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1.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology ; : 104241, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472039

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an unprecedented threat and an effective response requires a collective effort: engagement in preventive health behaviors, even from people at low risk. Previous research demonstrates that belongingness to social groups can promote prosocial, preventive health behaviors. The current research tests the effects of belongingness to two types of groups, intimate (family) and social category (nation), on intentions to comply with preventive health behaviors and reasons for these behaviors. We conducted three studies using French participants at low risk of grave effects from COVID-19 (total N = 875). In Study 1, across three time periods, belongingness was correlated with greater intentions to comply with preventive behaviors when these behaviors were not enforced by law. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated threat to belongingness (vs. no threat). When belongingness was threatened, participants were less concerned with protecting vulnerable people. Closeness to family predicted preventive behavior intentions and both self-centered and prosocial reasons for these behaviors, regardless of condition. National identification buffered the negative effects of the threat to belongingness condition on preventive behavior intentions. In Study 3, we experimentally primed thoughts of belongingness to family vs. nation vs. control condition. We found greater intentions to engage in preventive behaviors and greater concern with protecting oneself and close relatives in the family condition. In summary, belongingness to one's family promotes preventive behavior intentions and the reasons given are to protect both oneself and others. Self-reported (but not primed) national identification can be related to prevention behavior intentions under certain conditions.

2.
Journal of Clinical Virology ; : 104999, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472030

ABSTRACT

Summary Objectives Risk of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among health-care workers (HCWs) is unknown. We assessed the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in the real-life setting of a longitudinal observational cohort of HCWs from the Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France, during the first and second waves of COVID-19 epidemic. Methods From March to December 2020, HCWs were subjected to molecular and serology testing of SARS-CoV-2. Reinfection was defined as a positive test result during the first wave, either by serology or PCR, followed by a positive PCR during the second wave. Evolution of COVID-19 status of HWCs was assessed by a Sankey diagram. Results A total of 7765 tests (4579 PCR and 3186 serology) were carried out and 4168 HCWs had at least one test result during the follow-up period with a positivity rate of 15.9%. No case of reinfection during the second wave could be observed among 102 positive HCWs of the first wave, nor among 175 HCWs found positive by PCR during the second wave who were negative during the first wave. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was not observed among HCWs, suggesting a protective immunity against reinfection that lasts at least 8 months post infection.

3.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472015

ABSTRACT

Background : Hospital workers have been under intense psychological pressure since the COVID-19 outbreak. We analyzed the psychological status of hospital staff in the late period of the COVID-19 to provide a basis for the construction of global health care after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods : We used online surveys to assess participants’ self-reported symptoms at the late stage of the outbreak. This study collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic-related factors, psychological status (PHQ-9, GAD-7, and PHQ-15), psychological assistance needs, perceived stress and support, PTSD symptoms (PCL-C) and suicidal and self-injurious ideation (SSI). Participants were hospital workers in all positions from 46 hospitals. Chi-square tests to compare the scales and logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for PTSD and SSI. Results : Among the 33,706 participants, the prevalences of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and SSI were 35.8%, 24.4%, 49.7%, 5.0%, and 1.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that work in a general ward, attention to the epidemic, high education, work in non-first-line departments, insufficient social support, and anxiety and somatization symptoms were influencing factors of PTSD (P<0.05). The independent risk factors for SSI were female gender;psychological assistance needs;contact with severe COVID-19 patients;high stress at work;single or divorced marital status;insufficient social support;and depression, anxiety or PTSD symptoms (P<0.05). Limitations : This cross-sectional study could not reveal causality, and voluntary participation may have led to selection bias. The longer longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long-term psychological impact. Conclusion : This COVID-19 pandemic had a sustained, strong psychological impact on hospital workers, and hospital workers with PTSD symptoms were a high-risk group for SSI in the later period of the epidemic. Continuous attention and positive psychological intervention are of great significance for specific populations.

4.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Point-of-care rapid tests to identify SARS-CoV-2 can be of great clinical help. METHODS A cross sectional study in adults visiting emergency services or screening sites of referral hospitals for COVID-19, to define the diagnostic performance of a rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 (Abbott´s Panbio™) performed by health personnel in a routine situation during an outbreak, compared with the RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS A total of 1,060 participants (mean age of 47 years, 47% with a self-reported comorbidity) recruited from eight hospitals in Mexico provided 1060 valid rapid test-RT-PCR test pairs with a prevalence of a positive RT-PCR test of 45%. Overall sensitivity of the Panbio test was 54.2% (95%CI 51-57) and for patients during the first week of symptoms was 69.1% (95%CI 66-73). Sensitivity depended on viral load (Cycle threshold of RT-PCR, Ct), and the days of symptoms. With a Ct≤25, sensitivity was 82% (95%CI, 76-87%). On the other hand, specificity of the rapid test was above 97.8% in all groups. CONCLUSIONS The PanbioTM rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 had a good specificity, but a low sensitivity in real life, and a negative test requires confirmation with RT-PCR, especially after the first week of symptoms.

5.
European Journal of Radiology ; : 110002, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471965

ABSTRACT

Purpose To examine the performance of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonia and to perform an analysis of CT patterns in a study cohort including viral, fungal and atypical bacterial pathogens. Methods Patients with positive RT-PCR tests for COVID-19 pneumonia (n=90) and non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonia (n=294) were retrospectively included. Five radiologists, blinded to the pathogen test results, assessed the CT scans and classified them as COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 pneumonia. For both groups specific CT features were recorded and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate their ability to predict COVID-19 pneumonia. Results The radiologists differentiated between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia with an overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 88% ± 4 (SD), 79% ± 6 (SD), and 90% ± 6 (SD), respectively. The percentage of correct ratings was lower in the early and late stage of COVID-19 pneumonia compared to the progressive and peak stage (68 and 71% vs 85 and 89%). The variables associated with the most increased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia were band like subpleural opacities (OR 5.55, p<0.001), vascular enlargement (OR 2.63, p=0.071), and subpleural curvilinear lines (OR 2.52, p=0.021). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia with OR of 0.30 (p=0.013) and 0.10 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Radiologists can differentiate between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 atypical pneumonias at chest CT with high overall accuracy, although a lower performance was observed in the early and late stage of COVID 19 pneumonia. Specific CT features might help to make the correct diagnosis.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 73:103637, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471944

ABSTRACT

Background The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant shedding and immune responses at the nasal mucosa remain poorly characterised. Methods We measured infectious viral release, antibodies and cytokines in 426 PCR+ nasopharyngeal swabs from individuals harboring non-alpha or alpha variants. Findings With both lineages, viral titers were variable, ranging from 0 to >106 infectious units. Rapid antigenic diagnostic tests were positive in 94% of samples with infectious virus. 68 % of individuals carried infectious virus within two days after onset of symptoms. This proportion decreased overtime. Viable virus was detected up to 14 days. Samples containing anti-spike IgG or IgA did not generally harbor infectious virus. Ct values were slightly but not significantly lower with alpha. This variant was characterized by a fast decrease of infectivity overtime and a marked release of 13 cytokines (including IFN-b, IP-10 and IL-10). Interpretation The alpha variant displays modified viral decay and cytokine profiles at the nasopharyngeal mucosae during symptomatic infection. Funding This retrospective study has been funded by Institut Pasteur, ANRS, Vaccine Research Institute, Labex IBEID, ANR/FRM and IDISCOVR, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 73:103626, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471943

ABSTRACT

Background Highly efficacious vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed. However, the emergence of viral variants that are more infectious than the earlier SARS-CoV-2 strains is concerning. Several of these viral variants have the potential to partially escape neutralizing antibody responses, warranting continued immune-monitoring. Methods We used a panel of 30 post-mRNA vaccination sera to determine neutralization and RBD and spike binding activity against a number of emerging viral variants. The virus neutralization was determined using authentic SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates in an assay format that mimics physiological conditions. Findings We tested seven currently circulating viral variants of concern/interest, including the three Iota sublineages, Alpha (E484K), Beta, Delta and Lambda in neutralization assays. We found only small decreases in neutralization against Iota and Delta. The reduction was stronger against a sub-variant of Lambda, followed by Beta and Alpha (E484K). Lambda is currently circulating in parts of Latin America and was detected in Germany, the US and Israel. Of note, reduction in a receptor binding domain and spike binding assay that also included Gamma, Kappa and A.23.1 was negligible. Interpretation Taken together, these findings suggest that mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may remain effective against these viral variants of concern/interest and that spike binding antibody tests likely retain specificity in the face of evolving SARS-CoV-2 diversity. Funding This work is part of the PARIS/SPARTA studies funded by the NIAID Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051. In addition, this work was also partially funded by the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS, contract # HHSN272201400008C), the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (research grant 2020-215611 (5384), by anonymous donors and by the Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) in part with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. 75N91019D00024, Task Order No. 75N91020F00003.

8.
Children and Youth Services Review ; : 106271, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471917

ABSTRACT

The research was conducted in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of parents with children between the ages of 4-6 during the COVID-19 pandemic process, through social media applications and programs. The research was designed as a quasi-experimental study with pre-testing, post-testing, and control groups using a quantitative research method. There are 67 parents in the study group, 32 of which are experimental, and 35 are of a controlled group. Data was obtained using The Personal Information Form, Child Neglect and Abuse Awareness Scale for Parents, and Parental Abuse Scale. The “Child Neglect and Abuse WhatsApp and Online Education Program” was applied to the participants in the experimental group. Each day, three messages were sent to the participants in the experimental group on the subjects of child neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse and sexual abuse, respectively. In addition, online training was given on the same subjects and in the same order in four sessions over the Zoom application. The participants in the control group did not receive any intervention. Before and after the implementation of the Child Neglect and Abuse WhatsApp and Online Education Program, data collection tools were given to the participants in the experimental and control groups. Paired samples t Test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used to analyze the data. As a result of the study, there was no statistically significant difference between the pre-test scores and the post test scores of the parents in the control group. When the differences between the pre and post test scores of the parents in the experimental group and the pre and post tests scores of the parents in the experimental and control groups were compared, it was observed that there was a significant difference in favor of the experimental group. In line with this result, it can be said that the education applied has had an impact on the parents' knowledge and awareness of child neglect and abuse.

9.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; 430:132966, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471903

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19), a deadly pandemic has spread worldwide and created many global health issues. Though methods of its detection are being continuously developed for the early detection and monitoring of COVID-19, still there is need for more novel methods. The presently used methods include rapid antigen tests, serological surveys, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), artificial intelligence-based techniques, and assays based on sensors/biosensors. Of all these, RT-PCR test has high sensitivity and specificity though it requires more time for testing and need for skilled technicians. Recently, electrochemical sensors have been developed for rapid monitoring and detection of SARS-CoV-2 from the patient’s biological fluid samples. This review covers the recently developed electrochemical sensors that are focused on the detection of viral nucleic acid, immunoglobulin, antigen, and the entire viral particles. In addition, we also compare and assess their detection limits, sensitivities and specificities for the identification and monitoring of COVID-19. Furthermore, this review will address the best practices for the development of electrochemical sensors such as electrode fouling, limit of detection/limit of quantification determination and verification.

10.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; 71, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1471870

ABSTRACT

Background: Appendicitis accounts for the most frequent surgical emergencies in childhood. The guidance from the Royal College of Surgeons and poor post operative outcomes in surgical patients during the pandemic, it would be expected that only children who had clinical signs of appendicitis and were unwell, would have undergone surgery. Hence, the negative appendicectomy rate during the pandemic should have decreased. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the rate of negative appendicectomy amongst children <16 years of age during the first wave of the pandemic, from the announcement of the lockdown and determine if there was a true difference by comparing the rate with the same time period in 2019. Material and methods: Data of all children aged<16 years who were operated for appendicitis between 23/3/2020 and 30/06/2020 was collected retrospectively and compared with that of children operated during the same time period in 2019 for the rate of negative appendicectomy. Data were analysed using the two-tailed t-test for continuous data and χ2 or Fishers exact tests for categorical data with p value of <0.05 considered significant. Results: Twenty three paediatric patients presenting with acute appendicitis underwent appendicectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic and 35 patients during 2019. Overall 17.39% patients underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy in 2020 while 54.29% in 2019. The negative appendicectomy rate was zero during the pandemic while it was 17.14% in 2019. There was no difference in the median length of hospital stay during the two time periods. There was no significant difference in complication or re-admission rate. Conclusion: This study has the lowest reported incidence of negative appendicectomy rate during the pandemic following wider use of pre operative imaging and early senior involvement in decision making. The increased number of complicated appendicitis during the pandemic did not translate to worse clinical outcomes.

11.
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine ; : 100963, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471855

ABSTRACT

Argatroban is a direct anti-IIa (thrombin) anticoagulant, administered as a continuous intravenous infusion;it has been approved in many countries for the anticoagulant management of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT). Argatroban was recently proposed as the non-heparin anticoagulant of choice for the management of patients diagnosed with Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopaenia (VITT). Immunoglobulins are also promptly intravenously administered in order to rapidly improve platelet count;concomitant therapy with steroids is also often considered. An ad hoc committee of the French Working Group on Haemostasis and Thrombosis members has worked on updated and detailed proposals regarding the management of anticoagulation with argatroban, based on previously released guidance for HIT, and adapted for VITT. In case of VITT, the initial dose to be preferred is 1.0 µg x kg-1 x min-1, with further dose-adjustments based on iterative and frequent clinical and laboratory assessments. It is strongly advised to involve a health practitioner experienced in the management of difficult cases in haemostasis. The first laboratory assessment should be performed 4 hours after the initiation of argatroban infusion, with further controls at 2-4-hour intervals until steady state, and at least once daily thereafter. Importantly, full anticoagulation should be rapidly achieved in case of widespread thrombosis. Cerebral vein thrombosis (which is typical of VITT) should not call for an overly cautious anticoagulation scheme. Argatroban administration requires baseline laboratory assessment and should rely on an anti-IIa assay to derive argatroban plasma levels using a dedicated calibration, with a target range between 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL. Target argatroban plasma levels can be refined based on meticulous appraisal of risk factors for bleeding and thrombosis, on frequent reassessments of clinical status with appropriate vascular imaging, and on the changes in daily platelet counts. Regarding the use of aPTT, baseline value and possible causes for alterations of the clotting time must be taken into account. Specifically, in case of VITT, an aPTT ratio (patient’s / mean normal clotting time) between 1.5 and 2.5 is suggested, to be refined according to the sensitivity of the reagent to the effect of a direct thrombin inhibitor. The sole use of aPTT is discouraged: one has to resort to a periodical check with an anti-IIa assay at least, with the help of a specialised laboratory if necessary. Dose modifications should proceed in a stepwise manner with 0.1 to 0.2 µg x kg-1 x min-1 up- or downward changes, taking into account the initial dose, laboratory results, and the whole individual setting. Nomograms are available to adjust the infusion rate. Haemoglobin level, platelet count, fibrinogen plasma level and liver tests should be periodically checked, depending on the clinical status, the more so when unstable.

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265193

ABSTRACT

Background: With the onset of COVID-19, primary care has swiftly transitioned from face-to-face to virtual care, yet it remains largely unknown how this has impacted on the quality and safety of care. Aim: To evaluate patient use of virtual primary care models during COVID-19 in terms of change in uptake, perceived impact on the quality and safety of care, and willingness of future use. Design and setting: An online cross-sectional survey was administered to the public across the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy and Germany. Methods: McNemar tests were conducted to test pre- and post pandemic differences in uptake for each technology. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to examine patient experience ratings and perceived impacts on healthcare quality and safety across demographic characteristics. Results: Respondents (N=6,326) reported an increased use of telephone consultations (+6.3%, P<.001), patient-initiated services (+1.5%, n=98, p<0.001), video consultations (+1.4%, P<.001), remote triage (+1.3, p<0.001), and secure messaging systems (+0.9%, P=.019). Experience rates using virtual care technologies were higher for men (2.39{+/-}0.96 vs 2.29{+/-}0.92, P<.001), those with higher literacy (2.75{+/-}1.02 vs 2.29{+/-}0.92, P<.001), and participants from Germany (2.54{+/-}0.91, P<.001). Healthcare timeliness and efficiency were the quality dimensions most often reported as being positively impacted by virtual technologies (60.2%, n=2,793 and 55.7%, n=2,401, respectively), followed by effectiveness (46.5%, n=1,802), safety (45.5%, n=1,822), patient-centredness (45.2%, n=45.2) and equity (42.9%, n=1,726). Interest in future use was highest for telephone consultations (55.9%), followed by patient-initiated digital services (56.1%), secure messaging systems (43.4%), online triage (35.1%), video consultations (37.0%), and chat consultations (30.1%), although significant variation was observed between countries and patient characteristics. Conclusion: Future work must examine the drivers and determinants of positive experiences using remote care to co-create a supportive environment that ensures equitable adoption and use across different patient groups. Comparative analysis between countries and health systems offers the opportunity for policymakers to learn from best practices internationally.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265190

ABSTRACT

Background Several studies have compared the performance of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) as tools to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). As the performance of Ag-RDT may vary among different products and viral load scenarios, the clinical utility of the Ag-RDT remains unclear. Our aim is to assess the diagnostic agreement between Ag-RDTs and RT-PCR in testing for COVID-19 across different products and cycle threshold (Ct) values. Methods An evidence synthesis and meta-analysis of Positive Percent Agreement (PPA) and Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was conducted after an exhaustive search of five databases to locate published studies that compared Ag-RDT to RT-PCR and reported quantitative comparison results. After the screening, quality assessment, and data extraction, the synthesis of pooled estimates was carried out utilizing the quality-effects (QE) model and Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation (FTT) for variance stabilization. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to evaluate the tests diagnostic agreement across distinctive products and Ct-value thresholds. Findings A total of 420 studies were screened by title and abstract, of which 39 were eventually included in the analysis. The overall NPA was 99.4% (95%CI 98.8-99.8, I2=91.40%). The PPA was higher in lower Ct groups such as groups with Ct <20 and Ct <25, which had an overall PPA of 95.9% (95%CI 92.7-98.2, I2=0%) and 96.8% (95%CI 95.2-98.0, I2=50.1%) respectively. This is in contrast to groups with higher Ct values, which had relatively lower PPA. Panbio and Roche Ag-RDTs had the best consistent overall PPA across different Ct groups especially in groups with Ct <20 and Ct <25. Interpretation The findings of our meta-analysis support the use of Ag-RDTs in lieu of RT-PCR for decision making regarding COVID-19 control measures, since the enhanced capacity of RT-PCR to detect disease in those that are Ag-RDT negative will be unlikely to have much public health utility. This step will drastically reduce the cost and time in testing for COVID-19.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265028

ABSTRACT

Background- It is important to understand the spectrum of pulmonary diseases that patients are presenting after recovery from initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to study small airway disease and changes in Computed Tomography (CT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) with time. Methods: This is retrospective observation study including adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with at-least two CT scans either during acute (defined as < 1 month) or subacute (1-3 months) or chronic (>3months) phase after positive test. Radiological features and follow up PFTs were obtained. Results: 22 patients met the inclusion criteria with mean age 57.6 years (range 36-83). Out of these,18 (81.81%) were hospitalized. Mean duration of diagnosis to CT and PFT was 192.68 (112-385) days and 161.54 (31-259) days respectively. On PFTs, restrictive pulmonary physiology was predominant finding during subacute 56.25% (9/16) and chronic phases 47% (7/15). PFTs improved significantly with time {FEV1((p=0.0361), FVC (p=0.0341), FEF 25%-75% (p=0.0259) and DLCO (p=0.0019)}, but there was persistent air trapping in the expiratory chronic phase CT. There was resolution of ground glass opacity, consolidation, and bronchiectasis however air trapping increased with time in 41.61% (10/21) of subacute CTs compared to 81.25% (13/16) in chronic CTs. Conclusion - Our study shows evidence of airway as well as parenchymal disease as relatively long-term sequel of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It also highlights the natural course and spontaneous recovery of some radiological and pulmonary function test abnormalities over time with evidence of persistent small airway disease (air trapping) on expiratory CT imaging months after infection.

15.
Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaya Ekologiya ; 61(7):431-435, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471320

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are many consequences of the new coronavirus infection. We shall study the actual long-term consequences of this disease for population health in the coming years. It is necessary to consider concomitant chronic diseases in patients who are particularly dangerous in the post-COVID peri-od. Vibration disease is one of the leading occupational pathologies in the Russian Federation. Symptoms of vibration disease are vegetative-vascular disorders, cold, cyanosis, paresthesia, violation of regional blood circulation of the extremities. As is known from numerous sources, the defeat of the cardiovascular system (CVS) against the background of COVID-19 infection occurs through angiotensin-converting en-zyme (ACE-2) receptors, which presents in large numbers in the endothelium of veins and arteries. The study aims to research hemodynamics features in patients with vibration disease after a new corona-virus infection. In the clinic of occupational pathology, the researchers examined 28 patients with a previously established diagnosis of VD after a coronavirus infection. We did a Holter ECG, ultra-sound examination of the arteries and veins of the upper extremities. Arrhythmias in the form of supraventricular extrasystoles, paroxysms of atrial fibrillation, posi-tional sinus tachycardia occur in patients with VB after a new coronavirus infection on an ECG and daily monitoring of the ECG by Holter. As is known, cardiac arrhythmias are essential in the development of acute and chronic vascular pathology, characterized by a decrease in arterial blood filling and changes. Ul-trasound of the vessels of the upper extremities revealed moderate expansion of the radial and ulnar veins, insufficiency of the valve apparatus during functional tests, increased venous outflow. There was also an increase in the indicators of peripheral vascular resistance, which indicates violations of the tonic proper-ties of the vessels of the upper extremities and violations of vasodilation. Scientists identified violations of the tonic properties of blood vessels in patients with vibra-tion disease in the post-COVID period on ultrasound, arrhythmias in the form of supraventricular extrasys-toles, paroxysms of atrial fibrillation, positional sinus tachycardia on daily ECG monitoring. © 2021, Izmerov Research Institute of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved.

16.
Emerging Science Journal ; 5(Special issue):119-129, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471303

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. This study aims to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry in Malaysia and its overall economic performance. This research used an extensive set of statistical tests, including a newly constructed AutoRegressive Neural Network-ADF (ARNN-ADF) test, to determine if foreign visitor arrivals from 10 main source markets in Malaysia will revert to normal. Secondary data from various government published sources were used in this conceptual methodology technique for this study. Based on the research results and exploratory research of the literature, we listed in a synthesizing manner several measures to ensure the resilience of the tourism sector during the COVID-19 pandemic period. This research makes a significant contribution to the literature in terms of validating a new framework that emphasizes the effects of tourists that are largely transitory. In conclusion, this conceptual study will further help the authorities to take precautions and the best policy to be implemented in the future. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee ESJ, Italy.

17.
Journal of Health Sciences ; 11(2):93-97, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471210

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A new disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is with insufficiently known epidemiological characteristics and spectrum of clinical expression in childhood. Children have a lower incidence of this disease with a predominance of mild forms but severe clinical forms, such as among others, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur, according to current findings. In children with atypical symptomatology and positive or suspicious epidemiological survey, practitioners should consider the possibility of COVID-19. Methods: This study formed the group of 70 children previously healthy or with no pre-existing heart disease from Sarajevo with positive post-COVID history. Following the history of disease and epidemiological data, establishing the 1st day of disease or contact, a detailed cardiovascular examination was performed, including parameters of body weight, height, oxygen saturation, pulse, blood pressure, 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG) done on Schiller machine, values of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or serological test on corona: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM. Echocardiographic examination was done using M, B mode, color, continuous wave, and pulse wave Doppler in standard views. Laboratory blood tests included: Full blood count, creatinine phosphokinase myofibril, creatinine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase;liver enzymes, D dimer, C reactive protein, and urine. Results: Majority of children (64.3%) were asymptomatic. ECG was normal in relation to patients’ age except in eight patients (intermittent palpitations on exertion) who had short PR interval 0.120–0.140 ms, with no delta wave, with heart rate within the normal range according to age, so 24 h ECG Holter was performed without any significant arrhythmias, incomplete right branch block has been documented in 12%, monofocal ventricular ectopic extrasistoly in 15%. Mean IgG, as a marker of infection, showed a statistical significance when compared between age Groups I and II (<5) and older groups: III, IV, and V (>5) (p < 0.05;p = 0.043). PCR test was negative in 9 (70 children), although they showed symptoms, COVID-19 infection clinical data, and positive laboratory findings. Echocardiogram was normal in all patients with normal ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Conclusion: The possibility of COVID-19 in children with atypical symptomatology and positive or suspicious epidemiological survey should be in the focus of every pediatrician at primary care institutions nowadays. Cardiovascular assessment should always be an option in post-COVID patients. Immunological assessment is necessary in post-COVID patients in order to gain a further understanding of PTS status. With more serological testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 physicians would be able to make a diagnosis of COVID-19 timely and more accurately, as well as to evaluate the role of asymptomatic children in disease transmission and to assess the importance of protective antibodies and the distribution of COVID-19. © 2021. Senka Mesihović-Dinarević and Timur Šečić;licensee University of Sarajevo - Faculty of Health Studies. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

18.
European Journal of Educational Research ; 10(4):1867-1879, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471177

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic changed education conditions worldwide forcing all the parties involved to adapt to a new system. This study aimed to collect information related to the effects of teaching English online on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' achievement. Data were collected from EFL teachers and students enrolled in three different Ecuadorian Universities (Technical University of Ambato, Higher Polytechnic School of Chimborazo, and University of Cuenca) from five different levels: A1, A2, B1, B1+, and B2. This preliminary paper reports the results of 480 students regarding four major sections: pedagogical practice and assessment, learning outcomes, affective factors and perceptions of students about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning during the pandemic COVID-19;considering the Hierarchy of online learning needs of Justin Shewell. An online survey questionnaire with 17 questions and a 5-point Likert scale was applied. The Cronbach's Alpha test presented 0.84 and 0.73 level of reliability. The Kolmogorov Smirnov's statistic and, the Kendall's Tau_b tests, and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances were performed with the SPSS statistical program. The results made evident that online learning affects academic achievement in EFL students during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was confirmed after analyzing four main areas: pedagogical practices and assessment, learning outcomes, affective factors and students' perceptions about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning. The importance of online learning was highlighted since it has been understood as a tool to face the emergency produced by the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021 The Author(s). Open Access - This article is under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

19.
Viruses ; 13(10):2071, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1470995

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). However, rapid antigen detection kits (Ag-RDTs), may offer advantages over NAAT in mass screening, generating results in minutes, both as laboratory-based test or point-of-care (POC) use for clinicians, at a lower cost. We assessed two different POC Ag-RDTs in mass screening versus NAAT for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of IRCCS—Polyclinic of Sant’Orsola, Bologna (from November 2020 to April 2021). All patients were screened with nasopharyngeal swabs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-RNA and for antigen tests. Results were obtained from 1146 patients. The COVID-19 Ag FIA kit showed a baseline sensitivity of 53.8% (CI 35.4–71.4%), baseline specificity 99.7% (CI 98.4–100%) and overall accuracy of 80% (95% CI 0.68–0.91);the AFIAS COVID-19 Ag kit, baseline sensitivity of 86.4% (CI 75.0–93.9%), baseline specificity 98.3% (CI 97.1–99.1%) and overall accuracy of 95.3% (95% CI 0.92–0.99). In both tests, some samples showed very low viral load and negative Ag-RDT. This disagreement may reflect the positive inability of Ag-RDTs of detecting antigen in late phase of infection. Among all cases with positive molecular test and negative antigen test, none showed viral loads>106 copies/mL. Finally, we found one false Ag-RDTs negative result (low cycle thresholds;9 × 105 copies/mL). Our results suggest that both Ag-RDTs showed good performances in detection of high viral load samples, making it a feasible and effective tool for mass screening in actively infected children.

20.
Sensors ; 21(20):6853, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1470953

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every country causing devastating economic and social disruption and stretching healthcare systems to the limit. Furthermore, while being the current gold standard, existing test methods including NAAT (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests), clinical analysis of chest CT (Computer Tomography) scan images, and blood test results, require in-person visits to a hospital which is not an adequate way to control such a highly contagious pandemic. Therefore, top priority must be given, among other things, to enlisting recent and adequate technologies to reduce the adverse impact of this pandemic. Modern smartphones possess a rich variety of embedded MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) sensors capable of recording movements, temperature, audio, and video of their carriers. This study leverages the smartphone sensors for the preliminary diagnosis of COVID-19. Deep learning, an important breakthrough in the domain of artificial intelligence in the past decade, has huge potential for extracting apt and appropriate features in healthcare. Motivated from these facts, this paper presents a new framework that leverages advanced machine learning and data analytics techniques for the early detection of coronavirus disease using smartphone embedded sensors. The proposal provides a simple to use and quickly deployable screening tool that can be easily configured with a smartphone. Experimental results indicate that the model can detect positive cases with an overall accuracy of 79% using only the data from the smartphone sensors. This means that the patient can either be isolated or treated immediately to prevent further spread, thereby saving more lives. The proposed approach does not involve any medical tests and is a cost-effective solution that provides robust results.

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