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1.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514761

ABSTRACT

Issue/Problem Bringing Real World Evidence (RWE) and scientific consensus to the attention of policymakers is key in underpinning and supporting health policy decision making. Now more than ever, generating information on health and well-being of European populations as impacted by COVID-19 requires the full capacity of the European research community to generate evidence for better health system preparedness. Nevertheless, the necessary type of research input is not structurally and sufficiently available within the European research landscape. Description of the problem COVID-19 has clearly shown that a structured European mechanism to organize and share accurate information between countries is urgently needed, especially in the area of population health, to inform decision-makers, researchers and the public. Results The Population Health Information Research Infrastructure (PHIRI) offers a European mechanism for structured exchanges of population health data and information useful also in current and future epidemics or crises. The project improves population health information research at EU level, with services and tools necessary for researchers to find and access population health information data sources and to use Pan-European data for generating RWE, including an online Health Information Portal and the implementation of distributed analytical solutions to produce research outputs in a GDPR compliant, federated way. Finally, by means of EU-wide capacity building, PHIRI tackles health information inequalities. Lessons The support of exchange of knowledge and expertise across Europe is a key for driving the decision-making process, and facilitated by a European Health Information portal for COVID-19 embracing a federated infrastructure that overcomes data reuse and data sharing hindrances. This allows for a rapid and relevant policy response and analysis of knowledge gaps, while ensuring FAIR and ELSI principles.

2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 286: 11-15, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508509

ABSTRACT

Law and regulation have not received much attention as part of the context shaping and being shaped by health informatics. Telemedicine, data, devices and software, and electronic health records (EHRs) are examples of how technologies are affected by privacy, intellectual property protections, and other law and regulation.


Subject(s)
Medical Informatics , Telemedicine , Electronic Health Records , Pandemics , Privacy
3.
Biopreservation and Biobanking ; 19(2):A1-A2, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1313778

ABSTRACT

Biobanking is likely to be a crucial element of the medical and public health response to COVID-19 and future pandemics. The storage and distribution of samples and data are vital for 1) collecting and analyzing biospecimens from patients for COVID-19 related research and 2) may become increasingly important as a resource to maintain other kinds of biomedical research as regular recruitment for clinical studies becomes more difficult during a pandemic. Nevertheless, biobanks face a number of unique ethical, social, and governance challenges during COVID-19 that may require new practices and policies to maintain their work and meet the needs of researchers, donors, and other biobank stakeholders. These challenges may be experienced by both new biobanks created explicitly for COVID-19 related research, and existing biobanks. Additionally, these challenges may be further complicated by the need to balance public health surveillance uses of samples and data and the clinical research uses of biobank resources. To address these issues researchers at Case Western Reserve University, University of Louisville, and University of North Carolina in partnership with International Society of Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) Ethics and COVID19 TaskForce created a survey to assess the ethical/governance challenges of biobanking during the COVID-19 pandemic, explore the ethical challanges associated with creating new COVID-19 biobanks, and address needed resources for addressing the ethical challenges of COVID-19 biobanking. This talk will present the findings from our COVID19 ELSI survey and discuss how the results may better inform biobanking practices and policies. We believe that a better understanding of the experiences and needs of biobanks will help inform the development of best practices/policies for maintaining biobank operations and address the needs of existing biobanks and new COVID-19 related research resources. Overall, we will discuss how our findings will inform ISBER policies and guidance regarding biobanking best practices, identify areas of need for maintaining biobanks during a pandemic, and benefit ISBER members and the broader biobanking community by providing practical strategies for addressing emerging ELSI issues related to the pandemic.

4.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221407

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed at estimating the pre-pandemic and pandemic prevalence of loneliness and investigating the association of loneliness with social disconnectedness during social distancing strategies in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic period.Methods: We used data from the ELSI COVID-19 initiative with participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil), which comprised 4,431 participants aged 50 years and over. Loneliness (hardly ever/some of the time/often) was assessed by the question "In the past 30 days, how often did you feel alone/lonely?". Social disconnectedness included information on social contacts through virtual talking (i.e. telephone, Skype, WhatsApp, or social media) and outside-home meetings with people living in another household. Covariates included sociodemographic and health related characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI).Results: The overall prevalence of loneliness during the pandemic was 23.9% (95% CI 20.7-27.5); lower than in the pre-pandemic period (32.8%; 95% CI 28.6-37.4). In the pandemic period, 20.1% (95% CI 16.9-23.6) reported some of the time feeling lonely and 3.9% (95% CI 3.1-4.8) reported often feeling lonely. In the fully adjusted model, virtual talking disconnectedness (OR=1.67; 95% CI 1.09-2.56) was positively associated with some of the time feeling lonely and outside-home disconnectedness (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.60) was negatively associated with often feeling lonely.Conclusion: Individuals with virtual talking disconnectedness and without outside-home disconnectedness are at higher risk of loneliness during the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Stimulating virtual talking connectedness might have the potential to diminish loneliness despite steep outside-home disconnectedness.

5.
Health Secur ; 19(3): 318-326, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171919

ABSTRACT

The impact of host genomics on an individual's susceptibility, immune response, and risk of severe outcomes for a given infectious pathogen is increasingly recognized. As we uncover the links between host genomics and infectious disease, a number of ethical, legal, and social issues need to be considered when using that information in clinical practice or workforce decisions. We conducted a survey of the clinical staff at 10 federally funded Regional Ebola and Other Special Pathogen Treatment Centers to understand their views regarding the ethical, legal, and social issues related to host genomics and the administrative and clinical functions of high-level isolation units. Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that genomics could provide valuable information to identify patients and employees at higher risk for poor outcomes from highly infectious diseases. However, there was considerable disagreement about whether such data should inform the allocation of scarce resources or determine treatment decisions. While most respondents supported a confidential employer-based genomic testing system to inform individual employees about risk, respondents disagreed about whether such information should be used in staffing models. Respondents who thought genomic information would be valuable for patient treatment were more willing to undergo genetic testing for staffing purposes. Most respondents felt they would benefit from additional training to better interpret results from genetic testing. Although this study was completed before the COVID-19 pandemic, the responses provide a baseline assessment of provider attitudes that can inform policy during the current pandemic and in future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Biomedical Research/ethics , Genomics/ethics , Health Personnel/ethics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans
7.
1st Progress in Science and Technology Research Symposium, PSTRS 2019 ; 1594, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1017078

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research is to map clusters on Indonesia's national food security during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Where food security is a condition for the fulfillment of food for the state up to individuals, which is reflected in the availability of sufficient food, both in quantity and quality, safe, diverse, nutritious, equitable, and affordable and does not conflict with the religion, beliefs and culture of the community, to be able to live a healthy, active, and productive life in a sustainable manner. The data source used is secondary data from the Central Statistics Agency (abbreviated BPS). The data consists of monthly per capita expenditure in urban and rural areas by province and group of goods (rupiah) consisting of 33 data records (2011-2018). The group of goods used is expenditures used for food costs. The data mining method used is k-medoids which are part of the clustering. Cluster mapping uses 2 labels namely C1: labels with high food security and C2: labels with low food security. The results of the k-medoids method calculation concluded that 19 provinces were in C1 cluster and 14 provinces were in C2 cluster. From these results it is stated that 42% of Indonesia still has low food security as evidenced by the fulfillment of higher food needs than non-food. These regions are West Sumatra, Riau, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau islands, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Banten, Bali, Central Kalimantan, South Borneo, East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, West Papua and Papua. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

8.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-4234

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus crisis is causing considerable disruption and anguish. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent explosion of telehealth services also provides an unparalleled opportunity to consider ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) beyond immediate needs. Ethicists, informaticians, and others can learn from experience, and evaluate information technology practices and evidence on which to base policy and standards, identify significant values and issues, and revise ethical guidelines. This paper builds on professional organizations’ guidelines and ELSI scholarship to develop emerging concerns illuminated by current experience. Four ethical areas characterized previous literature: quality of care and the doctor-patient relationship, access, consent, and privacy. More attention is needed to these and to expanding the scope of bioethical analysis to include health information technologies. An applied ethics approach to ELSI would addresses context-specific issues and the relationships between people and technologies, and facilitate effective and ethical institutionalization of telehealth and other health information technologies.

9.
Preprint in Portuguese | PREPRINT-SciELO | ID: ppcovidwho-3540

ABSTRACT

To measure the occurrence of protective behaviors for COVID-19 and sociodemographic factors according to the occurrence of multimorbidity (MM) in the Brazilian population aged 50 or over was the objective of this study. We used data from telephone surveys among participants of ELSI (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Elderly's Health), conducted between May and June 2020. The use of non-pharmacological prevention measures for COVID-19, reasons for leaving home according to the presence of multimorbidity and sociodemographic variables were evaluated. among 6,149 individuals. Multimorbidity was more frequent in females, married, aged 50-59 years and residents of the urban area. Most of the population left home between once and twice in the last week, increasing according to the number of morbidities (22.3% no morbidities and 38% with MM). Leaving home every day was less common among individuals with MM (10.3%) and 9.3% left home in the last week to access health care. Hand hygiene (>98%) and always wearing a mask when leaving home (>96%) were almost universal habits. Greater adherence to social isolation was observed among women with multimorbidity when compared to men (PR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.23;1.79). This adherence increased proportionally with age and inversely with the level of education. The protective behavior in people with MM seems to be greater in relation to the others, although issues related to social isolation and health care deserve to be highlighted. These findings can be useful in customizing strategies for coping with the current pandemic. Objetivou-se medir a ocorrência de comportamentos de proteção para a COVID-19 e fatores sociodemográficos segundo a ocorrência de multimorbidade (MM) na população brasileira com 50 anos ou mais de idade. Foram utilizados dados de inquérito telefônico entre participantes do ELSI (Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros), conduzidas entre maio e junho de 2020. Avaliou-se o uso de medidas de prevenção não farmacológica para COVID-19, motivos para sair de casa segundo a presença de multimorbidade e variáveis sociodemográficas. Participaram do estudo 6.149 pessoas. Multimorbidade foi mais frequente no sexo feminino, em casados, na faixa etária 50-59 anos de idade e em moradores da zona urbana. A maior parte da população saiu de casa entre uma e duas vezes na última semana, aumentando segundo o número de morbidades (22,3% sem morbidades e 38% com MM). Sair de casa todos os dias teve menor ocorrência entre indivíduos com MM (10,3%) e 9,3% saíram de casa na última semana para obter atendimento de saúde. Higienização de mãos (>98%) e sempre usar máscara ao sair de casa (>96%), foram hábitos quase universais. Observou-se maior adesão ao isolamento social entre as mulheres com multimorbidade quando comparada com os homens (RP=1,49, IC95%: 1,23;1,79);Esta adesão aumentou proporcionalmente com a idade e inversamente ao nível de escolaridade. O comportamento de proteção em pessoas com MM parece ser maior em relação aos demais, embora questões relacionadas ao isolamento social e cuidado em saúde mereçam ser destacadas. Esses achados podem ser úteis na customização de estratégias de enfrentamento atual da pandemia.

10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.3):e00195420-e00195420, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742668

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se os comportamentos saudáveis determinam a adoção de medidas protetivas individuais para o combate à COVID-19. Os dados foram obtidos da iniciativa ELSI-COVID-19, inquérito telefônico conduzido entre os participantes do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brasil), que inclui amostra nacional representativa da população com 50 anos ou mais. Os desfechos avaliados foram três medidas protetivas (não ter saído de casa na última semana, usar máscara quando saiu de casa e higienizar as mãos quando retornou para casa) e as variáveis explicativas foram os comportamentos em saúde (tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, consumo de frutas e hortaliças e prática de atividade física). As associações foram avaliadas por modelos logísticos, considerando-se o ajuste por potenciais fatores de confusão. Participaram da análise 5.827 indivíduos;32,2% não saíram de casa na última semana;e entre os que saíram de casa, 97,5% usaram máscara facial e 97,3% higienizaram as mãos quando retornaram ao domicílio. A prática de atividade física nos níveis recomendados foi associada com menor chance de não sair de casa na semana anterior. Os ex-fumantes apresentaram maior chance de usar máscara e aqueles que praticavam atividade física tinham menor chance de adotar esta medida protetiva. Indivíduos com consumo de baixo risco de bebidas alcoólicas apresentaram maior chance de higienizar as mãos. Ações que visem ao aumento da adoção das medidas protetivas para o combate ao novo coronavírus devem considerar a existência de grupos vulneráveis, que podem ser identificados pela distribuição de outros comportamentos em saúde na população. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si los comportamientos saludables determinan la adopción de medidas protectoras individuales para combatir la COVID-19. Los datos se obtuvieron del iniciativa ELSI COVID-19, encuesta telefónica llevada a cabo entre los participantes del Estudio Brasileño Longitudinal del Envejecimiento (ELSI-Brasil), que incluye una muestra nacional representativa de la población con 50 años o más. Los desenlaces evaluados fueron tres medidas protectoras: no haber salido de casa en la última semana, usar mascarilla cuando se salió de casa e higienizar las manos cuando se volvió a casa. Asimismo, las variables explicativas fueron los comportamientos en salud (tabaquismo, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, consumo de frutas y hortalizas, así como la práctica de actividad física). Las asociaciones fueron evaluadas mediante modelos logísticos, considerando el ajuste por potenciales factores de confusión. Participaron en el análisis 5.827 individuos;un 32,2% no salió de casa en la última semana, entre quienes salieron de casa un 97,5% usaron mascarilla facial y un 97,3% se higienizaron las manos, cuando regresaron al domicilio. La práctica de actividad física en los niveles recomendados estuvo asociada con una menor oportunidad de no salir de casa en la semana anterior. Los exfumadores presentaron una mayor oportunidad de usar mascarilla y aquellos que practicaban actividad física tenían una menor oportunidad de adoptar esta medida protectora. Individuos con un consumo de bajo riesgo de bebidas alcohólicas presentaron una mayor oportunidad de higienizar sus manos. Las acciones que tengan como objetivo el aumento de la adopción de medidas protectoras para combatir al nuevo coronavirus deben considerar la existencia de grupos vulnerables, que pueden ser identificados por la distribución de otros comportamientos en salud dentro de la población. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether healthy behaviours determine the adoption of individual protective measures to fight COVID-19. The data were obtained from the ELSI-COVID-19 initiative, a telephone survey conducted among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil), which includes a national sample representative of the population aged 50 years or older. The outcomes evaluated were three protective measures (not having left home in the past week, wearing a mask when leaving home, and sanitizing hands when returning home), and the explanatory variables were health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and physical activity). The associations were evaluated by logistic models, considering adjustments for potential confounding factors. A total of 5,827 individuals participated in the analysis;32.2% did not leave home in the last week, and among those who left home, 97.5% used a face mask, and 97.3% sanitized their hands when they returned home. The practice of physical activity at the recommended levels was associated with a lower chance of not leaving home in the previous week. Ex-smokers were more likely to use a mask, and those who practised physical activity were less likely to adopt this protective measure. Individuals with low-risk alcohol consumption had a higher chance of sanitizing their hands. Actions aimed at increasing the adoption of protective measures to fight the new coronavirus should consider the existence of vulnerable groups, which can be identified by the distribution of other health behaviours in the population.

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