Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 50 de 127.901
Filter
Add filters

Year range
4.
5.
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ; 26(6):S98-S99, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937870
6.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health ; 23(15), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937869

ABSTRACT

The case report has been presented to show the effects of structured exercise protocol and tele-counselling on oxygen saturation level and rate of perceived exertion rate in older men with COVID 19 using digital pulse oximeter and Modified Borg's Scale The present case is that of a 72-year-old male He was guided for a structured exercises and tele-counselling for 3 weeks The program included Chest percussion techniques, deep breathing and thorax mobility exercises, incentive spirometry exercise, performed daily twice a week, 30 min each session, for 3 weeks Outcome measures included the oxygen saturation and rate of perceived exertion changes by Pulse oximeter and Modified Borg's scale grading The Pre and Post-test of the patient demonstrated significantly greater improvements in oxygen saturation level and rate of perceived exertion also This case study provides a promising exercise intervention and tele-counselling that may improve chest compliance and improved activities in older men with COVID 19 respiratory issues © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications All rights reserved

7.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care ; 24(3):367-369, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937868
8.
Journal of Renewable Materials ; 8(12):1543-1563, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937865

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are responsible for a developing budgetary, human and fatality trouble, as the causative factor of infections, for example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) It has been well recognized that SARS-CoV-2 may survive under severe atmosphere circumstances Hence, efficient containment approaches, for example, sanitizing, are crucial Commonly, living compounds contribute a substance of chemical heterogeneity, with antiviral movement, and therefore can have efficacy as therapeutic tools toward coronavirus diseases Here, in this review article, we have described the antimicrobial-based materials, which can be used to inhibit the spreading of the COVID-19 We have categorized these materials in three sections;(i) antimicrobial wall paint, (ii) antimicrobial papers and (iii) antimicrobial materials surface coating to be utilized as the antimicrobial-based materials for controlling the COVID-19 In the last section, we have given the concluding remarks with prospects in this area © 2020, Tech Science Press All rights reserved

9.
Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy ; 11(9):1019-1024, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937863

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic (COVID-19) has created an unprecedented challenge for the scientific community and ordinary people alike The pandemic apart from being life-threatening has also created a lot of anxiety among the people This anxiety can have long term consequences for the individual The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a short scale to assess COVID-19 pandemic anxiety Materials and Method: The data were collected in two phases through online surveys A total of 318 adult Indian participants formed the sample In the first phase, data collected from 107 participants on the initial 34 items scale were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) For extraction, principal component analysis with oblique rotation was employed The resulting model was tested in the second phase using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the maximum likelihood method The resulting COVID-19 pandemic anxiety scale (COVID-19 PAS) was also correlated with an existing scale based on DSM-5, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Results: EFA involving Principal component analysis with oblique rotation identified two factors of COVID-19 pandemic anxiety The obtained two factors;fear and somatic concerns explained 57 36 percent of the variance The resulting model was tested using CFA with the maximum likelihood method The resulting final model indicated an excellent model fit The Cronbach alpha of the short 10 items COVID-19 pandemic scale was 0 80 The correlation between COVID-19 PAS and CAS by Lee was significant (r=0 56, p < 0 01), indicating significant convergent validity of the scale Conclusion: The COVID-19 PAS illustrated significant internal consistency and validity The scale can be a useful instrument to study COVID-19 pandemic anxiety © 2020 EManuscript Technologies All rights reserved

10.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 13(1):445-450, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937862

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene is the most primary, but a very necessary practice for maintaining health hygiene The pandemic attack of COVID-19 is highly contagious that primarily spreads through the hands Hand washing and hand rubbing protect against not only from SARS-CoV-2 (Virus of COVID-19 disease), but other harmful microbes also The authors have found by surveying and reviewing various literature that, frequent hand washing with sanitizer or soap and detergents as well cause vandalism of the skin's outermost layer, dryness of skin, rough skin, erythomatous scaly patches, allergic contact dermatitis, destruction of skin proteins, and epidermal keratin denaturation or hand hygiene associated other dermal adverse reactions especially in health care workers (HCW) along with common mass So, prolonged use of sanitizer, soap or detergent and their adverse dermal reaction may be minimized by the use of alternative herbal ingredients in alcohol-based sanitizer © 2020, Advanced Scientific Research All rights reserved

11.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 13(1):261-266, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937861

ABSTRACT

The right to health and equity is the paramount concern of the State, especially in times of epidemic and pandemic The nationwide lockdown and COVID-19 has witnessed a series of judicial inte3rvention in health right and equity Although there is a settled jurisprudence concerning health right and entitlement, the current streak of judicial innovation represents a novel discourse in the understanding of the public health administration and governance in India An inquiry into the judicial policy of the epidemic-pandemic in the comparative jurisdiction seems fascinating in deepening our understanding of the state expediency and citizens liberty The precedents in Gibbons v Ogden, Louisiana State Board of Health Case, Jew Ho v Williamson and Wong Wai v Williamson deepens the understanding of the public health administration and governance The rulings of Indian Supreme Court in Alakh Alok Srivastava v Union of India, Shashank Deo Sudhi v Union of India, suo motu cognizance of COVID-19 Testing and Sachin Jain v Union of India also open a new vista of health right and justice in India © 2020, Advanced Scientific Research All rights reserved

12.
Slovenske Divadlo ; 68(3):276-292, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937860

ABSTRACT

The essay presents the thesis that despite their activist tradition, Czech theatres abandoned any social criticism during the COVID-19 pandemic because they were unable to speak publicly about the structural conditions of the crisis (overtourism, mobility, etc ) and possibilities for change The author argues that it is because the language of theatre professionals is nowadays shallow and clichéd and serves rather as a strategy to secure the positions in the artistic field than the true speech capable of addressing the public This situation is interpreted in terms of neoliberalism/capitalist realism (Mark Fisher) producing the pragmatic language incapable of imagination and transformation The intellectuals' speech of transcendentals (detached from the reality) is contrasted with true speech (Martin Buber, François Laruelle) originating in immanence The artists are depicted as the keepers of personal, archetypal language capable of producing universal ("terrestrial" - Bruno Latour) images of utopia This is discussed especially in the context of the environmental crisis © 2020 Slovenske Divadlo All rights reserved

13.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention ; 21(S1):1-2, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937859

ABSTRACT

The tobacco epidemic is a significant global public health threat, killing more than eight million people a year around the world Although the average rate of tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) is declining over time in accordance with global trends, the region is experiencing the slowest decline of all six WHO regions Around 12% of boys aged 13-15 and 4% of girls in the same age group are current tobacco users in WPR The fact that nearly six million children use tobacco products at the young age of 13-15 is cause for concern With the COVID-19 pandemic affecting many countries globally, now is an opportune time to reduce tobacco use Tobacco data collection, which is the focus of this special supplement, plays a key role in understanding the magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences of tobacco use and exposure Good monitoring tracks the extent and character of the tobacco epidemic and indicates how best to tailor policies The findings and lessons from this special supplement provide a welcome contribution to the progress made in global tobacco control and a testament to the efforts and dedication of countries across the Western Pacific Region to fighting the tobacco epidemic

14.
Zeitschrift fur Evaluation ; 19(2):291-320, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937858

ABSTRACT

This article presents an expanded reflection of the keynote presented at the 22nd annual conference of DeGEval, the German Language Association for Evaluation, focusing on the evaluation of sustainability for sustainability under consideration of the sustainability evaluation checklist Concepts of sustainability and sustainability evaluation are discussed in light of recent developments in the field, and the sustainability evaluation checklist is introduced Throughout, reflections are made related to the current social, economic, and political climate in the world It is argued that the checklist maintains its relevance for sustainability evaluation, and in particular, for teaching sustainability and evaluation The article concludes with a brief discussion of sustainability evaluation in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic © 2020 Waxmann

15.
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research ; 19:803-832, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937857

ABSTRACT

Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore language teachers’ online engagement during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia Four questions guided the inquiry in this study: 1) To what extent did teachers engage in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic? 2) What challenges did teachers encounter while engaging in online learning during the Covid-19 crisis? 3) How has the suspension of face-to-face classroom meetings changed teachers’ practices? and 4) What were their hopes for the future of education in their respective regions? Background: The sudden learn-from-home mode enacted since 24 March 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic has forced all schools to shift into online learning with no or little preparation in terms of internet access, teacher capacity, and stu-dent-parent readiness All in all, the pandemic disruption has shed light on the widening digital divide that has serious implications for the human capital development in Indonesia Methodology: This case study involved 18 teachers from four regions in Indonesia Data were collected through an online survey, weekly reflections, and interviews with the teachers A group interview with five students for each of the 18 teachers was used as triangulation To probe more deeply into a representative sample for a variety of attributes, the researchers then focused on four teachers for a more in-depth analysis Contribution: Knowledge of the impacting factors on online learning engagement can aid in resolving the issues and providing equal opportunities for all students This study highlighted that teachers in remote regions would need a more top-down intervention from education authorities and offered two recommendations to the government to overcome the widening digital divide as amplified by the current school suspension This study presents interesting results pertaining to online learning engagement during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia Insights gained in this study would contribute to the perspective on the challenges and dilemmas faced by educators and students elsewhere while engaging in online learning Findings: This study found an interplay of five related factors of online learning pro-cesses against five levels of engagement Those five factors are learners, teachers’ prior exposure to online learning, technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and the support system Teachers in this study were still struggling to enhance the quality of online learning engagement Nevertheless, given the rising awareness of the inadequacy of their online learning delivery and a renewed sense of commitment, these teachers had high hopes that they would be able to enhance their competence and improve their professional practices Recommendations for Practitioners: This study found most teacher participants have, within a short period, enhanced their technological knowledge (TK) regardless of their prior exposure to technology Teachers can be encouraged to integrate their technological knowledge with pedagogical and content knowledge to develop their techno-logical pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) by participating in the government program for teacher professional development Recommendations for Researchers: This study involves only language teachers;therefore, future researchers are invited to involve non-language teachers so that more conclusive findings can be obtained Impact on Society: Knowledge of the impacting factors on online learning engagement can aid in resolving the issues and providing equal opportunities for all students More importantly, the lessons learned should enlighten educators that technology integration into sound pedagogy would transform current practices into quality learning Future Research: Issues related to technology integration in education can still be unearthed especially because the budding insights of online learning will steadily be developing in post-pandemic realm, particularly in Indonesia © 2020

16.
Scientific Visualization ; 12(4):85-97, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937855

ABSTRACT

One of the most important tasks for decision-making systems is obvious and intuitive visualization of input data If they are displayed correctly and conveniently, this tool can become a very serious assistant for a decision-maker Such a tool influences not only on the complexity of the decision-making process, but also the correctness and objectivity of the decisions made Because of this so much attention is paid to this issue in various studies However, nowadays the issue of displaying the dynamics of changes in structured data (data in which the observed value has an internal structure and consists of a large number of components) is not sufficiently developed This paper focuses on these issues, provides a formal description of structured data, and suggests an approach to displaying the dynamics of their changes The proposed approach to visualization allows to see both the general process of changing the observed value and the nature of changes in its internal structure Separate charts give the opportunity to see the contribution of each component of a structured value and evaluate the dynamics of this contribution over time The paper also shows the area of potential application of this approach, highlights its features and main prospects Most of examples in the paper are based on the developed software package for modeling the situation with the spread of COVID-19 in Bryansk region, which used the proposed visualization option There are also examples in which the proposed approach to visualization helps to get new information that is not visible when using other approaches to displaying structured data © 2020 National Research Nuclear University All rights reserved

17.
Online Turk Saglik Bilimleri Dergisi ; 5(3):510-518, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937854

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the assistant physicians who were taking medical specialty training in a medical faculty hospital Materials and Methods: We performed this cross-sectional study in a university hospital The universe of the survey was composed of all assistant physicians who were taking medical specialty training in this hospital

18.
Surgical Neurology International ; 12:1-9, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937841

ABSTRACT

Background: As citizens have been forced to stay home during coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the crisis created unique trends in the neurotrauma patterns with changes in mode, severity, and outcome of head injured patients Methods: Details of neurotrauma admissions under the neurosurgery department at our institute since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic in the country were collected retrospectively and compared to the same period last year in terms of demographic profile, mode of injury, GCS at admission, severity of head injury, radiological diagnosis, management (surgical/conservative), and outcome The patients were studied according to which phase of pandemic they were admitted in - "lockdown" period (March 25 to May 31, 2020) or "unlock" period (June 1 to September 15, 2020) Results: The number of head injuries decreased by 16 8% during the COVID-19 pandemic Furthermore, during the lockdown period, the number of admissions was 2 7/week while it was 6 8/week during the "unlock" period RTA was the mode of injury in 29 6% patients during the lockdown, while during the unlock period, it was 56 9% (P = 0 000) Mild and moderate head injuries decreased by 41% and severe head injuries increased by 156 25% during the COVID-19 pandemic (P = 0 000) The mortality among neurotrauma patients increased from 12 4% to 22 5% during the COVID-19 era (P = 0 009) Conclusion: We observed a decline in the number of head injury admissions during the pandemic, especially during the lockdown At the same time, there was increase in the severity of head injuries and associated injuries, resulting in significantly higher mortality in our patients during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Surgical Neurology International is the property of Scientific Scholar LLC and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )

19.
Latin American Research Review ; 55(3):407-411, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937840

ABSTRACT

The new team, led by Professor Carmen Martínez Novo (University of Florida), will take over the evaluation of manuscripts in January 2021, and it will select articles to be published starting in volume 57 (2022) 1 It has been a great honor to serve as LARR's editor in chief during an era of great transformations Since 2016, LARR has completed the transition to open access and ended circulation by subscription;it has connected with readers through social networks and a blog;it has created a new LASA award;it has established itself as a top journal for the humanities while preserving its traditional strength in the social sciences;and it has improved its impact factor considerably At the end of 2019, our associate editors were Xóchitl Bada (sociology, University of Illinois at Chicago), Mónica Espinosa Arango (anthropology, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia), Claudia Ferman (documentary film review editor, University of Richmond), Michel Gobat (history, University of Pittsburgh), Fabrice Lehoucq (book review editor, University of North Carolina), Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel (literature and cultural studies, University of Miami), José Molinas Vega (economics, Instituto Desarrollo, Paraguay), and Jana Morgan (politics and international relations, University of Tennessee) The most active fields in 2019 were politics and international relations (27 percent of all submissions) and literature and cultural studies (16 percent) Of thirty-nine research papers published in 2019, 44 percent were in the humanities (anthropology, history, and literature and cultural studies) and 56 percent in the social sciences (economics, political science and international relations, and sociology), with political science, sociology, literature, and history being the most prominent subjects

20.
Journal of Clinical and Health Sciences ; 5(1):26-41, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937839

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought much fear and anxiety worldwide due to the rapid transmission rate and mortality The exponential surge of COVID- 19 cases need to be addressed aggressively to flatten the epidemic curve This review aims to describe the COVID-19 disease epidemiology and disease transmission, response actions taken by the authorities to control this pandemic and risk communication strategies in Malaysia A literature search via the ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases of published articles and official statements from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia from December 2019 to May 2020 was conducted The first wave of COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia started in late January involving 22 cases but the second wave involved more cases due to the massive religious gathering that occurred in late February Malaysia implemented the Movement Control Order (MCO) on 18th March 2020 and other well-coordinated response action plans to prevent community transmission The reproduction number (R0) was successfully reduced from 3 6 to 0 3 due to the MCO Malaysia's risk communication strategies that include daily press conference by the Director General of Health and dissemination of information through national television and social media, played a crucial role in dealing with the COVID-19 outbreak In conclusion, effective response actions and mitigation plans, should be the main priorities to combat this pandemic The immediate direction will need to be focused on development of vaccines for COVID-19 Future research should study the origin of the virus in animals and the role of comorbidities contributing to poorer prognosis

21.
Sklifosovsky Journal Emergency Medical Care ; 9(3):321-337, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937838

ABSTRACT

In the context of the pandemic, when healthcare professionals are forced to work under extreme stress and an increased threat of infection, research on professional burnout and emotional maladjustment of medical workers is gaining particular relevance around the world AIM Of stUDy To assess the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety, professional burnout and emotional distress among the employees of the N V Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine, providing care to patients with COVID-19 in the current period (July) To compare them with the indicators of a mixed sample of medical workers from different institutions and regions surveyed in the first months of the pandemic (March–April), and also to highlight the main factors of distress and protective factors MAteRIAl AnD MetHODs The research methods were combined into a Google form, and participation in the research was anonymous Of the 175 people who were sent questionnaires, filled out the form completely 120 people (69% samples), of which 43 men and 77 women, 54 2% were doctors of different specialties;40% were nurses, the rest of the categories accounted for 5 8% of the sample The mean age of the respondents was 36 1 years (from 21 to 61 years) ResUlts The data obtained on the indicators of mental distress are generally consistent with international data: 8 3% of the surveyed demonstrate symptoms of depression of moderate and severe severity according to the Beck’s Depression Scale;6 7 % noted the presence of suicidal thoughts;29 3% had symptoms of anxiety of moderate and high severity according to the Beck’s Anxiety Scale And 35% had high level of emotional exhaustion according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory Nevertheless, the data obtained indicate a greater mental well-being of employees of the N V Sklifosovsky Research Institute in comparison with a mixed sample of specialists surveyed in March - April The limitations of such a comparison are indicated, which are associated with differences in organizational affiliation and the composition of specialists Anxiety for family members (noted by 54 7%) and fear of infection (noted by 38 3%) were most often named as an important factor of distress in the entire sample of 120 people The most significant protective factors (reducing the level of distress), noted by more than half of the employees, were information about the current situation and tasks from the management, support from family and colleagues, material incentives and the opportunity to take breaks for rest Based on the data of the regression analysis, it is concluded that it is important to take measures for psychological relief, provide personnel with protective equipment, reduce the level of physical discomfort associated with the use of personal protective equipment and lack of sleep, explain to the staff the meaning of all measures and decisions taken, and collegial discussion of the organization of work The quality of support from relatives, colleagues and administration helps maintain a sense of the importance of their profession and self-respect for themselves as a professional among medical personnel © 2020 Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine All rights reserved

22.
Sklifosovsky Journal Emergency Medical Care ; 9(3):308-313, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937837

ABSTRACT

In modern conditions of global epidemiological challenges, a systematic approach to engineering (design) and reengineering (redesign) of treatment and diagnostic processes in hospitals acquires a special role for the state healthcare system In this case, the focus of special attention to the management of hospitals is solving a task of organizing the treatment of patients with COVID-19 in the absence of proven clinical practice and dynamically modify the corresponding information flow, as well as the need for optimization of resource support and enhance its efficiency in the face of strong growth in the number of new cases and lack of standard solutions for the reorganization of hospitals, especially of non-infectious profile In the paradigm of the systemic approach, effective management of the treatment and diagnostic process is not possible without a deep analysis of all its elements: from the moment the patient is admitted to the hospital until the completion of the treatment process The recency of COVID-19 and the lack of clinical practice for the treatment of these patients have predetermined the need to develop comprehensive standards of clinical processes and their automation It is the way of organizing the process to achieve the target state of the patient that forms the requirements for infrastructure and resource provision The article presents the experience of the N V Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in organizational and informational support of the process of diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 © 2020 Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine All rights reserved

23.
Revista Colombiana de Gastroenterologia ; 35(3):287-297, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937828

ABSTRACT

The Colombian Government ordered a mandatory nationwide quarantine in March 2020 due to the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus Since then, outpatient endoscopy units were closed and only urgent procedures were performed in the hospital setting, resulting in a repression of sensitive, priority and elective outpatient endoscopic procedures The rate of spread of the virus was contained and it did not progress exponentially as in other countries;in the meantime, gastroenterology services were provided in the form of teleconsultation The mitigation measures and the containment of the virus allowed the Mayor’s Office of Bogotá and the National Government to issue notices with recommendations for the provision of some regulated outpatient services in May 2020, thus creating a window of opportunity to care for patients with sensitive diseases Under this legal and epidemiological framework, the provision of digestive endoscopy services was restarted at EMDIAGNOSTICA S A S This study presents the strategies for scheduling and performing endoscopic procedures in an outpatient gastroenterology unit during COVID-19 pandemia in Colombia and describes a system for prioritizing procedures according to medical criteria, ranging from care by teleconsultation and/ or an application of a telephone survey and the use of a medically necessary, time-sensitive (MENTS) scale adapted for digestive endoscopy It also describes changes in infrastructure, methodology implemented for protection of human talent and patients, and post procedure follow-up for feedback, safety and satisfaction degree evaluation in care © 2020 Asociación Colombiana de Gastroenterología

24.
Signa Vitae ; 16(2):195-198, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937827

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first reported in Wuhan, China, is causing a pandemic With an increased understanding of the disease, the diagnosis and treatment guidelines are being updated and improved In addition to nucleic acid detection, antibody detection kits are also being developed and approved A medical worker suspected of having COVID-19 in our hospital had fatigue and loss of appetite and pulmonary infection indicated by CT, but the nucleic acid test was negative three times Finally, she was confirmed to have COVID-19 by a serological antibody test After rest and oral antiviral treatment, she recovered and returned to work This is a case report that focuses on suspected mild patients who tested negative for nucleic acids Such a group of patients had to choose home isolation treatment during the outbreak The majority of them did not make a definitive diagnosis or rule out COVID-19 by the time they recovered The antibody test is of great significance to identify infected patients with multiple negative nucleic acid tests It can complement nucleic acid testing to enhance diagnostic efficiency We have reviewed the literature and realized that further validation and standardization of serological tests are needed for more mature application of antibody tests to clinical diagnosis and vaccine development

25.
Traektoria Nauki ; 6(7):4019-4033, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937824

ABSTRACT

The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) in Nigeria from index to community cases is becoming alarming that what the future holds should be brought to bear An analytical study and time prediction model have been conducted on the epidemiological spread of coronavirus (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) with data collected from records of selected epicentres in Nigeria The data was collected between March 1 and May 31, 2020 It can be shown that the highest daily infection in March was recorded on the 28th with 32 infections while the highest fatality rate was recorded on 24th with a rate of 2 3% and recorded daily infection of 10 As at the 31st, a total number of 139 confirmed cases were recorded in Nigeria with a fatality and discharge rates of 1 4 and 6 5% respectively It can be deduced that the highest daily infection in Nigeria in April was recorded on 30th, with daily infection of 204 confirmed cases The highest discharge rate of 34 4% was recorded on 16th, with a fatality rate of 2 9% while the highest fatality rate of April was 3 5% recorded on 18th, which has a discharge rate of 30 6% and a daily infection record of 49 As of April 30, 2020, Nigeria had recorded a total of 1932 confirmed cases with 58 deaths It can also be deduced that the highest daily infection in Nigeria in May was recorded on 30th, with daily infection of 553 confirmed cases It can also be observed that the highest discharge and fatality rates for May 2020 are 29 6% and 3 6% recorded on 31st and 2nd respectively As of May 31, 2020, the total infection stood at 10162 confirmed cases and there seems to be a continuing upward trajectory for the situation under investigation It can also be observed that the rate of discharged cases continued to surpass those of the fatality for the months of investigation No doubts that the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 was first recorded in the Ogun State of Nigeria, but Lagos state has surpassed both the daily infections and the cumulative infections for the country With collected data, MLR simple linear regression extension was used to estimate an outcome or target variable based on two or more independent variables The variables which are the three months data collected from daily infections, totally confirmed case, total deaths and total discharged cases between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, were used to propose regression equations for the prediction of the cases under study for anytime period

26.
Traektoria Nauki ; 6(7):4001-4007, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937823

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which is also known as Heart Disease has been the most common cause of death among diabetic and sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients around the world CVD includes coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease while SCA includes hemolysis These are the main types of CVD, which is similar to hypertension because of the common risk factors they have, such as obesity, arterial remodeling, abnormal cholesterol levels, etc Diabetes and SCA belong to the largest health emergencies of the 21st century With the high rate of people with diabetes and SCA, the rate of Cardiovascular Disease increases rapidly The rates of CVD in high-income countries generally have low CVD because of the monitoring systems for noncommunicable diseases like CVD However, the appearance of the novel COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 has changed the narrative With COVID-19/SARSCoV-2 attacking more on people with previous health conditions associated to cardiovascular conditions, the backbone of high-income nations is broken and those leaving with high immune conditions are at less risk whether in the high income or low-income environments The objective of this research is to review the Cardiovascular Disease conditions to the novel COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 in Diabetic and SCA patients This is due to the prevalence of this medical situation in the developing world or low income and densely populated countries

27.
Choices. The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resources Issues ; 35(3), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937818

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 among "essential" crop workers is a source of major concern for growers and policy makers COVID-19 risk factors for Florida crop workers vary across counties and legal status groups These differences suggest the need for tailored prevention and mitigation plans for COVID-19 infections among crop workers

28.
Revista Virtual de Quimica ; 12(5):1114-1128, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937817

ABSTRACT

The transmission of COVID-19 through contaminated surfaces is a significant route of disease transmission, although it is not the main one This work deals with some disinfectant products approved by the Brazilian National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA) to face the pandemic COVID-19 The first part presents practical recommendations for persons willing to delve into the subject, and presents details about products such as alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide and certain general-purpose disinfectants The second part, dedicated to people with more technical training, provides the scientific basis for the recommendations provided in the first part and details the action of quaternary ammonium salts (QUATs) in the elimination of microorganisms The third part provides an overview of actions worldwide for the disinfection of public environments and in more detail on public transportation © 2020 Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica All rights reserved

29.
Biotekhnologiya ; 36(5):6-12, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937816

ABSTRACT

Real-time RT-PCR currently remains most popular for early COVID-19 diagnostics However Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method outperform real-time RT-PCR in rapidity and simplicity because it doesn't require expensive laboratory equipment and trained personnel LAMP-based diagnostic kits for COVID-19 testing are already exist, but LAMP-based tests are not yet widely adopted The method has great potential for mass application Here we discuss technical and methodological aspects of its widespread implementation

30.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations ; 17(3):308-318, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937815

ABSTRACT

This study begins with the assumption that the existence of abnormal circumstances will force investors to take measures to protect their investments in the capital market Recently, the stock index in the Indonesian market has been declining and continued to fall until the end of April 2020 due to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic In terms of efficient market theory, prospect theory and signaling theory, this study aims to analyze the relationship between risk and return in the Indonesian capital market during the Covid-19 pandemic as a manifestation of investor behavior To test hypotheses, the correlation test, the independent sample t-test and the Cohen test for 629 public firms with 52,836 observable data are used The findings show that for financial sectors and non-financial sectors, the fourth period differs from previous periods when the relationship between systematic risk and stock returns is positive, although only nonfinancial sectors have a significant effect The results show that efficient market theory, prospect theory and signaling theory are consistent with the phenomena around the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia In addition, Cohen's test results suggest that government policies in the face of the pandemic are successful in stimulating the market © 2020 LLC CPC Business Perspectives All rights reserved

31.
Kesmas ; 15(3):154-159, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937814

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease, which has spread rapidly all over the world since the first case was detected in December 2019, has become the primary focus in every country Radical measures have been taken by governments to prevent the spread of the disease Precautions and social rules have required drastic changes to daily life activities everywhere University students who have had to interrupt their educations are one of the affected groups by this disease sociologically, psychologically and physiologically The aim of this study was planned and conducted to determine the effect of COVID-19 on university students' eating habits and food purchasing behaviors The study was completed in April 2020 with 866 university students studying and training at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Gümüşhane, Turkey Research data was obtained by online questionnaire The questionnaire was prepared with information obtained from a literature review and the opinions of experts It included questions about eating habits and food purchasing behaviors The basic result of the study was that COVID-19 disease has caused significant changes in the eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students Primarily, they now paid greater attention to hygiene when food purchasing, and had increased their consumption compared to previously, since they were now home 24 hours a day, seven days a week © 2020, Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal), p-ISSN: 1907-7505, e-ISSN: 2460-0601, SINTA-S1 accredited, http://journal fkm ui ac id/kesmas, Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4 0 International

32.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):154-157, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937813

ABSTRACT

Objective of the work was to investigate the peculiarities of gastrointestinal tract disorders in children with coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus Materials and methods We have analyzed the frequency, terms of emergence, duration and character of gastrointestinal disorders on the basis of medical records of 36 children receiving the treatment for community-acquired pneumonia of coronavirus etiology (positive for SARS-CoV-2 virus) in the children’s infectious disease department of Moscow State Clinical Hospital, Mytishchi The majority of patients had moderate form of the disease (97 %), severe cases were not registered The age range of the children – 8 months to17 years old All patients were subjected to supplementary examination on Day 1 in accordance with the current recommendations Children were treated in hospital settings for 8–15 days Assessment of clinical status was performed at least once a day over the stated period, supplementary survey – at least once in a week, upon indications – more frequently SARSCoV-2 virus was identified using polymerase chain reaction All patients received standard therapy in compliance with advanced methodological recommendations, upon indications – other pharmaceutical products Results and discussion Gastro-intestinal disorders in 23 children (64 %) emerged on Day 4–5, in 8 children (22 %) – before the start of the treatment;they lasted 3–5 days In most of the patients diarrhea (64 %) and stomachaches (57 %) were observed 67 % of the children demonstrated other symptoms indicative of gastrointestinal dysfunction The disorders were characteristic for most of the children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus The symptoms are contained when the main course of therapy is conducted, indicated for treatment of COVID-19, and additional therapy recommended for management of gastro-intestinal infections is performed © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

33.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):146-149, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937812

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to identify the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia and co-infection using PCR study of biomaterial from patients Materials and methods PCR testing of 268 samples from 258 patients was carried out to identify RNA/DNA of viral and bacterial pathogens of respiratory infections Results and discussion In 43 3 % of samples SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, in 4 5 % – RNA/DNA of acute respiratory viral infections pathogens, in one sample – DNA of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Co-infection was detected only in patients of the anti-tuberculosis dispensary (SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) In the examined patients with pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly more often detected in biomaterial from the lower respiratory tract (52 %) than in respiratory smears (8 5 %) In the first week from the onset of the disease, 19 2 % of positive samples were found, in the second – 56 5 % © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

34.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):124-130, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937811

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was diagnosed in St Petersburg on March 2, 2020;the period of increase in the incidence lasted for 10 weeks, the maximum rates were recorded in mid-May, and subsequently there was a statistically significant decrease in the incidence Objective: to determine the level and structure of community immunity to SARS-CoV-2 among the population of St Petersburg during the period of intensive spread of COVID-19 Materials and methods Selection of volunteers for the study was carried out through interviewing and randomization The exclusion criterion was active COVID-19 infection at the time of the survey 2713 people aged 1 to 70 years and above were examined for the presence of specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay Results and discussion Studies have shown that in St Petersburg, in the active phase of COVID-19 epidemic, there was a moderate seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2, which amounted to 26 %, against the background of a high frequency (84 5 %) of asymptomatic infection in seropositive individuals who did not have a history of COVID-19 disease, positive PCR result and ARI symptoms on the day of examination The maximum indicators of herd immunity were established in children 1–6 years old (31 1 %), 7–13 years old (37 7 %) and people over 70 years old (30 4 %) Differences in the level of seroprevalence in the age groups of 18–49 years are statistically significant The highest level of seroprevalence was found among the unemployed (29 7 %), healthcare workers (27 1 %), education sector (26 4 %) and business sector personnel (25 %) In convalescents, COVID-19 antibodies are produced in 75 % of cases In individuals with positive result of PCR analysis carried out earlier, antibodies are detected in 70 % of the cases The results of the study of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 are essential to forecast the development of the epidemiological situation, as well as to plan measures for specific and non-specific prevention of COVID-19 © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

35.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):114-123, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937810

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was registered in the Leningrad Region on March 13, 2020 The period of increasing intensity of the epidemic process lasted 8 weeks One month after reaching the maximum incidence rate, a study was organized to determine seroprevalence to COVID-19 among the population of the Region Objective of the study was to determine the level and structure of community immunity to SARS-CoV-2 virus in the population of the Leningrad Region in the period of intensive COVID-19 transmission Materials and methods The work was carried out within the framework of the Rospotrebnadzor project on assessment of community immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the population of the Russian Federation The content of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was determined applying ELISA using a kit for the analysis of human serum or blood plasma for the presence of specific IgG to the nucleocapsid of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, manufactured by the State Scientific Center of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Obolensk) in accordance with the instructions for use Results and discussion The study has showed that the herd immunity of the population of the Leningrad Region was 20 7 % The maximum level has been established in children 1–6 years old (42 3 %) and people over 70 years old (29 0 %) The highest level of seropositivity, except for children and older people, was found among the unemployed (25 1 %) The lowest level of seroprevalence was detected in civil servants (12 8 %) and military personnel (16 7 %) It has been shown that the risk of infection increases by 1 5 times in case of contacts with COVID-19 patients After exposure to COVID-19 virus, antibodies are produced in 82 1 % of the cases In individuals with a positive PCR test result obtained earlier, antibodies are detected in 82 8 % of cases The share of asymptomatic forms among seropositive residents of the Leningrad Region was 86 9 % The results of assessing the herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the population of the Leningrad Region indicate that during the period of intensive COVID-19 transmission, an average level of seroprevalence was formed A significant proportion of asymptomatic forms of infection characterizes the high intensity of the latently developing epidemic process The results obtained should be taken into account when organizing preventive measures, including vaccination, and predicting morbidity rates © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

36.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):106-113, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937809

ABSTRACT

Objective of the seroepidemiological study was to determine the level and structure of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 among the population of the Irkutsk Region during the period of an increase in the incidence of COVID-19 Materials and methods The content of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was determined by ELISA applying a reagent panel “ELISA anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG” produced by the State Scientific Center of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Obolensk) Results and discussion The investigation has revealed that the herd immunity of the total population of Irkutsk Region amounted to 5 8 % The greatest share of seropositive persons was among the children aged 14–17 (13 8 %) and 1–6 (11 8 %) It has been established that the risk of infection increases by 3 1 times in case of contact with COVID-19 patients After exposure to COVID-19, antibodies were produced in 56 5 % of the cases The share of asymptomatic forms among seropositive residents of the Irkutsk Region reached 81 2 % Consequently, during the chosen period of increased COVID-19 incidence among the population of Irkutsk Region low level of seroprevalence was formed A significant proportion of asymptomatic forms of infection characterize high intensity of the latently developing epidemic process The results obtained can be used when organizing preventive measures, including vaccination, and for forecasting morbidity rates © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

37.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):70-82, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937808

ABSTRACT

Objective: to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the process of adapting to human organism during the current pandemic Materials and methods Database (GISAID) on nucleotide sequences of SARS-CoV-2 virus genome, obtained from clinical samples during the period of late December, 2019–July, 2020 Phylogenetic tree diagram construction was carried out applying BioNumerics v 7 6 software using Maximum parsimony algorithm Results and discussion The most substantial change in the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 virus are associated one-time mutations in ORF1b (P314L) and S (D614G) genes, as a result of which the overwhelming majority of identified isolates of this virus have the stated pair of substitutions to date Many researches link the substitution in S (D614G) gene to the decreased pathogenicity in the strains that contain it, which may be also explained by enhanced methodology of patient treatment in the course of pandemic The effect of the mutation in ORF1b (P314L) gene has not yet been investigated P314L and D614G mutations are closely related and only their combined presence in the genome favored the dissemination of the genovariants of SARS-CoV-2 virus Analysis of congregated epidemiological data testifies to the fact that the spread of new genovariants may be associated with biological properties facilitating human-to-human transmission Thereat, associated decrease in lethality may reflect not only advancements in methods of treatment, but possible attenuation of virulent properties Thus, observed growth in dissemination potential against the background of decrease in virulence is, probably, one of the forms of adaptation of new coronavirus to human population and, apparently, will remain in the future as the integration of SARS-CoV-2 virus into the structure of seasonal ARVI agents © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

38.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):43-49, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937807

ABSTRACT

Objective: to study the bacterial microflora in the sputum of patients with pneumonia caused by SARSCoV-2 or other pathogens Materials and methods The bacterial microflora of sputum of 173 patients with pneumonia admitted to hospitals in Khabarovsk and the Khabarovsk Territory in May – June 2020 was examined Detection of RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was carried out by PCR with the Vector-PCRRV-2019-nCoV-RG test system (manufactured by the State Scientific Center of VB “Vector”, Koltsovo) Determination of the DNA of mycoplasmosis agents and chlamydia was carried out with the test system “AmpliSens® Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydophila pneumonia” (manufactured by CRIE) Statistical data processing was performed using the Excel program Results and discussion Both groups of patients (Covid-19+ and Covid-19–) had high levels of bacterial flora isolation (81 4 and 74 7 %) including common pathogens for community-acquired pneumonia as well as notable detection frequency of Candida spp and microbial associations The group of Covid-19+ patients demonstrated a wider range of detected pathogens, was positive for poly-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermenting gram-negative poly-resistant bacteria, with more expressed manifestation of microbial associations In the group of Covid-19– participants drug-resistant microflora was presented only by MRSA and MRSE staphylococci © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

39.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):36-42, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937806

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the spread of COVID-19 among the population of the Omsk Region during 24 weeks of the epidemic on the background of anti-epidemic measures Materials and methods A descriptive epidemiological study was carried out based on publically available data и data from the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Omsk Region on the official registration and epidemiological investigation of detected COVID-19 cases in the Omsk Region for the period from March 27 to September 10, 2020 To assess the potential of COVID-19 to spread, the following indicators were calculated: exponential growth rate (r), basic reproduction number (R0), effective reproduction number (Rt), expected natural epidemic size and herd immunity threshold Data processing was performed using MS Excel 2010 The cartogram was built using the QGIS 3 12-Bukuresti application in the EPSG: 3576 coordinate system Results and discussion For the period from March 27 to September 10, 2020, a total of 9779 cases of COVID-19 were registered in the Omsk Region, the cumulative incidence was 507,6 per 100000 (95 % CI 497,5÷517,6), the case-fatality rate for completed cases was 2 9 %, for identified cases – 2 4 % The most active spread of COVID-19 was noted in Omsk and 4 out of 32 districts of the region (Moskalensky, Azov German National, Mariyanovsky, Novovarshavsky) During the ongoing anti-epidemic measures, the exponential growth rate of the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases was 4 5 % per day, R0 – 1 4–1 5, Rt – 1 10, herd immunity threshold – 28 6 % The expected size of the epidemic in case of sustained anti-epidemic measures can reach 58 0 % of the recovered population A decrease in the number of detected virus carriers, incomplete detection of COVID-19 among patients with community-acquired pneumonia introduced additional risks for the latent spread of infection and complications of the epidemic situation Maintaining restrictive measures and increasing the proportion of the immune population (over 28 6 %) may significantly reduce the risks of increasing the spread of COVID-19 in the Omsk Region © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

40.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):27-35, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937805

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic around the world and in Russia remains a major event of 2020 All over the world, research is being conducted to comprehensively study the patterns and manifestations of the epidemic process The main quantitative characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics among the population, based on the data of official monitoring over the current situation, play an important role in the development of the epidemiological surveillance system The aim of this study is to explore the peculiarities of age-gender distribution of COVID-19 patients in Moscow Material and methods The data related to the epidemiological characteristics of age-gender structure of COVID-19 patients in Moscow between March 19, 2020 and April 15, 2020, at different stages of the epidemic were retrospectively analyzed Results and discussion The mean age of COVID-19 patients in Moscow was 46,41±20,58 years The gender ratio (male/female) among the patients was 52 7/47 3 %, wherein the indicators varied depending upon the age Male/female ratio in the age group “under 39” stood at 53 7/46 3 %, and “over 40 years of age” – at 39 3/60 7 % The predominant age range among male cases was 19 to 39 years old – 35 4 %, while among female patients – 40–59 years (36 5 %) The age distribution of patients in Moscow is indicative of the fact that COVID-19 is a disease that primarily affects older age groups The age structure of all COVID-19 cases during the observation period is characterized by predominance of adult patients over 19 years of age – 92,7 % (92,6–92,8 %), the share of patients aged 40–59 years is 35,7% (35,5–35,9 %) The differences in the age distribution in males and females are as follows: in the male cohort, the age groups 19–39 years old and 40–59 years old prevail – 35 4 % (35 1–35 7 %) and 34 9 % (34 6–35 2 %), respectively The age group 40–59 years old – 36 5 % (36 3–36 8%) dominates in the female cohort © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute All rights reserved

41.
World Economy and International Relations ; 64(11):5-12, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937802

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has already caused high numbers of deaths, massive economic disruption, and had a huge impact on daily lives of millions of people In short, – ​this is everything terrorist organizations affiliated with the ISIL and Al-Qaida would want to achieve with their attacks The global pandemic serves as inspiration and influences the modus operandi of terrorists, both in terms of tactics and target selection Since the pandemic started, the ISIL and Al-Qaida have persisted in operations across African, Asian and European countries, leaving hundreds of people dead These attacks clearly show that terrorism has continued worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic Terrorist groups are looking at ways to take advantage of instability, increase recruitment and sympathizers among the vulnerable and terrified, encourage conventional and even biological attacks Terrorist networks have encouraged followers to weaponise their own illness by trying to infect others Terrorist groups also use the pandemic to gain visibility The ISIL has been exploiting hashtags related to the coronavirus to redirect users to its radical propaganda Terrorists have also found inspiration in the global pandemic with regard to their target selection, in particular critical health infrastructures In Afghanistan, the Taliban has adopted a different approach to COVID-19 assisting efforts to limit the spread of the virus, including by declaring ceasefires in areas under its control Hezbollah is working to fight the virus and maintain order within Lebanon Because they control informal economies, groups like the Taliban or Lebanon’s Hezbollah are better placed to benefit from coronavirus than the ISIL or Al-Qaida In general, terrorist groups are taking advantage of COVID-19 lockdowns to spread hatred and intensify social media efforts to recruit young people spending more time online © 2020, Russian Academy of Sciences All rights resereved

42.
Ethnicity & Disease ; 30(3):429-432, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937791

ABSTRACT

The randomized clinical trial (RCT) has long been recognized as the 'gold standard' for developing evidence for clinical treatments and vaccines;however, the successful implementation and translation of these findings is predicated upon external validity The generalization of RCT findings are jeopardized by the lack of participation of at-risk groups such as African Americans, with long-recognized disproportional representation Distinct factors that deter participation in RCTs include distrust, access, recruitment strategies, perceptions of research, and socioeconomic factors While strategies have been implemented to improve external validity with greater participation among all segments of the population in RCTs, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate disparities in RCT participation with the potential impact of delaying treatment development and vaccine interventions that are applicable and generalizable Thus, it is essential to include diverse populations in such strategies and RCTs This Perspective aims to direct attention to the additional harm from the pandemic as well as a refocus on the unresolved lack of inclusion of diverse populations in conducting RCTs

43.
Ethnicity & Disease ; 30(3):425-428, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937790

ABSTRACT

Religious institutions have historically been an essential resource in African American communities and can serve as indispensable partners during a public health crisis The purpose of this perspective is to establish African American churches, mosques, and temples as essential for an immediate, comprehensive, and sustained response to the elevated risk for and spread of COVID-19 among African Americans

44.
Ethnicity & Disease ; 30(3):421-424, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937789

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is revealing the deeply entrenched structural inequities in health that exist in the United States We draw parallels between the COVID-19 pandemic and our cardiovascular health equity research focused on physical activity and diabetes to highlight three common needs: (1) access to timely and disaggregated data;(2) how to integrate community-engaged approaches in telehealth;and (3) policy initiatives that explicitly integrate health equity and social justice principles and action We suggest that a similar sense of urgency regarding COVID-19 should be applied to slow the burgeoning costs and suffering associated with cardiovascular disease overall and in marginalized communities specifically We remain hopeful that the current crisis can serve as a guide for aligning our principles as a just and democratic society with a health agenda that explicitly recognizes that social inequities in health for some impacts all members of society

45.
International Indigenous Policy Journal ; 11(3), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937787

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This article articulates the complexity of modeling in First Nations, Metis, and Inuit contexts by providing the results of a modeling exercise completed at the request of the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba Methods: We developed a model using the impact of a previous pandemic (the 2009 H1N1) to generate estimates Results: The lack of readily available data has resulted in a model that assumes homogeneity of communities in terms of health status, behaviour, and infrastructure limitations While homogeneity may be a reasonable assumption for province-wide planning, First Nation communities and Tribal Councils require more precise information in order to plan effectively Metis and urban Inuit communities, in contrast, have access to much less information, making the role of Indigenous organizations mandated to serve the needs of these populations that much more difficult Conclusion: For many years, Indigenous organizations have advocated for the need to have access to current and precise data to meet their needs The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the importance of timely and accurate community-based data to support pandemic responses

46.
Pulmonologiya ; 30(5):715-722, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937782

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, an outbreak of a new coronavirus infection was identified in the People's Republic of China centerd in the city of Wuhan The official name COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 2019) was assigned to the infection caused by the novel coronavirus by the World Health Organization on February 11, 2020 The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses assigned the name to the causative agent of the infection - SARS-CoV-2 on February 11, 2020 The bilateral pneumonia is currently known to be the most common clinical manifestation of the variant of coronavirus infection The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome was found in 3 - 4% of patients As a result of pneumonia, patients develop ventilation and perfusion disorders, weakness of skeletal muscles To recover patients after viral pneumonia, methods of pulmonary rehabilitation should be applied This article represents the methods of pulmonary rehabilitation aimed to improve the blood circulation in the lungs, the ventilation-perfusion ratios, and to the restoration of the skeletal muscles © 2020 Medical Education All rights reserved

47.
Pulmonologiya ; 30(5):709-714, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937781

ABSTRACT

Clinical signs of COVID-19 infection are non-specific and diagnosis is typically based on comprehensive evaluation of the patient's history, clinical status, radiological and laboratory findings A common finding in COVID-19 patients is increased C-reactive protein (CRP), though in some patients, CRP remains within normal range notwithstanding the presence of other criteria of severe disease We describe two clinical cases of COVID-19 with severe bilateral pneumonia and late increase in CRP Similar cases re quite challenging for making the diagnosis and indicating the antiinflammatory therapy © 2020 Medical Education All rights reserved

48.
Pulmonologiya ; 30(5):700-708, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937780

ABSTRACT

The lack of specific vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, as well as chemotherapy, significantly affected the spread of infection and the number of adverse outcomes of COVID-19 With the discovery of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection, especially immune mechanisms, the important role of the innate immunity system in interacting with the virus is obvious The presence of comorbid conditions, as well as the aging of the body, lead to disturbances in the immune response mechanism, low interferon induction, depletion of CD8+-lymphocytes and natural killers and suppression of the effectiveness of both innate and adaptive immunity The review discusses various mechanisms of antiviral activity associated with the induction of interferon (IFN) production, the use of direct IFN therapy, the use of antiviral drugs, and immunotropic therapy (synthetic immunomodulators), as promising in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 © 2020 Medical Education All rights reserved

49.
Pulmonologiya ; 30(5):688-699, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937779

ABSTRACT

The article is devoted to a review of data on the prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases on the course and outcomes of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 The review examines the relationship between COVID-19 and the functioning of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the pathophysiological mechanisms of their mutual influence The analysis of the latest literature data on the safety of taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers is presented The causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of the development of acute myocardial damage in COVID-19 are discussed The issue of organizing rehabilitation assistance for patients who have undergone COVID-19 is being considered The main components and features of the COVID-19 rehabilitation program are presented © 2020 Medical Education All rights reserved

50.
Pulmonologiya ; 30(5):679-687, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-937778

ABSTRACT

In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, many guidelines for the management of patients with new coronavirus infection did not include recommendations for the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) due to the concerns that NIV could be accompanied by high tidal volumes that could cause lung damage In addition, there was an opinion that NIV increases the risk of spreading bioaerosol containing the SARS-CoV-2 virus At the same time, NIV was widely used in real clinical practice in the management of severe patients with COVID-19 (in some countries, up to 60% of all respiratory support methods) The accumulated experience demonstrates that when applying NIV, the risk of contamination with viral infections is minimized with adequate use of personal protective equipment To date, the results of a limited number of studies about effectiveness of NIV in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients with COVID-19 are available In most studies, the need for tracheal intubation and hospital mortality, were on average, 20 - 30%, that suggests a fairly high effectiveness of NIV in ARF in patients with COVID-19 © 2020 Medical Education All rights reserved

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL