicine component targets were screened, and 350 COVID-19-related targets were identified, so as to obtain 49 common drug-disease targets.GO functional enrichment analysis resulted in 1 575 items(P<0.05), KEGG enrichment analysis resulted in 120 related signaling pathways(P<0.05), mainly involving IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, etc. Conclusion(s): Shufeng jiedu granules may achieve the therapeutic effect of COVID-19 through multi-targets, multi-pathways to regulate virus and inflammation-related pathways. Copyright © 2021, Central Station of Chinese Medicinal Materials Information, National Medical Products Administration. All right reserved.

Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1020286, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099180


Introduction: Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJD) is a commonly used Chinese patent medicine in China. Some studies have reported that SFJD has therapeutic effects in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. This systematic review aimed to critically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFJD combined with western medicine (WM) for treating COVID-19. Methods: A literature search by using WHO COVID-19 database, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, CKNI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, and clinical trial registries was conducted, up to 1 August 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, cohort studies and case series of SFJD combined with WM for COVID-19 were included. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers in line with the same criteria. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) to assess the certainty of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed with Revman 5.3 if possible. The descriptive analysis was conducted when the studies could not be meta-analyzed. Results: Totally 10 studies with 1,083 patients were included. Their methodological quality were moderate. The results demonstrated that compared to WM group, SFJD + WM group remarkably increased the nucleic acid negative conversion rate (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84), total effective rate (RR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.31), cure rate (RR = 4.06, 95%CI: 2.19-7.53), and the chest CT improvement rate (RR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.08-1.31), shorten nucleic acid negative conversion time (MD = -0.70, 95%CI: -1.14 to -0.26), reduced the clinical symptom disappearance time (fever, diarrhea, cough, fatigue, pharyngalgia, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea), as well as improved the levels of laboratory outcomes (CRP, IL-6, Lym, and Neu). Additionally, the incidence of adverse reactions did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between SFJD + WM group and WM group. Conclusion: SFJD combined with WM seems more effective than WM alone for the treatment of COVID-19. However, more well-designed RCTs still are warranted. Systematic review registration: [], identifier [CRD42022306307].

Heliyon ; 8(11): e11120, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069056


Objective: To perform a bibliometric analysis of published research related to the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Research documents related to the use of TCM for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 published up to September 19, 2021, were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Bibliometrix R 4.0 software package was used to analyze data, including countries of publication, research institutions, journals, citations, and keywords. Further analysis was conducted to identify co-occurrence of keywords in the documents, including their titles and abstracts. Cooperative network analyses of authors, institutions, and countries of publication were also conducted. The classification types were statistically analyzed and the research progress of key TCMs was reviewed. Results: A total of 417 documents were included in our analysis. Of these, 85.13% originated in China. Of the 417 documents, 148 (35.5%) were published in journals with impact factors in quartile 1 and 164 (39.3%) in journals in quartile 2. The documents were mainly published in journals categorized as Medicine. The results of network analysis showed close cooperation between institutions and countries. Excluding disease- and drug-related keywords, the top four keywords were 'Systematic review', 'Network pharmacology', 'Medicine' and 'Molecular docking'. Keyword co-occurrence analysis showed 4 main keywords association groups. Statistical analysis of the TCM studies showed that Lianhua Qingwen capsule, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shufeng Jiedu capsules and ReDuNing injection were the most studied Chinese medicines. Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Qingfei Paidu decoction, ReDuNing injection, and Shufeng Jiedu capsules were used in clinical, bioinformatics, and basic research. Toujie Quwen granule, Jinhua Qinggan granule, Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, Tanreqing injection, and Xuanfei Baidu decoction were used in clinical and bioinformatics research, although basic research on their mechanisms of action is lacking. Conclusion: Research intensity and recognition, as well as cooperation, in the field of Chinese medicine for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has increased. Research types are generally comprehensive, and investigated several TCM formulations that are specifically recommended by Chinese COVID-19 guidelines. However, comprehensive, in-depth research on their molecular mechanisms of action is still lacking. More basic research is thus needed to identify therapeutic mechanisms to standardize and validate the use of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115661, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015648


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC) is a pure form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that contains eight medicinal plants. Known for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, it is mostly used to treat upper respiratory tract infections and other infectious diseases, such as colds, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and tonsillitis. Both acute lung injury (ALI) and COVID-19 are closely related to lung damage, primarily manifesting as lung inflammation and epithelial cell damage. However, whether SFJDC can improve ALI and by what mechanism remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore whether SFJDC could be used as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 by improving acute lung injury. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to determine whether SFJDC could protect against ALI caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we wanted to determine how SFJDC reduces inflammation and apoptosis pharmacologically and molecularly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preadministering SFJDC at 0.1 g/kg, 0.3 g/kg, or 0.5 g/kg for one week was followed by 5 mg/kg LPS to induce ALI in mice. Observations included the study of lung histomorphology, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion, as well as the ratio of lung wet/dry weights. In addition, RAW264.7 cells were treated for 24 h with 1 µg/mL LPS after being pretreated for 1 h with 0.5 mg/mL SFJDC. In the samples, we detected TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. Cell apoptosis was detected by stimulating A549 cells for 24 h with RAW264.7 supernatant. Both in vitro and in vivo, the levels of A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), PKA, IκB, p-IκB, NF-κB P65 (P65), p-NF-κB P65 (p-P65), cleaved caspases-3 (Cc3), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins were determined using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lung tissue morphology was improved as SFJDC decreased cytokine secretion, the ratio of lung wet/dry weights, and lung tissue secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The expression of A2AAR was increased by SFJDC, and the phosphorylation of NF-κB was inhibited. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry showed that SFJDC inhibited apoptosis by reducing the expression of Cc3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this study, SFJDC can reduce inflammation and inhibit apoptosis. A2AAR activation and regulation of NF-κB expression are thought to make SFJDC anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. A wide range of active ingredients may result in an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect with SFJDC.

Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P1/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
Biosci Trends ; 16(3): 238-241, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964370


Patients infected with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 mainly develop mild COVID-19, manifesting as upper respiratory symptoms, fatigue, and fever. Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC), a traditional Chinese medicine indicated for treatment of upper respiratory infections in China, was tested for its efficacy and safety in treatment of an Omicron infection at a mobile cabin hospital in response to an outbreak of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China in April 2022. In this open-label, randomized controlled trial, patients in the control group received best supportive care, while those in the test group received additional SFJDC therapy for 7 days. SFJDC markedly alleviated patients' symptoms including a sore throat, coughing, fatigue, and a fever after 7 days of treatment. The virus negative time was significantly shorter in the SFJDC treatment group, but there were no obvious differences in the virus negative rate between the two groups at the end of the 7-day follow-up. These results suggest that patients with the Omicron infection may benefit from SFJDC treatment. Double-blind, randomized controlled trials are warranted to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFJDC in a large cohort study in the future.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Cohort Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fatigue , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(11):3557-3563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884661


Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Huzhang (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus), Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae), Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), etc. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules has exactly effects such as dispelling wind and clearing heat, removing toxin and relieving sore-throat, which had been used in treatment of respiratory infectious diseases with symptom like fever, intolerating wind in clinic for a long time. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are the recommended drugs for the "Influenza Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" (2020 version)issued by National Health Commission and "Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia in COVID-19"(version 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Pharmacological mechanism and clinical application of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules weresummarized in this paper, in order to summarize characteristic and the post-marketing research path of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules, and provide ideas for more post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine products.

ISRCTN; 03/05/2022; TrialID: ISRCTN14236594
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-ISRCTN14236594



COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection)
Infections and Infestations


Experimental group: Shufeng Jiedu Capsule, taken orally for 5 days.
Control group: Shufeng Jiedu placebo, taken orally for 5 days.
After 5 days of treatment, all participants are no longer taking any Traditional Chinese medicine. Participants were followed up for 14 days after discharge.
Participants are randomly allocated to groups using the coded boxes of pills.

Primary outcome:

Time to alleviation of symptoms (TTAS). Clinical symptoms are based on flu-like associated symptoms, including cough, stuffy nose, sore throat, fever or chills, muscle/joint pain, headache, and fatigue measured using self-report on a 0-3 scale (0 as no symptoms, 1 as mild symptoms, 2 as moderate symptoms and 3 as severe symptoms) at baseline, every day during the intervention (from 1st-6th day), and every day during follow-up (since discharged from hospital until 14th day).


Inclusion criteria:
1. Meet the mild and common diagnostic criteria for COVID-19;
2. The time interval between symptom onset and random enrollment was less than 3 days;
3. Adults (=18 and =75 years);
4. Agree to participate in this study and accept random grouping;
5. Those who have signed informed consent and are not currently participating in other clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19

Exclusion criteria:
1 Female patients in pregnancy and lactation;
2 Patients with a history of allergy to the test drug ingredients;
3. As judged by the investigator, or patients with acute episodes, cognitive insufficiency, or severe diarrhea (resulting in electrolyte disturbances and dehydration);
4. Continuous use of traditional Chinese medicine (tripartite and three-drug treatment) for COVID-19 within 3 days before enrollment;
5. Patients who are also participating in other clinical trials.

J Pharm Anal ; 12(2): 270-277, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757596


A fast, reliable, and cost-effective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established to determine the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine employed to treat coronavirus disease 2019, namely, Lianhua Qingwen granules, Huoxiang Zhengqi capsules, Jinhua Qinggan granules, Shufeng Jiedu capsules, and Angong Niuhuang pills, on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir in rats. Blood samples were prepared using the protein precipitation method and atazanavir was selected as the internal standard (IS). Separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 µm) column using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min and the injection volume was 2 µL. Agilent Jet Stream electrospray ionization was used for mass spectrometry detection under positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode at a transition of m/z 629.3→447.3 for lopinavir, m/z 721.3→296.1 for ritonavir, and m/z 705.4→168.1 for the IS. The method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 25-2500 ng/mL (r=0.9981) for lopinavir and 5-500 ng/mL (r=0.9984) for ritonavir. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were both within ±15%. Items, such as dilution reliability and residual effect, were also within the acceptable limits. The method was used to determine the effects of five types of traditional Chinese medicines on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir in rats. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the half-life of ritonavir in the groups administered Lianhua Qingwen granules and Huoxiang Zhengqi capsules combined with lopinavir/ritonavir was prolonged by approximately 1.5- to 2-fold relative to that in the control group. Similarly, the pharmacokinetic parameters of lopinavir were altered. Overall, the results of this study offer important theoretical parameters for the effective clinical use of five types of traditional Chinese medicines combined with lopinavir/ritonavir to reduce the occurrence of clinical adverse reactions.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 40(9):590-597, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1726936


Objective: To screen potential active ingredients of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule(SJC)for novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19).

Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 289-299, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639209


The outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a huge threat to human health and social stability. Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC), a patented herbal drug composed of eight medicinal plants, is used to treat different viral respiratory tract infectious diseases. Based on its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities in acute lung injury, SFJDC can be effectively used as a treatment for COVID-19 patients according to the diagnosis and treatment plan issued in China and existing clinical data. SFJDC has been recommended in 15 therapeutic regimens for COVID-19 in China. This review summarizes current data on the ingredients, chemical composition, pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, and potential therapeutic effect of SFJDC on COVID-19, to provide a theoretical basis for its anti-viral mechanism and the clinical treatment of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Chin Med ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551216


The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spread and has made a severe public health threat around the world. To improve disease progression, emerging Chinese herbal compounds were used in clinical practice and some agents have proven beneficial in treating COVID-19. Here, the relevant literature from basic researches to clinical application were identified and comprehensively assessed. A variety of Chinese herbal compounds have been reported to be effective in improving symptoms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, particularly together with routine treatment strategy. The pharmacological activities were mainly attributed to the relief of clinical symptoms, inhibition of cytokine storm, and improvement of organ function. Besides, the development of novel antiviral drugs from medicinal herbs were further discussed. The updated laboratory and clinical studies provided the evidence of Chinese herbal compounds such as Lianhua Qingwen prescription, Shufeng Jiedu prescription, and Qingfei Paidu Tang for the relief of COVID-19. However, both of the randomized controlled trials and real world researches need to be done for supporting the evidence including the efficacy and safety in fighting COVID-19.

American Journal of Chinese Medicine ; 49(4):785-803, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408304


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads and rages around the world and threatens human life. It is disappointing that there are no specific drugs until now. The combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medication seems to be the current more effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients in China. In this review, we mainly discussed the relationship between COVID-19 and gut microbiota (GM), as well as the possible impact of TCM combined with western medication on GM in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, aiming to provide references for the possible role of GM in TCM against COVID-19. The available data suggest that GM dysbiosis did occur in COVID-19 patients, and the intervention of GM could ameliorate the clinical condition of COVID-19 patients. In addition, TCMs (e.g., Jinhua Qinggan granule, Lianhua Qingwen capsule, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shufeng Jiedu capsule, Qingjin Jianghuo decoction, Toujie Quwen granules, and MaxingShigan) have been proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of COVID-19 in Chinese clinic. Among them, Ephedra sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Bupleurum chinense, Lonicera japonica, Scutellaria baicalensi, and Astragalus membranaceus are common herbs and have a certain regulation on GM, immunity, and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Notably, Qingfei Paidu decoction and MaxingShigan have been demonstrated to modulate GM. Finally, the hypothesis of GM-mediated TCM treatment of COVID-19 is proposed, and more clinical trials and basic experiments need to be initiated to confirm this hypothesis.

Phytochem Rev ; 21(1): 219-237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378978


Whilst Western research for the COVID-19 crisis focuses on vaccination, in East Asia traditional herbal prescriptions are studied for SARS-CoV2 therapy. In Japan, Maoto (Ephedrae herba 4 g, Armeniacae semen 4 g, Cinnamomi cortex 3 g, and Glycyrrhizae radix 2 g, JPXVII) is used based on clinical evidence for its effect on early phase influenza (also caused by RNA viruses) comparable to that of oseltamivir. The Health Ministry of Thailand has approved Andrographis paniculata (Jap. Senshinren) extracts for treatment of COVID-19. Its combination (4 g) with Maoto, Maoto-ka-senshinren, seems most promising for the treatment of viral pandemics. In China, the official guideline for COVID-19 treatment contains TCM medications with antiviral, as well as immunmodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects such as: Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (Jap. Seihai-haidokuto) contains 21 drugs; Shufeng Jiedu Jiaonang (Bupleuri radix 8 g, Forsythiae fructus 8 g, Glycyrrhizae radix 4 g, Isatidis radix 8 g, Patriniae herba 8 g, Phragmitis rhizoma 6 g, Polygoni cuspidati rhizoma 10 g, Verbenae herba 8 g); Fufang Yuxingcao Heiji (Forsythiae fructus 0.6 g, Houttuyniae herba 6 g, Isatidis radix 1.5 g, Lonicerae flos 0.6 g, Scutellariae radix 1.5 g) first gained prominence during the 2002 SARS epidemic. With no Western medicine available, the following overview discusses efficacy and mechanisms in view of viral entry and replication of different East Asian herbal remedies for COVID-19 treatment.

Research on Biomedical Engineering ; 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1343087


Purpose: COVID-19 has spread and continues to spread rapidly across the world. There is still no approved and effective treatment for the disease. Several drugs are being administered empirically to patients, based on results from studies with limited methodologies. There is an urgent need for systematic reviews to support decision makers and the development of guidelines. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of drug studies carried out worldwide for COVID-19, verifying the effectiveness and methodological quality. Method: The search for relevant articles was performed in the Cochrane Central, MEDLINE, and Embase databases. The terms and combinations used for the search were ((coronavirus OR “2019-nCoV” OR 2019nCoV OR nCoV2019 OR “nCoV-2019” OR “COVID-19” OR COVID19 OR “HCoV-19” OR HCoV19 OR CoV OR “2019 novel*” OR Ncov OR “n-cov” OR “SARS-CoV-2” OR “SARSCoV-2” OR “SARSCoV2” OR “SARSCoV2” OR SARSCov19 OR “SARS-Cov19” OR “SARS-Cov-19”) OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome*” OR ((corona* OR corono*) AND (virus* OR viral* OR virinae*)) AND ((treatment) OR (medication) OR (symptoms)) AND (drugs)). The review process of the articles was carried out independently by four reviewers using the PRISMA-P method. Results: As a result, a total of 30 articles were selected, which addressed the study of one or more medications for severe cases of COVID-19, which were hydroxychloroquine (or chloroquine) and azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule, Combinations: remdesivir/lopinavir/homoharringtonine/emetine, remdesivir, interferon, lopinavir and ritonavir, thalidomide/methylprednisolone, tocilizumab, antimicrobial therapy. Conclusion: Despite efforts and studies, research does not provide evidence for the use of any drug to treat COVID-19, as the effects, safety, and efficacy are still uncertain. Thus, there is a need for systematic reviews to monitor, synthesize, and update the literature data on the subject, generating reliable evidence for decision makers. COVID-19 should be monitored and the need to develop effective drugs and vaccines to prevent disease progression must be reinforced.

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 714-720, 2021 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323328


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by Meta analysis. METHODS: The clinical randomized controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies on the treatment of COVID-19 with combination of Chinese traditional and Western medicine published on CNKI, Wanfang database, VIP database and PubMed were searched by computer from January 2020 to June 2020. Patients in the simple Western medicine treatment group were treated with routine treatment of Western medicine, and the patients in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment group were treated with traditional Chinese medicine on the basis of routine treatment of Western medicine. The main outcome was the total effective rate of treatment. The secondary outcome were the antipyretic rate, chest CT recovery rate, lymphocyte count (LYM), C-reactive protein (CRP) level and safety. The Cochrane manual and the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used to evaluate the quality of the literature; the RevMan5.3 software was used to analyze the articles that meets the quality standards, and a funnel chart was drawn to evaluate the total effective publication bias. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were analyzed, including 1 039 COVID-19 patients, 559 in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment group and 480 in simple Western medicine treatment group. The results of Meta- analysis showed that compared with the simple Western medicine treatment group, the combination of routine treatment of Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine Qingfei Paidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen granule, Shufeng jiedu capsule, Xuebijing injection or Reyanning mixture could significantly improve the total effective rate, antipyretic rate and chest CT recovery rate [total effective rate: odds ratio (OR) = 2.95, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 2.10-4.14, P < 0.000 01; antipyretic rate: OR =3.01, 95%CI was 1.64-5.53, P = 0.000 4; chest CT recovery rate: OR = 2.53, 95%CI was 1.83-3.51, P = 0.000 1], increase LYM levels [mean difference (MD) = 0.26, 95%CI was 0.02-0.50, P = 0.03], and reduce of CRP content (MD = -17.68, 95%CI was -33.14 to -2.22, P = 0.02). Based on the funnel chart analysis of 12 articles with total efficiency, the result showed that the funnel chart distribution was not completely symmetrical, indicating that there might be publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of routine treatment with Western medicine, combined with traditional Chinese medicine can significantly improve the total effective rate of COVID-19 and improve the laboratory results and clinical symptoms of patients. Compared with the routine treatment of Western medicine alone, the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine has better clinical efficacy and safety.

COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104896, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318933


Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has now spread to all parts of the world and almost all countries are battling against it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (Hereinafter referred to as "Integrated Medicine") to COVID-19. We searched six major Chinese and English databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case-control studies (CCSs) of Integrated Medicine on COVID-19. Two reviewers independently screened, identified studies, and extracted data. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of included RCTs and CCSs, respectively. Stata (version 13.0; StataCorp) was used to perform meta-analyses with the random-effects model. Risk ratio (RR) was used for dichotomous data while the weighted mean difference (WMD) was adopted for continuous variables as effect size, both of which were demonstrated in effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 11 studies were included. Four were RCTs and seven were CCSs. The sample size of including studies ranged from 42 to 200 (total 982). The traditional Chinese medicine included Chinese medicine compound drugs (QingFei TouXie FuZhengFang) and Chinese patent medicine (e.g. Shufeng Jiedu Capsule, Lianhua Qingwen granules). Compared with the control group, the overall response rate [RR = 1.230, 95%CI (1.113, 1.359), P = 0.000], cure rate [RR = 1.604, 95%CI (1.181, 2.177), P = 0.002], severity illness rate [RR = 0.350, 95%CI (0.154, 0.792), P = 0.012], and hospital stay [WMD = -1.991, 95%CI (-3.278, -0.703), P = 0.002] of the intervention group were better. In addition, Integrated Medicine can improve the disappearance rate of fever, cough, expectoration, fatigue, chest tightness and anorexia and reduce patients' fever, and fatigue time (P < 0.05). This review found that Integrated Medicine had better effects and did not increase adverse drug reactions for COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.

Betacoronavirus , Clinical Medicine/methods , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Chinese Medicine ; 11(1):9-18, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1236888


The paper is proposed to explore the potential effects of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule against COVID-19. The ingredients and targets of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule were collected by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the gene names of potential targets were extracted by UniProtKB. Then we did protein-protein interaction networks functional enrichment analysis by the STRING platform, reconstructed drug-target pathways and networks to predict the likely protein targets of the capsule against COVID-19 with software Cytoscape 3.6.1, and carried out GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis with R 5.3.2 software. At last we validated our predictions on molecular docking. The results suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule contained 155 ingredients and 237 targets, including 26 main active ingredients and 45 key targets. There were 2334 biological processes (BP), 103 cell composition (CC) and 198 molecular functions (MF) in GO Enrichment Analysis, and 177 pathways in the KEGG analysis. The molecular docking analysis showed that binding energy for 26 main active ingredients ranged from -32.21 to -25.94 kJ.mol-1, and the main targets bind to SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase by acting on CASP9, PRKCA, RELA and others. Our study suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule has potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19.