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1.
Journal of Teaching and Learning ; 15(2):3-20, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527097

ABSTRACT

This paper offers a review of the research on children, schooling, and disasters in order to identify critical information for the field of education and the practice of educational research in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. What do we know about the experiences of children and their interactions with schools during and following a natural disaster like COVID-19? The review answers this question and both identifies areas of study that need further attention and explores critical methodological approaches for further educational research. Areas of the research reviewed include children’s experiences of disaster, the educational impacts of disaster, the role of schools and teachers in responding to disaster, and methodological considerations for further research. The authors conclude that educational research can play a critical role in recovery efforts for children, teachers, and schools © 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

2.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 82(2):217-224, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527080

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the physical effects of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic have become largely known, the psychological effects are still unknown. Objective: to investigate physical and psychological impact of quarantine measures among school children in Egypt. Methodology: This study investigated the impact of lockdown measures on eating, sleeping, mood and behavior of school children using online survey. Results: Total participants were 1507, aged between 6 to 14 years, private schools’ students represented 60% of responders. 96.4% had changes in sleeping pattern, 77.8% had changes in eating pattern, 21.7% showed worries about general health condition, 70.5% had mood and behavioral changes especially aggressive behavior and finally, 37.3% had problems in concentration and focusing. Sociodemographic factors significantly affected sleeping of children during quarantine. Males were more affected considering bed time, 77.8 % of those returned to bed wetting were girls, the most affected age group was 8-10 years old, urban residents and the first ordered child were the most affected. Changes of eating pattern were more common among females, within the age group 8-10 years, first ordered child of families with sufficient monthly income. Those having one or both of his/her parents is a health care worker were significantly affected and had more worries about health. Finally, sex was the only factor affecting behavioral changes (male more than females). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a notable impact on eating, sleeping patterns as well as mood and behavior of the children. © 2021.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(11):SC10-SC14, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527008

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, leading to Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been a recent pandemic and has spread all over India. Many children with SARS-CoV-2 infection wete referred to our tertiary care center from April 2020 to till date. COVID-19 has been an extremely severe infectious disease. However, very few studies have focused on the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in children. Aim: To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of children with COVID-19 in a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: During the recent pandemic of COVID-19, in Chengalpattu district, Tamil Nadu, this cross-sectional study was done in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, from March 2020 to June 2021 at Paediatric Department, Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital, Tamil Nadu. A total of 191 children who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were admitted to the isolation ward of our institution, as per the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines and was monitored till discharge or death. The clinical features including fever, cough, diarrhoea, respiratory distress were noted with mean duration of symptoms. Laboratory parameters like leucocytosis/leucopenia, thrombocytosis/thrombocytopenia, c-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer (D fragments of protein fibrin) and serum ferritin were noted. Results: Among the total study population of 191 children, 108 (56.54%) children were of age group between 5 years to 12 years. Majority of children, 136 (71.2%), were asymptomatic and the disease has more incidence in boys than girls {104 (54.45) % vs. 87 (45.55%)}. Eight (4.19%) children had comorbid illness. A total of 166 (86.91%) children were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during first wave and 25 (13.09%) children were infected during second wave. Among the study population of 55 (28.8%) symptomatic children, fever was the predominant symptom in 27 (14.14%) children followed by fever with cough in 10 (5.23%) children. Mean duration of symptoms were 4.5±1.3 days. The CRP was elevated in 13 (6.80%) of children. Out of 11 (5.79%) children who required oxygen and ventilator support, 6 (3.14%) required only oxygen. Three children had features suggestive of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) of which one child died. Conclusion: In the present study, most of the children were asymptomatic. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was low in children. The incidence of severe COVID-19 infection in this study was very low. The most severe form of the disease was MIS-C. Mortality is low in the present study group and it occurs in patients with underlying disease or morbid obesity.

4.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(11):PC10-PC13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527005

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has affected many people in India in 2020. This has put a huge strain on hospitals and healthcare workers. Burn patients usually require hospitalisation and surgery, which adds to the burden of care provided by healthcare workers. Modifications in management protocol during a pandemic are of utmost importance to prevent transmission of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) while simultaneously treating burn patients. Aim: To study burn demography and describe changes in burn management protocol during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done from March to July 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic’s initial stages in India, at a tertiary care hospital in Southern India. During these months, screening protocol and guidelines for admission and testing of patients for COVID-19 were followed as given by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). All burn patients who visited the hospital’s Emergency Room (ER) during this period were included in the study. Those patients whose records were incomplete were excluded from the study. Detailed documentation was done of patient’s burn history, travel history and contact history by healthcare workers wearing level 1 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE). Demographic details were collected and entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and the percentages were calculated. Results: A total of 77 burn patients visited the ER and 44 patients required admission. A total of 22 (50%) of the admissions were children. A total of 45 patients (58.44%) had sustained scald burns, 23 patients (29.87%) sustained flame burns and nine patients (11.69%) sustained electric burns. Thirty two patients sustained burns upto 20% and 12 patients had major burns (>20%). Nine patients underwent surgery. There were two fatalities. All patients were seen by healthcare workers wearing level 1 PPE. No COVID-19 positive patient was reported during our study period. Conclusion: There was an increase in paediatric burn accidents during the COVID-19 pandemic in India due to crowded and congested homes and a lack of continuous supervision from adults otherwise occupied with work done remotely from home. It is routine practice to admit only critical burn patients or in situations where home care is not possible. Minor burns dressing must be done at home instead of;at Out Patient Department (OPD) visit. Lifesaving surgeries in children were done using live skin donor. Diagnosis, treatment, physiotherapy and follow-up of patients through tele-consultation to avoid spread of COVID-19 virus was encouraged.

5.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 9:1109-1114, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1526876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies and meta-analyzes have shown that reduced levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the blood contribute to impaired immunity and stimulate excessive inflammation that adversely affects the health of children: The risk of developing bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, and allergic rhinitis increases. AIM: The main purpose of this review is to summarize the present literature data on the relationship between Vitamin D, VRI, and other infectious diseases with a clinical example. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive analysis was carried out under Vitamin D in respiratory viral infection and other diseases. RESULTS: The results of fundamental research allow us to assert that Vitamin D is fundamentally necessary for maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the immune system. CONCLUSION: Clinical studies and meta-analyzes have shown that reduced levels of 25 (OH) E in the blood contribute to impaired immunity and stimulate excessive inflammation, which adversely affects the health of children: The risk of developing bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, and allergic rhinitis increases. © 2021 S. B. Dyussenova, M. Y. Gordiyenko, M. S. Askarov, G. K. Tuleuova, S. B. Suleimenova, G. S. Khussainova, B. I. Abisheva.

6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1526815

ABSTRACT

Background: Studying prosociality in children is a complex but relevant issue related to the qualitative development of human interactions. The main objective of the present study is to identify the psychosocial factors that most promote or inhibit the adoption of prosocial behaviours among children. Method: In Spring 2021, a survey was conducted amongst primary school children through a structured paper questionnaire. The data analysis has been carried out through bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Path analysis has been used. Results: The results highlight the role played by the parental education level, the perception of positive and negative emotions, the adherence to gender roles and the involvement in cyberbullying actions in predicting prosocial tendencies among children. On the other hand, adopting prosocial behaviours affects the screen-time as well as the devices’ interference in face-to-face interactions and the attitude towards school. Conclusions: The results are relevant and useful for the study of trends in prosocial behaviours among children. Family education level, individual status, peer interactions and social conditionings are variables that highly influence this multidimensional phenomenon. Further research is needed, including the definition of new measures and indicators concerning the context where children live and interact with others, with the aim of designing interventions aimed at facilitating relational well-being of children. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

7.
13th International Conference on Contemporary Computing, IC3 2021 ; : 469-474, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1526541

ABSTRACT

The use of internet browsing through laptops, desktop systems, and mobile phones by kids has augmented manifold during this COVID-19 pandemic for online education. Since there is an inordinateness of objectionable content on the internet, the kids might get exposed to this content typically accidentally whereas sometimes intentionally. Therefore, it becomes vital to observe the web activities of kids by the parents. The lack of parental control, guidance & inability of parents to monitor their kids throughout the whole time frame motivated us to style and develop a parental control and management tool. Initially, we conducted a background study to understand the state-of-the-art tools currently available in the market and compare those tools in terms of functionality, accuracy, efficiency, usability, and security. We also studied the benchmark requirements set by the parents and the freedom of access expressed by the children. We have implemented a front-end solution and an Android App that follows the default criteria set by us. As the internet is a highly dynamic space, we have used a Machine Learning-based approach to classify the website dynamically to provide dynamicity to the tool. The very basic idea is to scrape a website's content once the user enters the URL and then apply an appropriate algorithm to classify the same, essentially converting the problem into a multi-class classification problem. The result indicates that our tool efficiently blocks inappropriate content and facilitates parents with features to control and monitor their children's online activity and help mitigate the risk of cyber threats for children of the current age. © 2021 ACM.

8.
BMJ Paediatrics Open ; 5(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1526509

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective cohort review of 180 patients aged 0–18 years with positive COVID-19 nasal PCR swab admitted to the only designated paediatric COVID-19 hospital in Abu Dhabi from 1 March to 1 June 2020. 60 (33%) patients were asymptomatic, 117 (65%) patients had mild or moderate symptoms and 3 patients required intensive care with no mortality reported. Symptoms at presentation were fever in 84 patients, cough in 62 patients and gastrointestinal symptoms in 48 patients.

9.
British Journal of Learning Disabilities ; 49(4):406-408, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1526352

ABSTRACT

The authors responds to a comment on their paper "Decommissioning Normal: COVID-19 As a Disruptor of School Norms for Young People With Learning Disabilities" that is published within the issue. Topics covered include the ways on how the Glasgow Disability Alliance (GDA) managed to help people with learning disabilities during the pandemic, and their agreement with the comment that changes should be made to services for children with learning disabilities.

10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 155, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527018

ABSTRACT

The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a prospective population-based cohort study which recruited pregnant women in 1990-1992 and has followed these women, their partners (Generation 0; G0) and their offspring (Generation 1; G1) ever since. The study has reacted rapidly and repeatedly to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, deploying online questionnaires throughout the pandemic. In November/December 2020, a fourth questionnaire was deployed asking about physical and mental health, lifestyle and behaviours, employment and finances. G0 participants were offered an online questionnaire between 17 th November 2020 and 7 th February 2021, while G1 participants were offered both online and paper questionnaires between 1 st December 2020 and 19 th March 2021. Of 15,844 invitations, 8,643 (55%) participants returned the questionnaire (3,101 original mothers [mean age 58.6 years], 1,172 original fathers/partners [mean age 61.5 years] and 4,370 offspring [mean age 28.4 years]). Of these 8,643 participants, 2,012 (23%) had not returned a previous COVID-19 questionnaire, while 3,575 (41%) had returned all three previous questionnaires. In this questionnaire, 300 participants (3.5%) reported a previous positive COVID-19 test, 110 (1.3%) had been told by a doctor they likely had COVID-19, and 759 (8.8%) suspected that they had had COVID-19. Based on self-reported symptoms, between October 2020 and February 2021 359 participants (4.2%) were predicted COVID-19 cases. COVID data is being complemented with linkage to health records and Public Health England pillar testing results as they become available. Data has been released as an update to the previous COVID-19 datasets. It comprises: 1) a standard dataset containing all participant responses to both questionnaires with key sociodemographic factors; and 2) as a composite release coordinating data from the existing resource, thus enabling bespoke research across all areas supported by the study. This data note describes the fourth questionnaire and the data obtained from it.

11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30092, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in schools in 2021, with the advent of variants of concern. We aimed to examine the evolution of the proportion of seropositive children at schools from June-July 2020 to March-April 2021. We also examined symptoms, under-detection of infections, potential preventive effect of face masks, and reasons for non-participation in the study. METHODS: Children in lower (7­10 years), middle (8­13 years) and upper (12­17 years) school levels in randomly selected schools and classes in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, were invited to participate in the prospective cohort study Ciao Corona. Three testing rounds were completed in June-July 2020, October-November 2020 and March-April 2021. From 5230 invited, 2974 children from 275 classes in in 55 schools participated in at least one testing round. We measured SARS-CoV-2 serology in venous blood, and parents filled in questionnaires on sociodemographic information and symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of children seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 increased from 1.5% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.6­2.6%) by June-July 2020, to 6.6% (4.0­8.9%) by October-November, and to 16.4% (12.1­19.5%) by March-April 2021. By March-April 2021, children in upper school level (12.4%; 7.3­16.7%) were less likely to be seropositive than those in middle (19.5%; 14.2­24.4%) or lower school levels (16.0%; 11.0­20.4%). The ratio of PCR-diagnosed to all seropositive children changed from one to 21.7 (by June-July 2020) to one to 3.5 (by March-April 2021). Potential clusters of three or more newly seropositive children were detected in 24 of 119 (20%) classes, 17 from which could be expected by chance. Clustering was not higher than expected by chance in middle and upper school levels. Children in the upper school level, who were wearing face masks at school from November 2020, had a 5.1% (95% confidence interval 9.4% to 0.7%) lower than expected seroprevalence by March-April 2021 than those in middle school level, based on difference-in-differences analysis. Symptoms were reported by 37% of newly seropositive and 16% seronegative children. Fear of blood sampling (64%) was the most frequently reported reason for non-participation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of seropositive children increased from 1.5% in June-July 2020 to 16.4% in March-April 2021, few infections were likely associated with potential spread within schools. In March-April 2021, significant clustering of seropositive children within classes was observed only in the lower school level.

12.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30071, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting containment measures had and still have a profound impact on everyday life. Both the fear of infection and the imposed restrictions can have biopsychosocial consequences. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether there is a difference in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of primary school children in 2014/15 compared to in 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present study included 1,712 children aged 5 to 11 years who either participated in the baseline assessment of the SOPHYA cohort study in 2014/15 or were newly recruited during follow-up of the cohort in 2020. In both surveys, the children invited for participation were identified based on registry data. HRQoL was assessed with the validated KINDL-R questionnaire, which scores HRQoL along six different dimensions. RESULTS: The overall scores (82.4 [81.8; 83.0] vs. 79.6 [79,1; 80.2]), and in particular the emotional well-being scores (85.6 [84.6; 86.6] vs. 83.3 [82.4; 84.2]), were lower during the year of the pandemic (2020) compared to the survey year 2014/15. The highest decrease between 2014/15 and 2020 in the adjusted models was seen for the youngest age group (-3.9 points), followed by children from families with a high income (-3.2 points), girls (-3.1 points), Swiss citizens (-3.1 points) and children from the German-speaking part of Switzerland (-3.1 points). HRQoL was particularly low during periods with restrictions and at the height of the COVID-19 waves in 2020. CONCLUSION: The SOPHYA-study showed that HRQoL, and especially emotional well-being, was lower in 5 to 11-year-old children in Switzerland during the first year of the pandemic compared to the results from the survey conducted in 2014/15. In the year of the pandemic, the scores were lowest at the height of the COVID-19 waves and their associated restrictions. As it cannot be distinguished whether fear of the disease itself or the restrictions caused this decrease in HRQoL, containment policies should keep COVID-19 infections as low as possible, but still enable children to profit from protective factors such as leisure activities, physical activity and social contact.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 652838, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526781
14.
Front Neurol ; 12: 676095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526775

ABSTRACT

Treatment of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has been tailored after observational studies and data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS) patients. There are an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for AOMS, and many will be formally studied for use also in POMS. However, there are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss the current state of the art of POMS therapy and will focus on the newer therapies (oral and infusion disease-modifying drugs) and on those still currently under investigation.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2122, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In India and other low- and middle-income countries, multiple family and community members are influential in caregivers' perceptions of vaccination. Existing literature indicates the primary caregiver, typically the mother, is instrumental in vaccine decision-making, but this may vary in contexts. We investigated the role of stakeholders in India who influence caregivers' vaccination perceptions, as this is essential to developing strategies to promote vaccine acceptance and improve uptake. METHODS: This research was conducted in 2019 in Mewat District in Haryana, an area in India with extremely low vaccination coverage. We conducted six focus group discussions with 60 participants in the following categories: fathers of children under-5 years old, expectant mothers, mothers-in-law, community health workers, and community influencers such as locally elected officials and religious leaders. RESULTS: Our results highlighted four themes that influence vaccine uptake. First, while caregivers associated vaccination with reductions in specific diseases, they also noted that vaccination services brought broad health gains, including improved nutrition, antenatal guidance, and social support. Second, community health workers critically influenced, positively or negatively, caregivers' vaccination perceptions. Third, community health workers faced gaps in their education such as limited training on vaccine side-effects, placing them at a disadvantage when dealing with families. Finally, we found that mothers-in-law, fathers, and religious leaders influence caregivers' perceptions of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Communication of broader benefits of vaccines and vaccination services by community health workers could be impactful in increasing vaccine acceptance. Vaccine uptake could potentially be improved by facilitating community health workers' ownership over vaccine acceptance and uptake by involving them in the design and implementation of interventions to target mothers and mothers-in-law. A 'bottom-up' approach, leveraging community health workers' knowledge to design interventions, and giving a voice to key members of the household and society beyond mothers alone, may sustain health improvement in low vaccine coverage areas.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2119, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the main reasons that influence parental choice to postpone or avoid children's vaccination is insufficient knowledge. Mothers' knowledge can be considered as an important factor when determining childcare, as they are often the primary decision maker for their children's healthcare issues. This study aimed to assess the level of mothers' knowledge and practice on certain aspects of vaccination for their child/children in Greece. METHODS: This was an online cross-sectional survey, which collected information about mother's socio-demographic characteristics, vaccination-related information, and vaccine knowledge using a self-administered questionnaire. The survey was conducted between April 2020 and June 2020 and the study population included mothers over 18 years old with at least one child (< 18 years old), living in four broad geographical areas of Greece (Attica, Central Greece, North Greece, and Crete/Aegean Islands). RESULTS: A total of 1885 Greek mothers participated in the study. The majority stated that they vaccined their child/children (98%), and the most popular source of information about vaccination was their child's pediatrician (89%). About half of participants (52%) have delayed their child/children vaccination with their pediatrician's suggestion being the main driver. The median knowledge score was 11 which indicates a high knowledge level for childhood vaccination among Greek mothers. Multiple linear regression analysis identified an inverse association between education and knowledge score, characterized by higher knowledge scores among individuals with secondary and even higher among those with higher education. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the strict adherence to the prescribed dosage as indicated by the local recommendations for each vaccine, was associated with most of the knowledge items included in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the vast majority of mothers in Greece did vaccinate their child/children, while pediatricians appear to have a very influential role in mothers' decision making. High knowledge around vaccination was associated with mothers' educational attainment, being particularly high among those who completed higher education. Considerable attention is required from public health authorities to promote vaccination through educational programs and campaigns, particularly aimed at people with lower educational attainment. Additionally, improving communication between pediatricians and mothers to reach those women who have not decided to vaccinate or delayed vaccination for their children, may prove to be very beneficial.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2067, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the association between content-based problematic smartphone use and obesity in school-age children and adolescents, including variations in the association by educational stage and sex. METHODS: Two-stage non-probability sampling was used to recruit 8419 participants from nineteen primary schools, five middle schools, and thirteen high schools in Shanghai in December 2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), which was obtained from the school physical examination record, while problematic smartphone use was measured by the Revised Problematic Smartphone Use Classification Scale as the independent variable. RESULTS: The rates of obesity varied with educational stages, while problematic smartphone use increased with educational stages. Male students reported higher obesity rates (37.1%vs19.4%, P < 0.001) and greater problematic smartphone use scores (25.65 ± 10.37 vs 22.88 ± 8.94, P < 0.001) than female students. Problematic smartphone use for entertainment (smartphone users addicted to entertainment games, music, videos, novels and other applications) was positively associated to obesity status for primary school [odds ratio (OR), 1.030; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.005-1.057] and high school students (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059). For female students, problematic smartphone use for entertainment was positively associated with obesity status (OR, 1.046; 95% CI, 1.018-1.075). CONCLUSIONS: Problematic smartphone use may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents. The association differed based on the educational stage and sex, and the difference possessed dimensional specificity.

18.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 516, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and severity of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) is widespread and presents a very low mortality rate in high-income countries. This research describes the clinical characteristics of MIS-C in critically ill children in middle-income countries and the factors associated with the rate of mortality and patients with critical outcomes. METHODS: An observational cohort study was conducted in 14 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Colombia between April 01, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Patient age ranged between one month and 18 years, and each patient met the requirements set forth by the World Health Organization (WHO) for MIS-C. RESULTS: There were seventy-eight children in this study. The median age was seven years (IQR 1-11), 18 % (14/78) were under one year old, and 56 % were male. 35 % of patients (29/78) were obese or overweight. The PICU stay per individual was six days (IQR 4-7), and 100 % had a fever upon arrival to the clinic lasting at least five days (IQR 3.7-6). 70 % (55/78) of patients had diarrhea, and 87 % (68/78) had shock or systolic myocardial dysfunction (78 %). Coronary aneurysms were found in 35 % (27/78) of cases, and pericardial effusion was found in 36 %. When compared to existing data in high-income countries, there was a higher mortality rate observed (9 % vs. 1.8 %; p=0.001). When assessing the group of patients that did not survive, a higher frequency of ferritin levels was found, above 500 ngr/mL (100 % vs. 45 %; p=0.012), as well as more cardiovascular complications (100 % vs. 54 %; p = 0.019) when compared to the group that survived. The main treatments received were immunoglobulin (91 %), vasoactive support (76 %), steroids (70.5 %) and antiplatelets (44 %). CONCLUSIONS: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children due to SARS-CoV-2 in critically ill children living in a middle-income country has some clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics similar to those described in high-income countries. The observed inflammatory response and cardiovascular involvement were conditions that, added to the later presentation, may explain the higher mortality seen in these children.

19.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(12): 1147-1148, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526460
20.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(12): 1226-1228, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a virtual multidisciplinary team (MDT) review panel in reducing travel for children with a rare disease (tuberculosis (TB)) without compromising clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients discussed in a virtual MDT panel. Independent pre-intervention and post-intervention data from Public Health England. SETTING: Paediatric departments across North West England. PATIENTS: Children aged <16 years with suspected TB infection/disease. INTERVENTION: Weekly, virtual MDT discussion between district paediatricians and a tertiary TB team. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Care closer to home, time from presentation to treatment. RESULTS: 45% (37 of 82) children received care closer to home. Median time from presentation to treatment reduced by 28% (from 18 to 13 days). 21% more children were diagnosed before developing symptoms (76% of children presented with symptoms pre-intervention, 55% post-intervention). 5 children incorrectly labelled with latent TB infection were treated for TB disease. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical network supported by virtual MDT reviews can improve treatment for children with rare diseases while providing care close to home.

21.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe epidemiology and outcomes of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and positive admissions among children <18 years in South Africa, an upper-middle income setting with high inequality. METHODS: Laboratory and hospital COVID-19 surveillance data, 28 January - 19 September 2020 was used. Testing rates were calculated as number of tested for SARS-CoV-2 divided by population at risk; test positivity rates were calculated as positive tests divided by total number of tests. In-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) was calculated based on hospitalized positive admissions with outcome data who died in-hospital and whose death was judged SARS-CoV-2 related by attending physician. FINDINGS: 315 570 children aged <18 years were tested for SARS-CoV-2; representing 8.9% of all 3 548 738 tests and 1.6% of all children in the country. Of children tested, 46 137 (14.6%) were positive. Children made up 2.9% (n = 2007) of all SARS-CoV-2 positive admissions to sentinel hospitals. Among children, 47 died (2.6% case-fatality). In-hospital deaths were associated with male sex [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.18 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08-4.40)] vs female; age <1 year [aOR 4.11 (95% CI 1.08-15.54)], age 10-14 years [aOR 4.20 (95% CI1.07-16.44)], age 15-17 years [aOR 4.86 (95% 1.28-18.51)] vs age 1-4 years; admission to a public hospital [aOR 5.07(95% 2.01-12.76)] vs private hospital and ≥1 underlying conditions [aOR 12.09 (95% CI 4.19-34.89)] vs none. CONCLUSIONS: Children with underlying conditions were at greater risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. Children > 10 years, those in certain provinces and those with underlying conditions should be considered for increased testing and vaccination.

23.
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed ; 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526455

ABSTRACT

Paediatricians and other child health professionals have a key role in identifying, preventing or mitigating the impacts of poverty on child health. Approaching a problem as vast and intractable as poverty can seem daunting. This article will outline how social determinants impact child health, and provide practical guidance on how to address this problem through a public health lens. The aim is to give frontline practitioners a straightforward, evidence-based framework and practical solutions for tackling child poverty, across three levels: (1) the clinical consultation; (2) the clinical service for the population of children and young people we serve and (3) with a broader policy and social view.

24.
Journal of Public Health Management & Practice ; 28(1):E1-E8, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526233

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Pediatric providers across the United States have sought guidance on how to care for the nation's children during the uncertain historic times of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health care community has been challenged by the unprecedented burden of caring for patients when they have evolving guidelines and limited information about the effects of the virus on children. PROGRAM: In response, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) rapidly launched a national initiative to increase child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. This COVID-19 ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) program created communities of learners among child health professionals and subject matter expert faculty using didactic and case-based presentations that foster an "all-teach, all-learn" approach. IMPLEMENTATION: The initial AAP COVID-19 ECHO program hosted more than 900 participants in 127 individual virtual sessions, with approximately 25 participants per session. The evolving nature of the pandemic necessitated dynamic and continuous bidirectional flow of concerns and information relevant to participants. Session topics were selected in a "just-in-time" fashion based on participant feedback from the prospective postsession surveys and faculty recommendations;speakers brought data and expert recommendations. EVALUATION: To assess impact, the AAP used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the program's effectiveness in meeting its educational objectives. The 2-phase evaluation collected quantitative and qualitative data through an integrated feedback structure that utilized prospective postsession and retrospective postprogram surveys, along with postprogram focus groups. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic surges and another influenza season is upon us, the ECHO model is an effective strategy for facilitating bidirectional communication and education to build child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during an unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency. KEY POINTS: The ECHO model is an effective strategy for health care organizations to facilitate bidirectional communication and education in building health professionals' clinical knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during the unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic.

25.
Appetite ; : 105823, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1525676

ABSTRACT

Organizational support goes beyond the work domain, supporting workers' family role and thus generating resources that lead to work-to-family enrichment. Workers may invest these resources in improving their, and their family's, diet quality. However, data on the link between work resources, enrichment and diet quality during the COVID-19 pandemic is still emerging. The present study contributes to this literature by exploring the actor and partner effects between perceived workplace support for families, work-to-family enrichment, and diet quality in different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children;the potential mediating role of work-to-family enrichment between perceived workplace support for families and diet quality was also explored. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one of their adolescent children (mean age 13.0 years, 53.7% female) were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, during March and June 2020. Mothers and fathers responded to a measure of work-to-family enrichment, and a measure of Perceived Workplace Support for Families. The three family members answered the Adapted Healthy Eating Index. Analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and structural equation modelling. Results showed that fathers' perceived workplace support for families positively and directly affected their own diet quality (actor effect) as well as the mothers' diet quality (partner effect), while indirectly positively affected the adolescents' diet quality via work-to-family enrichment (partner effect). Mothers' perceived workplace support for families enhanced their own work-to-family enrichment, which in turn improved their diet quality (actor effects). These results suggest that resources that both parents acquire through family-friendly workplace policies have positive effects on the three family members' diet quality by different mechanisms. Policymakers and organizations must aim to promote family-friendly workplace policies, particularly during ongoing crisis such as a pandemic.

26.
Infectious Diseases in Children ; 33(6):8-9, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525217

ABSTRACT

Jonathan A. Ripp, MD, MPH, chief wellness officer and senior associate dean for well-being and resilience at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, told Infectious Diseases in Children that the concerns among employees at his health care system have evolved over the course of the pandemic. When the first cases emerged, the major stressors were about basic needs such as child care and personal safety, particularly given the nationwide shortage of masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers, he said. The bigger concern, she said, is contact tracing, which will require more staffing and collaborations between public health officials, the federal government, universities and the private sector to incorporate apps and other technology that can improve the efficiency of contact tracing. "If we do reduce transmission in the weeks ahead - before we head into fall - that increased testing, increased contact tracing, immediate isolation and quarantine of contacts can really help us keep rates low ... hopefully so that the health care capacity can be sufficient and that we can bide time until there are better treatments and until there is a vaccine," Schuchat said.

27.
Annali Italiani di Chirurgia ; 92:592-594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525112

ABSTRACT

AIM: We describe treatments of acute appendicitis at "Bambino Gesu" Children's Hospital during the peak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Italy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 1st to May 31st, all suspected appendicitis admitted to hospital entered this study. Following Institutional COVID19-protocol, between March 1st-21st, only patients with respiratory symptoms and/or history of recent travel to risk areas received nasopharyngeal swab. From March 22nd to May 31st, protocol was adapted to worsening epidemic conditions and a pre-triage area has been arranged to accommodate all patients undergoing the swab. RESULTS: 14 out of 53 patients were hospitalized between march 1st-21st, 39 from march 22nd to may 31st. swab was performed in 2 patient of first group and in all of second. DISCUSSION: During the study period, no covid19-contagion occurred in hospital staff by covid19-patients. CONCLUSION: Our covid19-protocol protected staff and patients allowing the maintenance of our standard of treatment. KEY WORDS: Appendicitis, Children, Covid19, Sars-cov-2.

28.
Journal of Oncology Navigation & Survivorship ; 12(11):401-402, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1525098

ABSTRACT

Background: The Cancer Support Community (CSC) is a leader in providing psychosocial care and has recognized the importance of understanding the effects of COVID-19 on healthcare professionals and addressing gaps in identified supports. Recent national US surveys have found a 45% burnout prevalence rate among oncologists, while other global studies have suggested burnout rates in oncologists ranging from 20% to 70%. In October 2020, a survey was disseminated to a wide range of oncology professionals to understand the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on work and home life, including stressors related to burnout and other challenges such as compassion fatigue. Objective: To understand the stressors related to burnout and other challenges, such as compassion fatigue, is highly relevant as it affects personal well-being and quality of life of the healthcare professional. Currently no research exists regarding the impact of COVID-19 on work and home stress among oncology helping professionals. Methods: CSC disseminated an anonymous survey throughout its affiliate network, Healthcare Partners, and the larger oncology community. The target audience of oncology helping professionals included physicians, social workers, nurses, physician's assistants, psychologists, and other mental health professionals. There were 3 parts to this survey: (1) demographic questions, (2) the Professional Quality of Life Scale, and (3) an open-ended response to stressors experienced at work and at home due to COVID-19. Results: Eighty-six individuals participated in the survey. Results from this study indicate moderate levels of compassion satisfaction (M = 40.4, SD = 5.9), burnout (M = 24, SD = 6.7), and secondary traumatic stress (M = 22.9, SD = 6.4) among respondents. Bivariate analyses indicated nonwhite oncology professionals reported lower compassion satisfaction compared with whites, and hospital workers reported higher levels of burnout compared with staff in nonhospital settings. The most common stressors that oncology professionals reported experiencing at work due to COVID-19 included the primary themes of workplace issues (eg, less in-person contact), patient care (eg, increased patient needs/distress), and health (eg, concern for personal or family health/fear of COVID-19). The most common stressors that respondents reported experiencing at home due to COVID-19 also included 3 primary themes: health (eg, isolation/loneliness), family and children (eg, online school/homeschooling), and financial (eg, job insecurity). Conclusion: Survey results underscore the stress of COVID-19 on oncology professionals and the unique impact the pandemic has had on work and home-life stressors in this population. Survey results can be used as an important tool to identify support gaps and create target resources, as well as serve as a base for future research.

29.
Infectious Diseases in Children ; 33(6):1-1,14, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525097

ABSTRACT

Most infectious disease specialists believe the syndrome is "a different entity" from Kawasaki disease, said Infectious Diseases in Children Editorial Board Member Stanford T. Shulman, MD, a physician specializing in Kawasaki disease at Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. David Cennimo, MD, a clinician and assistant professor of adult infectious diseases at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, agreed that the illness does not seem to be consistent with Kawasaki disease. According to Shulman, most children are presenting with fever, which is common in Kawasaki disease cases.

30.
Viesoji Politika ir Administravimas ; 20(3):431-442, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525059

ABSTRACT

Šiuo laikotarpiu COVID-19 pandemijai būdingi aktyvūs įstatymų leidybos procesai, skirti sveikatos apsaugai ir įvairių kategorijų gyventojų palaikymui daugelyje pasaulio šalių. Nuo 2019 m. dėl neigiamų demografinių tendencijų Rusija aktyviai pertvarkė valstybės paramos šeimoms, turinčioms vaikų, sistemą. Ši tendencija sustiprėjo pandemijos metu. Mūsų tyrimu siekiama išanalizuoti vidines šeimos politikos ypatybes, t. y. valstybės paramą šeimoms, turinčioms vaikų, per metus prieš pandemiją ir per pandemijos laikotarpį. Apsvarstome šeimos politikos architektūros dinamiką naudodamiesi institucine gramatikos įrankių analize ir parodome galimybes naudoti tokių analizių rezultatus labai dinamiškoje COVID-19 pandemijos situacijoje. Mes išanalizavome 11 federalinių teisės aktų, priimtų Rusijoje po 2020 m. sausio 1 d., kurie buvo skirti tėvams ir siūlė paramą šeimoms su vaikais. Šiuose aktuose yra 78 instituciniai teiginiai, kuriuos užkodavome pagal IGT taisykles, kiekviename sakinyje apibrėždami atributus, objektus, deontiką ir sąlygas. Mūsų tyrimo rezultatai yra tokie: 1) Rusijos šeimos politiką prieš ir per COVID-19 pandemiją galima suskirstyti į tris etapus, įskaitant trumpalaikius. Antrasis etapas: nuo 2020 m. pradžios iki pandemijos pradžios. Akivaizdžiausi pokyčiai trijuose etapuose matomi atsižvelgiant į institucinių pareiškimų objektus ir sąlygas. Antrame ir trečiame etape matome didelę paramos gavėjų (objektų) plėtrą, taip pat pokyčius išmokų priėmimo sąlygose. Sąlygos labai skiriasi dėl priemonės reguliarumo ir suteiktos išmokos rūšies;2) Priimtuose teisės aktuose ne visada nurodomi aiškūs atributai, tai yra subjektai (federalinės ir regioninės valdžios institucijos), atsakingi už konkrečios taisyklės įgyvendinimą, o tai kartais gali trukdyti įgyvendinti reglamentą;3) Pagrindinių paramos priemonių parametrų klasifikavimas pagal IGT analizės struktūrą ir kategorijas leidžia nustatyti galimą informacijos politikos koncepciją, kuri būtų aiški paramos priemonių gavėjams.Alternate : The COVID-19 pandemic is characterised by active law-making processes aimed at health care and support of different categories of population in many countries in the world. Starting from 2019, due to negative demographic trends, Russia has experienced the active transformation of the state support system for families having children. This trend has strengthened during the pandemic. Our research aims to analyse the internal characteristics of the family policy, namely the state support for families having children, during the year preceding pandemic and within the pandemic period. We consider the dynamics of the family policy architecture by means of Institutional Grammar Tool (IGT) analysis and demonstrate the opportunities for using the results of such analyses in the highly dynamic situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analysed 11 federal legal acts adopted in Russia after January 1, 2020 that addressed parents and offered support for families with children. These acts contain 78 institutional statements that we coded in accordance with the IGT rules, defining the attributes, objects, deontics and conditions in each sentence. Our results are as follows: 1) Russian family policy before and during COVID-19 pandemic can be divided into three stages, including the short-term second stage from the beginning of 2020 to the beginning of the pandemic. The most obvious changes in the three stages are seen in terms of the Objects and Conditions of the institutional statements. At the second and third stages we see a major expansion of support receivers (the Objects) as well as changes in the Conditions for the benefits gain. Conditions vary greatly and differ in terms of regularity of measure and the type of the payment granted;2) Legal acts adopted do not always indicate clear Attributes, i.e., the subjects (federal and regional authorities) responsible for the implementation of the particular rule sometimes can hinder the implementation of the regulation;3) Classification of the parameters of the main support measures in the framework and categories of the IGT analyses lead us to the probable concept of the information policy that would be clear to the beneficiaries of support measures.

31.
Infectious Diseases in Children ; 33(6):1-12, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525043

ABSTRACT

Infectious Diseases in Children Editorial Board Member C. Buddy Creech, MD, MPH, associate professor of pediatrics and director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, said he and his colleagues have been using telehealth services since before the pandemic and were prepared for the shift in practice. 'A good place to start' According to findings from a Kaiser Family Foundation tracking poll, 48% of people have skipped or postponed medical care during the pandemic, and 11% of those who have skipped care said their condition got worse. Infectious Diseases in Children Editorial Board Member William T. Gerson, MD, FAAP, clinical professor of pediatrics at the University of Vermont College of Medicine, said it took some time to adjust to using telehealth, but in 3 decades of practice, he has built a level of trust with his patients, which made it easier. Mental health care Experts have expressed concern over the potential negative mental health effects in children who have been in lockdown at home during the pandemic.

32.
Infectious Diseases in Children ; 33(6):16, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525042

ABSTRACT

Fauci testified remotely during a hearing of the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions (HELP) called Safely Getting Back to Work and Back to School. The director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases responded to comments from Republican Sen. Rand Paul, MD, of Kentucky, who noted that the mortality rate from COVID-19 among children in hard-hit New York approaches zero. Other highlights from the hearing include the following: * Fauci said the U.S. death toll, which surpassed 100,000 in late May, is likely an underestimate, noting that some people who died at home from COVID-19 may not have been counted among the official numbers. * All roads back to work and back to school run through testing, said HELP committee chairman Sen. Lamar Alexander, a Republican from Tennessee.

33.
6th Progressive and Fun Education International Conference, Profunedu 2021 ; 2438, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1525028

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 9 papers. The topics discussed include: higher order thinking skills based assessment for learning model in problem based learning using SIAVO for vocational school students;the effectiveness of math learning based on multiple intelligence : implications at MTs Darul Ma’wa;adversity quotient students’ in mathematics through process-oriented guided inquiry learning model (POGIL);application of Wingeom in mathematics learning as a learning medium for children with visual-spatial intelligence;interaction patterns and blended learning activities using the Moodle platform during a pandemic in vocational high school;the numeration with lesson study assisted by e-learning Merdeka campus of COVID-19 contexts at primary school teachers Universitas PGRI Palembang;designing PISA-like mathematics problem using D COVID-19 transmission map context;and the effectiveness of e-learning based learning models to improve primary school students' numeracy ability during the Covid-19 pandemic.

34.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(6): 689-694, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526215

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced symptoms in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and to characterize their quality of life (QoL), anxiety and global health. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, international study conducted between April and July 2020 at six different referral centers. Children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2019 and February 2020 were enrolled and prospectively interviewed at 4 months of follow-up during the first pandemic phase (Quarantine group). Patients were asked to complete PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and PROMIS Anxiety and Global Health questionnaires. A cohort of children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2018 and February 2019 was used as a Control group. RESULTS: Three-hundred-fifty-six children were enrolled of whom 180 (mean age at diagnosis: 14 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Quarantine group and 176 (mean age at diagnosis: 13 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Control group. At 4 months of follow-up, we observed a significant reduction of children reporting >5 episodes of abdominal pain per month when compared to baseline, in both groups (Quarantine group: 63.9% vs 42.2%, P < 0.001; Control group: 83.5% vs 50%, P < 0.001). The Quarantine group had median QoL values of 84.8 with 16.6% of children showing high anxiety values and 55% having decreased global health score. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated symptoms' improvement at 4 months of follow-up in both cohorts. During the first months of the COVID-19 quarantine children with FAPDs showed satisfactory QoL and anxiety scores, suggesting positive effects of school closure and increased parental attention.

35.
N Engl J Med ; 385(21): 1929-1940, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the standard of care for Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Hurler variant [MPSIH]). However, this treatment is only partially curative and is associated with complications. METHODS: We are conducting an ongoing study involving eight children with MPSIH. At enrollment, the children lacked a suitable allogeneic donor and had a Developmental Quotient or Intelligence Quotient score above 70 (i.e., none had moderate or severe cognitive impairment). The children received autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) transduced ex vivo with an α-L-iduronidase (IDUA)-encoding lentiviral vector after myeloablative conditioning. Safety and correction of blood IDUA activity up to supraphysiologic levels were the primary end points. Clearance of lysosomal storage material as well as skeletal and neurophysiological development were assessed as secondary and exploratory end points. The planned duration of the study is 5 years. RESULTS: We now report interim results. The children's mean (±SD) age at the time of HSPC gene therapy was 1.9±0.5 years. At a median follow-up of 2.10 years, the procedure had a safety profile similar to that known for autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. All the patients showed prompt and sustained engraftment of gene-corrected cells and had supraphysiologic blood IDUA activity within a month, which was maintained up to the latest follow-up. Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion decreased steeply, reaching normal levels at 12 months in four of five patients who could be evaluated. Previously undetectable levels of IDUA activity in the cerebrospinal fluid became detectable after gene therapy and were associated with local clearance of GAGs. Patients showed stable cognitive performance, stable motor skills corresponding to continued motor development, improved or stable findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, reduced joint stiffness, and normal growth in line with World Health Organization growth charts. CONCLUSIONS: The delivery of HSPC gene therapy in patients with MPSIH resulted in extensive metabolic correction in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. (Funded by Fondazione Telethon and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03488394; EudraCT number, 2017-002430-23.).

36.
Klin Padiatr ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to widely used basic hygiene measures in school, school closures are applied to contain SARS-CoV-2 spread, although the effect on the pandemic is unclear. We proposed a simple approach to disentangle the effect of school closures from other lockdown measures on the pandemic course based on publicly available data in Germany. METHODS: We used data on the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases from the onset of the pandemic to 14th April 2021. We compared the proportion of children (5-14 years old) in all cases prior to the lockdown measures, including school closure, to that during a ten-week lockdown in Germany. The total number of paediatric cases occurring during lockdown was compared to the number expected in absence of school closures. The latter was calculated based on the actual weekly number of all cases and the pre-lockdown proportion of paediatric cases. RESULTS: The proportion of children in all cases was 2.3 percentage points lower at the nadir than the proportion before the lockdown. The estimated total number of paediatric cases prevented by school closures was estimated at 13,246 amounting to 24% of the expected cases in absence of school closures. CONCLUSION: School closure during the winter lockdown reduced the number of expected SARS-CoV-2 cases in children in absence of school closures. The contribution of these prevented cases to the total population incidence is small. These data might provide the basis to model the effect of school closures in addition to basic hygiene measures on the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

39.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103668, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525762

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to reduce the global burden of childhood diarrhoea, 50% of all cases globally occur in children under five years in Low-Income and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs) and knowledge gaps remain regarding the aetiological diagnosis, introduction of diarrhoeal vaccines, and the role of environmental enteric dysfunction and severe acute malnutrition. Biomarkers may assist in understanding disease processes, from diagnostics, to management of childhood diarrhoea and the sequelae to vaccine development. Proteomics has the potential to assist in the identification of new biomarkers to understand the processes in the development of childhood diarrhoea and to aid in developing new vaccines. Centralised repositories that enable mining of large data sets to better characterise risk factors, the proteome of both the patient and the different diarrhoeal pathogens, and the environment, could inform patient management and vaccine development, providing a systems biological approach to address the burden of childhood diarrhoea in LMICs.

40.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525632

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the worry level in healthcare professionals and the mental symptoms encountered in their children during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study was designed in a cross-sectional, descriptive and relational screening model. Target population of the study comprised healthcare professionals living in Turkey who had children aged 6 to 16 years. The study data was obtained from 457 healthcare professionals who were accessible online between June 15 and August 15, 2020. The Introductory Information Form, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 (PSC-17) were used as data collection method. The mean age of the healthcare professionals was 39.82 ± 4.83 years and 88.6% of them were female, 58.6% were nurses, 9.0% were doctors and 54.3% were working in the pandemic service. The mean total PSWQ score of the healthcare professionals was 53.53 ± 11.82 and the mean total PSC-17 score of their children was 10.74 ± 5.68. The mean PSWQ score of the healthcare professionals who had a psychological disease and provided care to COVID-19 patients was significantly higher. The PSC-17 scores were significantly higher in children with a mental disorder. There was a statistically significant positively correlation between the mean total PSWQ score of the healthcare professionals and the mean total PSC-17 score of their children. The study showed that children of healthcare professionals who experience all aspects of the pandemic, comprise an important risk group because they are unable to have physical contact with their parents and they experience the pandemic-related measures more.

42.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292714

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to find out the effectiveness and sufficiency of national and international laws and provisions in minimizing violence in the household or domestic violence in Bangladesh. As COVID-19 has affected the whole country financially, socially and in individual level, intra-family conflicts like domestic violence have increased at an alarming rate. Presence of various laws, provisions, including both national and international such as the Penal Code, 1860, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act, 2010, the Prevention of Cruelty against Women and Children Act, 2000, International Human Rights instruments and some national-international organizations indicate towards the punishment and prevention of the offenders of domestic violence. To find out whether those provisions and mechanisms are sufficient to minimize domestic violence, the authors have studied and analyzed all the facts and circumstances regarding those mechanisms. They selected qualitative method and secondary data analysis as their design to conduct the research. In the consequences of this study, the authors have found that despite being many Acts and mechanisms to deter the offenders from committing violence in the family, the number of incidents has not gone down whereas increased. In the understanding of the sufficiency of mechanisms to minimize the rate of domestic violence, national and international mechanisms are needed to be collaborated and required some new techniques for preventing domestic violence.

43.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292711

ABSTRACT

We would like to share data from a survey run by the Young Academy of Europe (YAE) from June to October 2020, with questions aiming to unravel the situation of early-career researchers (including early stage group leaders) working in Europe, during the COVID-19 pandemic. We were particularly interested in the impact of care activities (related to young children or other family members), and the impact of gender. We include the online survey and collected data, without identifying information. The survey is published in Nature Career Column (July, 2021) ( https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01952-6 ).

44.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292706

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Investigating the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is pivotal to prevent the virus spreading. In most cases, children infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic. Therefore, the infection rate among this age group remains unclear. Seroprevalence studies, including clinical questionnaires, may contribute to our understanding of the time course and clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: SARS-CoV-2-KIDS is a longitudinal, hospital-based, multicentre study in Germany on the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G, as determined by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in children (aged ≤17 years). A study-specific questionnaire provided additional information on clinical aspects. Findings: This analysis included 10,358 participants recruited from June 2020 to May 2021. The estimated anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 2·0% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1·6, 2·5) to 10·8% (95% CI 8·7, 12·9) in March 2021, without major change afterwards and was higher in children with migrant background (on average 6·6% vs. 2·8%). In the pandemic early stages, children under three years were 3·5 (95% CI 2·2, 5·6) times more likely to be seropositive than older children, with the levels equalising in later observations. History of self-reported respiratory tract infections or pneumonia was associated with seropositivity (OR 1·8 (95% CI 1·4, 2·3);2·7 (95% CI 1·7, 4·1)). Interpretation: The majority of children in Germany do not have detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG. To some extent, this may reflect the effect of differing containment measures implemented in the federal states. Detection levels might have been greater in certain age groups or migrant background. Lifting containment measurements is likely to cause a general increase in respiratory tract infections, which already pose a challenge to paediatric medical care during regular winter seasons. This challenge might become critical with additional infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.

45.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292700

ABSTRACT

Background: The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic presented many challenges for parenting. Parenting was severely affected by lockdown, school closure, illness, shortages, movement restrictions and the many sudden changes wrought by the global emergence of COVID-19. Responding to the need for a rapid emergency response to support parents and caregivers, a consortium of providers developed a suite of COVID-19 parenting resources based on evidence-based parenting interventions. Launched in March 2020, these were adapted for online use, with versions in over 100 languages, and the possibility for downloading, radio, and oral provision. A rapid qualitative evaluation initiative was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021 to inform the procedure, understand the impact and to drive future provision.Methods:: The evaluation collected open-ended responses surveys (n=495 participants) and in-depth interviews with parents, providers and adolescent children (n=22) from 14 countries and one global source. Data were gathered on parenting challenges during COVID-19 and the utility of the COVID-19 parenting resources. In-depth, semi-structured interviews explored the same concepts and elaborating on challenges, utility, and recommendations for the future. Data were translated to English and coded in a hierarchy from basic, organising and global theme generation.Results:: The parenting resources equipped parents with information and practices transforming everyday lives, interactions and the challenges from the parenting pressures. The tips provided prompts and permissions related to children’s behaviour, enabled communications and offered ways to reduce stress, monitor behaviour and navigate discipline challenges. The timeliness of the resources as well as the clarity and ease of use were seen as advantages. Future direction and possible hurdles related to adaptations needed according to recipient, child age, local context, culture and new challenges.Conclusions:: Although limited by the timing and reach of the disseminated tips, overall findings point to the value and utility of this unprecedented global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results suggest that rapid provision of parenting resources at scale is feasible and of use and opens up a pathway for providing evidence-based interventions under COVID-19 constraints. Trial registration: N/A

46.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292690

ABSTRACT

Background: Paediatric oncology outreach programs have been effective development interventions to reduce inequalities in healthcare between high-income countries (HIC) versus low and middle-income countries (LMIC). But little is known about its sustainability during times of a pandemic. This study assesses the impact of COVID-19 government measures on a paediatric oncology outreach program between three large referral hospitals in the Netherlands, Indonesia and Kenya. Methods The head from each paediatric oncology outreach partner site was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in June 2021. Results COVID-19 government measures impacted childhood cancer care at all three hospitals. However, disruptions in services are more prominent at partner sites in LMIC, increasing existing inequalities.The doctor from Dutch hospital, located in a HIC, reported only one disruption which is a decrease in surveillance evaluations for patients who completed cancer treatment. The doctors from Indonesian and Kenyan hospitals, located in LMIC, reported multiple disruptions. For example, reduced number of cancer diagnoses, delayed presentations, medical staff shortages, limited availability of chemotherapy and blood products, and delayed or modified treatment administration. Physical interaction between medical teams of all three participating institutions has slowed down. Hereby, adequate transfer of knowledge, skills and expertise have been adversely affected. Conclusion COVID-19 government measures have negatively impacted the intrinsic nature of the paediatric oncology outreach program. Disruptions in childhood cancer care services are more prominent at partner sites in LMIC. Government leaders and policy makers should take collateral damage of their policies and local settings into account to protect children with cancer

47.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292621

ABSTRACT

The recently published “Deaths in children and young people in England after SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first pandemic year” attempts to unpick the issue of paediatric deaths “with” versus “from” COVID-19, additionally reporting on pre-existing comorbidities of the children and young people (CYP) who died after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Linking data from the National Child Mortality Database (NCMD), hospital data from the Secondary Uses Service (SUS), and PICU audit data, the authors have re-examined deaths in CYP after a COVID-19 diagnosis using these datasets. However, whilst data on any pre-existing conditions may be useful to identify the children at highest risk from COVID-19, we have some concerns around the methodology and presentation of the first part of this study.

48.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292609

ABSTRACT

Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for severe illness due to severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We describe the successful native lung recovery of a child with SCD referred for lung transplant (LTx) evaluation who was on prolonged veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). He initially presented with acute chest syndrome complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection that ultimately required dual-lumen, single bicaval VV-ECMO cannulation for respiratory support. Despite increased risk of hemolysis and thrombosis from SCD and SARS-CoV-2 infection, he was successfully supported on VV-ECMO for 71 days without complications leading to native lung recovery with meticulous management of his SCD therapy. This report provides new insight on our approach to VV-ECMO support in a child with SCD and SARS-CoV-2 infection. With a successful outcome, the patient has returned home but still on mechanical ventilation with LTx still an option if he is not eventually liberated from invasive respiratory support.

49.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292588

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with hematologic neoplasm may have compromised immunity due to their malignancy and/or treatment, and may be at elevated risk of severe COVID-19. However, the studies bring together patients with hematologic neoplasms and solid tumors into a single group, making no distinction about the types of hematological tumors and their treatments. This systematic review is designed to explore the risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with hematologic neoplasm. Studies about patients, adult or children, with hematologic neoplasm and COVID-19 will be included.Methods:: A systematic review according to Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for systematic reviews of etiology and risk will be performed. The review will consider as participants adults or children with COVID-19 infection detected by RT-PCR or serology (SARS-CoV-2 antibody). We will be included studies without routine labs confirmation of COVID-19 if the patients presented clinical/physical exam and computed tomography suggesting COVID-19. The exposure of interest will be hematologic neoplasm, which include lymphomas, acute and chronic leukemias, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative diseases. We will consider cohort, case-control, analytical cross-sectional studies. Outcomes among patients with COVID-19 are critical symptoms, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, mechanical ventilation and deaths. We will exclude studies with other neoplasms than hematologic neoplasms. Search strategies have been created for the Embase, Medline and LILACS. Two reviewers independently will assess the studies for their eligibility, will extract data and will evaluate their risk of bias. Similar outcomes measured in at least two studies will be plotted in the meta-analysis using the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information.Discussion: This systematic review aims to evaluate if patients with hematologic neoplasm may be at elevated risk of severe COVID-19. This review will differ from the previous ones because we will include controlled studies and groups with only hematologic neoplasm, excluding other cancers. The main hypothesis of our research is that not all hematological cancer patients have high risk of severe COVID-19. Trial registration number: PROSPERO CRD42020199318.

50.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292568

ABSTRACT

Using a structural life-cycle model and data on school visits from Safegraph and school closures from Burbio, we quantify the heterogeneous impact of school closures during the Corona crisis on children affected at different ages and coming from households with different parental characteristics. Our data suggests that secondary schools were closed for in-person learning for longer periods than elementary schools (implying that younger children experienced less school closures than older children), and that private schools experienced shorter closures than public schools, and schools in poorer U.S. counties experienced shorter school closures. We then extend the structural life cycle model of private and public schooling investments studied in FuchsSchündeln, Krueger, Ludwig, and Popova (2021) to include the choice of parents whether to send their children to private schools, empirically discipline it with data on parental investments from the PSID, and then feed into the model the school closure measures from our empirical analysis to quantify the long-run consequences of the Covid-19 school closures on the cohorts of children currently in school. Future earnings- and welfare losses are largest for children that started public secondary schools at the onset of the Covid-19 crisis. Comparing children from the top to children from the bottom quartile of the income distribution, welfare losses are ca. 0.8 percentage points larger for the poorer children if school closures were unrelated to income. Accounting for the longer school closures in richer counties reduces this gap by about 1/3. A policy intervention that extends schools by 3 months (6 weeks in the next two summers) generates significant welfare gains for the children and raises future tax revenues approximately sufficient to pay for the cost of this schooling expansion.

51.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292565

ABSTRACT

Most of the research examining children visiting a parent in prison indicates that visits have a positive impact on children's well-being, their connection to the imprisoned par- ent and the parent themselves. However, the COVID-19 pandemic brought about a significant change to prison visits worldwide, with limits or bans on face-to-face con- tact. Understanding the experiences and needs of children during this period remains limited. This paper presents the findings of a survey of 84 carers of 184 children across Australia, investigating children's experiences of contact with their imprisoned parent both before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Although most carers reported maintaining contact during restrictions, a range of difficulties were noted: reduced availability;the effect of prison-based issues, including lockdowns;and the suitability of video/telephone visits for young children. Some described the benefits of videocon- ferencing, including reduced travel time and cost, and not needing to take children into a prison environment. Despite this, respondents typically described the negative impact of restrictions, and lack of physical contact, on children's emotional well-being. Our findings suggest that, for video visiting to be successful, it should be complementary to in-person visits, tailored to the needs of children, with support offered to families.

52.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292505

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to understand what is known in relation to geographical inequalities in COVID-19 mortality.Introduction: COVID-19 has occurred against a backdrop of existing social and economic inequalities in health. The impact of the pandemic has been examined across various intersections of health inequalities such as age, gender, ethnicity, and occupation. However, spatial inequalities have been less explored. Therefore, this review aims to identify and synthesise what is known on geographical inequalities in COVID-19 mortality globally. Inclusion criteria: Following standard scoping review methodology the inclusion criteria will be guided by Population, Concept, Context (PCC). Population: children and adults (all ages);Concept: Area-level inequalities in COVID-19 mortality;Context: any country, at any level (neighbourhood, town, city, municipality, region). Any published, peer-reviewed study written in English that focuses on all three elements of the PCC inclusion criteria will be included. Methods Searches will be conducted in (host sites given in parentheses) Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Science Citation Index (Web of Science) and limited to dates ranging from 1st January 2020 to December 31st 2021. Reference lists of all relevant papers will be searched for additional studies. All titles and abstracts will be screened in Rayyan. Primary studies focusing on COVID-19 mortality rates disaggregated by any measure of area-level deprivation will be selected for full text review. Data relating to study design, population, location, outcomes, and results by deprivation will be extracted using standardised extraction forms. Identified papers meeting the inclusion criteria will be tabulated, synthesised thematically and a narrative constructed to describe the evidence base of geographical inequalities in COVID-19 mortality.

53.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292503

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created compounding stressors for school-aged children, parents, and teachers and underscored the urgent need to widely implement evidence-based programs for promoting youth mental and behavioral health. In two community-engaged studies, we piloted psychoeducational workshops that taught behavior management and stress management strategies to parents and teachers. The research team partnered with a northern California school district to develop and implement these psychoeducational workshops. In study 1, parents (N = 165) participated in a series of workshops on behavior management. Parents perceived the strategies covered in each workshop to be acceptable, appropriate, and feasible and were able to accurately describe behavior management strategies following each workshop. In study 2, teachers (N = 113) participated in workshops on behavior management and stress management. Teachers perceived the strategies covered in each workshop to be acceptable, appropriate, and feasible and were able to accurately describe the strategies following each workshop. Findings suggest that psychoeducational workshops may be a promising avenue for promoting youth mental and behavioral health. Lessons learned from conducting this community-engaged research are discussed, as well as future directions for widely implementing psychoeducational workshops for parents and teachers.

54.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292478

ABSTRACT

In the winter of 2020, a rare respiratory disease struck the city of Wuhan, China. Causing severe illness and death, it quickly spread to other parts of the country, and soon throughout the world, devastating nearly two hundred countries. 1Link to the text of the noteLabeled COVID-19, physicians and scientists never before had seen this particular infectious disease. Because COVID-19 is highly contagious and new to the human immune system, all humans are susceptible to becoming ill from it. As of the time of this article being written, there are more than 46.4 million confirmed cases, and COVID-19 has claimed over 1.2 million lives. 4Link to the text of the noteIn the United States and its territories, the death toll has risen to more than 230,000, and there is no end in sight. 5Link to the text of the noteLabeled a pandemic by the World Health Organization, the virus has created universal havoc, changing life as people knew it. To curtail the spread of COVID-19, the United States government first encouraged social distancing, but the disease's easy transferability soon propelled many state and local governments to order non-essential businesses to close and people to stay at home. Stores, bars, restaurants, hair salons, and the like were shut down. Schools closed, and children engaged in online learning. College students left campus to finish semesters online. As life came to a standstill, the stock market plummeted, with the Dow Jones losing hundreds of points, similar in decline to the Great Depression. In a period of three weeks, over sixteen million people were laid off, with no signs of abatement. There is no precedent for such a sudden freeze in economic activity with the thaw date unknown. The closure of non-essential businesses affected both blue-and white-collar workers. Home construction workers could not go into people's homes. White-collar workers ceased going to their offices. Even if workers could work virtually from home, the same level of efficiency was unattainable;children were underfoot, or loved ones were ill. While the virus will eventually lose its herculean strength and restrictions will be lifted, the repercussions from this pandemic will reverberate for a long time, affecting social and economic lives. The advent of COVID-19 has raised many legal issues. This article will concentrate on COVID-19's impact on family law, with a New Jersey emphasis. During the lockdown, matrimonial attorneys were overwhelmed. Daily calls came in from parents who could no longer pay support and from parents who could not see their children as their former spouse feared the child leaving the home. Each state had different measures in place, and matters were resolved case-by-case, judge by judge. 1 New Jersey courts remained open only for emergency matters. If there were any such exigencies - a spouse committing domestic violence, liquidating assets, closing a business - attorneys could no longer automatically file an order to show cause. Instead, attorneys had to get court permission before filing an emergency application. Whether a court would hear a non-emergent matter varied across the counties. Some courts, but not all, handled non-emergent appearances via telephone and remote platforms. And in terms of the usual motion practice, no longer were there return dates. Instead, attorneys were advised that the court would let them know when the motion would be heard. Unfortunately, family courts do not have a disaster plan in place. While parties wait to go to court, domestic violence continues, assets are liquidated, businesses close, and support obligations accrue. COVID-19 continues to cause both economic and non-economic stresses, and family courts provide the stage for many of these to play out. From increases in divorce rates and domestic violence, to a magnified number of requests to modify support or change custody, family law judges will be asked to hear and decide a multitude of cases. This article is organized as follows: Section II discusses how COVID-19 affects several specific areas of family law. Section III then suggests ways in which the legislature should reform family law statutes to address the impact of COVID-19. Finally, Section IV concludes.

55.
Children Infections ; 20(2):64-67, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527105

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus infection COVID-19 in children generally proceeds favorably, but in combination with other acute infectious diseases and in persons with background pathology and impaired immune reactivity may pose a particular threat. The article presents a clinical case of chickenpox, complicated by meningoencephalitis and cerebral edema, in combination with COVID-19 in a 5-year-old child. Chickenpox was not quite typical: against the background of febrile temperature, there was a scanty spot-papular rash with single vesicles that appeared later, the absence of elements on the mucous membranes and the development of neurological symptoms in the first day of the disease. COVID-19 was characterized by a wave-like course with fever up to 39, 1°C, tonsillitis phenomena and inflammatory changes in the blood test.

56.
Children Infections ; 20(2):5-9, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527103

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is a socially significant problem around the world. According to available statistics, complications are less common among children, asymptomatic or mild forms of the disease prevail more often. This article presents the features of the viral landscape of the upper respiratory tract in children with ARVI in a pandemic, the clinical and laboratory features of the course of COVID-19 in children of different ages. It was found that SARS-CoV-2 is detected only in a third (32.9%) of hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms, in 4.3% of cases - in combination with seasonal CoV-OC43 / CoV-229E, in 11.6% - with other respiratory viruses. The most frequent source of infection with the SARS-Cov-2 were family members. Children with a moderate form of the disease predominated among the patients. The leading symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, catarrhal symptoms, as well as gastrointestinal manifestations and anosmia. A feature of the new coronavirus infection in newborns and children of the first month of life was the absence of fever and intoxication, the lack of expression of catarrhal manifestations when the colon is involved in the pathological process (colitis, rarely - hemocolitis). In the compete blood test in children under the age of one year, monocytosis prevailed, in children over 7 years old - leukopenia and accelerated ESR. Among the changes in the biochemical analysis of blood, the most common was an increased C-reactive protein.

57.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(9):SR01-SR03, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1527006

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a newer, rarer and dangerous childhood disease that require early attention and is associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. This article reports four clinically ill children of age 6-15 years admitted to Aster CMI hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, during October and November 2020. The diagnosis was based on elevated laboratory values (D-Dimer, C-reactive Protein (CRP), and Ferritin) and positive COVID-19 antibody test. No infectious aetiologies were identified. All patients presented at Emergency Room (ER) with hypotensive shock and were treated with inotropic support, Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IV-Ig), and steroids. Children responded well to treatment and were discharged within a period of 8-11 days. Clinical characteristics are necessary for understanding more about newly identified paediatric illness.

58.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics ; 31(4), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1526965

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since mid-April 2020, infection with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 2 million people worldwide. Little is known about the effects of COVID-19 infection on kidney transplant patients treated with immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. Case Presentation: Here, we report three Iranian pediatric kidney transplantation cases who acquired COVID-19 infection and were admitted to Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital in Tehran, Iran, in March-April 2020 (first wave). They were treated with prednisolone, cy-closporine, and cellcept. All of them had gastrointestinal symptoms, and one patient also had respiratory symptoms. In two patients who had only gastrointestinal symptoms, chest radiographies were considered normal. They did not need the intensive care unit (ICU), ventilator respiratory support, and dialysis due to a temporary increase in serum creatinine and no change in urine volume. Cellcept was stopped and other medications continued. The patient, who had pulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms, expressed more severe manifestations that led to ICU admission and dialysis. Prednisolone was increased to a stress dose and the other drugs were discontinued. Conclusions: Pulmonary manifestations significantly worsen the prognosis compared to gastrointestinal manifestations in pediatric kidney transplants with COVID-19.

59.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 9:100-104, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1526874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children need to get protection during the COVID-19 pandemic, in accordance with Presidential Regulation 12/2020 on The Determination of Non-Natural Disasters. AIM: The purpose of the research is to develop non-natural disaster risk instruments for children. METHODS: This type of research is Research and Development. The participant population is divided into 3 roles, Focused group discussion participants (20 people), instrument testing (267 respondents), and experts (methodology experts and disaster experts). Instrument development is carried out in five stages, namely: (1) Instrument evaluation;(2) development;(3) experiment;(4) socialization;and (5) recommendations. RESULTS: The results showed that from 32 valid items, 25 items were all reliable because the Cronbach alpha value was above 0.7. Not valid for seven items. The results of the instrument trial of 267 children, who had the potential to be exposed to COVID-19 were 69% who were not exposed to 31%. Of the 69%, strong exposure is 2%, high exposure is 15% and medium exposure is 83%. CONCLUSION: The developed non-natural disaster risk instrument can be used to assess disaster risk for children. The instrument works well, has efficiency, functionality and usability. Outputs: (1) Disaster risk instruments for children;(2) intellectual property rights;(3) publication of international journals, and (4) monograph books.

60.
Radiologia (Engl Ed) ; 63(6):495-504, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1525941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Initial COVID-19 reports described a variety of clinical presentations, but lower respiratory abnormalities are most common and chest CT findings differ between adult and pediatric patients. We aim to summarize early CT findings to inform healthcare providers on the frequency of COVID-19 manifestations specific to adult or pediatric patients, and to determine if the sensitivity of CT justifies its use in these populations. METHODS: PubMed was searched for the presence of the words "CT, imaging, COVID-19" in the title or , and 17 large-scale PubMed and/or Scopus studies and case reports published between January 1, 2020 and April 15, 2020 were selected for data synthesis. RESULTS: Initial CT scans identified ground-glass opacities and bilateral abnormalities as more frequent in adults (74%, n = 698, and 89%, n = 378, respectively) than children (60%, n = 25, and 37%, n = 46). At 14+ days, CT scans evidenced varied degrees of improvement in adults but no resolution until at least 26 days after the onset of flu-like symptoms. In pediatric patients, a third (n = 9) showed additional small nodular GGOs limited to a single lobe 3-5 days after an initial CT scan. CONCLUSION: Early adult CT findings suggest the limited use of CT as a supplemental tool in diagnosing COVID-19 in symptomatic adult patients, with a particular focus on identifying right and left lower lobe abnormalities, GGOs, and interlobular septal thickening. Early pediatric CT findings suggest against the use of CT if RT-PCR is available given its significantly lower sensitivity in this population and radiation exposure.

61.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1525916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances in childhood are an important pediatrics problem because of their influence on children's health and their strong correlation with behavior problems. The aim of the present study was to explore sleep disturbances during the COVID-19 pandemic in school-age children. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used for data collection. From 1 to 15 February 2021, the study utilized snowball sampling techniques to gather data through an online survey. Parents of 1040 6-12-year-old schoolchildren completed the Socio-demographic Information Questionnaire and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to pinpoint factors connected to sleep disturbances. RESULTS: The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 6-12-year-old children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey was 55.5%. The most common sleep disturbances were bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and sleep duration. The children's ages, family relationships, and eating habits were linked to their sleep disturbances. Moreover, our results indicated that sleep disturbances were more common in the children of parents who felt helpless, apprehensive, and frightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our work showed that the prevalence of sleep disturbances among school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey was quite high. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Parents who are worried that their child is sleeping too much or too little should consult their healthcare provider for assessment of a probable sleep disturbance. School nurses should be educated children and their parents about the importance of enough sleep and factors that contribute to inadequate sleep among children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

62.
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal ; 29(11):1267-1271, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1525867

ABSTRACT

Poisoning is a major global health concern. Every year, unintentional poisoning contributes to 106,683 deaths globally. In Kuwait, paediatric poisoning cases comprise approximately 50% of total poisoning cases. Despite the extensive importance and the long history of poison control centres (PCCs) and the emphasis of the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish a PCC in Kuwait, no functional PCC exists in Kuwait. Here we reported 82 poisoning cases between July and December 2020, revealing a 100% increase in comparison to the official figures published in 2004 and 2005. No fatalities were reported, and all cases were discharged home within 12 h of their visit to the casualty. Children aged 2 to < 4 years comprised the most reported poisoning cases with approximately 45% of the total. The number of male child poisoning cases was approximately two-fold of female children. The most common poisoning agent was silica gel granules (9%) followed by medicines – reported as paracetamol (7%), diclofenac (7%), multivitamin gummies (7%) and vitamin C (5%). Among other causes of poisoning were ingestion of salbutamol nebulizer solution (4%), oral contraceptives and insecticides (4%). These findings reveal the importance of establishing a functional PCC in Kuwait to minimise the unnecessary visits following ingestion of expired orange juice and henna, that may encounter further contraction of infections, especially with the current state of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, a functional PCC would provide comprehensive data and hence further intervention such as shifting the dosage form of salbutamol from nebulizer solution to metered dose inhaler with a spacer, in addition to increasing public awareness towards minimizing such a dramatic increase in casualty visits because of -suspected poisoning. © 2021 The Authors

63.
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies ; 63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1525855

ABSTRACT

The paper investigates the heterogeneous effect of a policy-induced decline in people's mobility on the Japanese labor market outcome during the early COVID-19 period. Regressing individual-level labor market outcomes on prefecture-level mobility changes using policy stringency index as an instrument, our two-stage least squares estimator presents the following findings. First, the number of people absent from work increased for all groups of individuals, but the magnitude was greater for workers with non-regular employment status, low-educated people, females especially with children, and those aged 31 to 45 years. Second, while work hours decreased for most groups, the magnitude was especially greater for business owners without employees and those aged 31 to 45. Third, the negative effect on unemployment was statistically significant for older males who worked as regular workers in the previous year. The impact was particularly considerable for those aged 60 and 65, thus suggesting that they lost their re-employment opportunity due to COVID-19. Fourth, all these adverse effects were greater for people working in service and sales occupations. Fifth, a counterfactual experiment of more stringent policies indicates that while an average worker would lose JPY 3857 in weekly earnings by shortening their work hours, the weekly loss for those aged 31 to 45 years and working in service and sales occupations would be about JPY 13,842. © 2021 The Author(s)

64.
Diabetologe ; 17(6):647-656, 2021.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1525585

ABSTRACT

Background: In many chronic diseases, a negative influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on course and prognosis has been described. Objectives: The goal is to examine the impact of COVID-19 disease on children and adults with type 1 diabetes. Materials and methods: We evaluated the published literature on the risk assessment of COVID-19 in people with type 1 diabetes and the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the development of the disease. Results: In adults older than 50 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the risk of severe disease or death from COVID-19 is significantly increased in relation to metabolic control compared with the risks in persons of the same age in the background population. In contrast, severe courses in children with type 1 diabetes have not been described. However, there is an increase of severe illness because of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during the pandemic, both at manifestation and during the course of the disease. Although in humans SARS-CoV‑2 has been shown to infect islet cells, an association with increased incidence of type 1 diabetes has not been demonstrated epidemiologically to date. Conclusions: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes in older age is associated with fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Children and youth with diabetes do not have an increased risk for COVID-19 mortality. Special attention has to be given on the prevention of DKA both at type 1 diabetes onset and during long-term care. As in many other areas of health care, the COVID-19 crisis could offer the opportunity to establish a virtual diabetes clinic to complement standard outpatient care.

65.
Pediatric dentistry ; 43(5):362, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1525029
66.
WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control ; 16:527-533, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1524974

ABSTRACT

Information security in the context of digital literacy is a digital skill that enables safe and purposeful movement through virtual space. Due to rapid and unstoppable technological progress, multiplying opportunities and pushing the boundaries of digital technology and the Internet, the interest of the state and institutions within the state is to raise digital competencies of citizens, with special emphasis on children and youth as the most vulnerable groups of Internet users. The age limit and frequency of use of the Internet by young generations has been moved back a year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the concern for information security of young people is increasingly emphasized. If, and to what extent, knowledge of the issue of identification and authentication affects the information security of high school students aged 16 to 19 in the virtual space, the research question addressed by the authors of this paper was to determine which student behaviors pose a potential danger compromising their information security by establishing a correlation between the variables that determine student behavior and the variables used to examine their level of security in a virtual environment. The research was conducted using a questionnaire on a sample of high school students in the Republic of Croatia, the results of which showed that some students practice behaviors that are potentially dangerous, make them vulnerable and easy targets of cyber predators and attackers, which is why there is cause for concern and a need for a additional education of children of primary and secondary school age in the field of information security in the form of the introduction of the subject Digital Literacy. Based on the results, a model for assessing the level of digital literacy of adolescents that affect information literacy can be designed, but also further related research in the field of information literacy of children and youth can be conducted. © 2021, World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society. All rights reserved.

67.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524917

ABSTRACT

Background: Since late 2019, the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease -2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. Due to the novelty of this unknown disease, many of its manifestations are in an aura of ambiguity. Early data showed that children diagnosed with this virus had severe or critical situations combined with cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial injury, heart failure, ventricular dysfunction, shock, and even Kawasaki-like disease. We describe a cardiac involvement of this disease that presented with a complete atrioventricular block in a child. Case presentation: A 4-year-old boy patient was admitted to the emergency department with a seizure and decreased consciousness level. Moreover, he was in a febrile state and a decreased level of oxygen saturation. Based on his critical situation, he was transferred to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and prepared to initiate invasive mechanical ventilation. High-resolution computed tomography revealed dependent significant grand gloss opacities with interlobular septal thickening in both lungs. The Polymerase chain reaction test confirmed "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)". An Electrocardiography showed a complete atrioventricular block pattern. According to the cardiac involvement, we prescribed a specific medication protocol. After 80 hours of PICU entrance and eight days after it, he was weaned from mechanical ventilation and discharged in good condition from the hospital.

68.
Online Turk Saglik Bilimleri Dergisi ; 6(2):163-172, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1524873

ABSTRACT

Objective: Few cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported in children compared with the total number of cases in the general population. No pediatric studies (or cases) have evaluated extracorporeal techniques in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In this article, we aimed to describe the clinical features, treatments, and outcomes of four children with COVID-19 who were treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Materials and Methods: The children with COVID 19 pneumonia admitted to the PICUs from March 23, and May 6, 2020 were collected. Demographic data and reason for hospitalization were recorded. Vital and laboratory findings were examined in children with extracorporeal treatments.

69.
Online Turk Saglik Bilimleri Dergisi ; 6(1):1-11, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524872

ABSTRACT

Objective: We assessed our knowledge about the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory/radiological findings, and outcomes of hospitalized children with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This retrospective single-center study was conducted on 54 children with COVID-19 who were hospitalized from March 16, 2020, to April 26, 2020, in the Pediatric Department at Sancaktepe Training &Research Hospital Istanbul, Turkey.

70.
Childhood and Philosophy ; 17:26, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1524630

ABSTRACT

Studies point out challenges for the acquisition of the Brazilian sign language (Libras) by deaf children. Most deaf people are children of hearing parents who do not know Libras and the first contact with this language can occur only in the school environment. With the situation of social isolation and the impossibility of opening schools due to the "New Coronavirus" pandemic, these problems have worsened. The project called #CasaLibras of virtual attention in Libras for deaf children aimed to produce videos with children's storytelling directly in Libras. The actions are justified as a way of informing, entertaining, as well as, stimulating the contact of this language by deaf children in their homes. This article intends to analyze this political scenario, problematizing: 1) the philosophical-social conceptions about deafness, 2) the struggle for deaf survival, given the lack of public, social and educational policies, in a necropolitics that is affirmed in the production of death (symbolic and real for the deaf, due to the guidelines for the adaptation of deaf bodies to the oral language and the lack of information, exposing them to the risk) of deaf differences;and, finally, 3) the analysis of the results of the #CasaLibras project aimed at deaf children. The data suggest a widespread use of the media and some viralization of Libras, in the pandemic, through the action of the people. It highlights the positivity of the project in promoting accessibility for deaf children and the urgency of expanding inclusive bilingual policies that strengthen the singularities of these lives, leaving them less vulnerable, physically and symbolically.

71.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(48A):212-217, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1524568

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: The COVID pandemic and the lockdown measures has affected majority age group of people including children. This study aims to analyze the notable psychological changes between parents and their children during this COVID pandemic. Objectives: To understand the difference in presentation and prevalence of conflicts leading to psychological changes. Materials and methods: 120 participants were included in this study who had at least one school going children and were asked to fill out the Questionnaire with questions testing the parents whether there was any pre and post COVID changes. Descriptive analysis was done and the findings were discussed. Results:Major notable behavioral change was in adventurous activity went from 66.66% before this pandemic to 29.16% during pandemic most probably due to lockdown effects. Sleep pattern and other factors under study had negligible changes. Conclusion: Psychological and behavioral changes were notable by the study participants in their children during this lockdown resulting from COVID pandemic.

72.
Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine ; 10(2):9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1524540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global issue since the disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The proportion of COVID-19 cases in children is less than in adults, with highly variable incidence rates. Milder clinical manifestations occur in children than adults. Children with comorbidities are more likely to develop more severe symptoms and require hospitalization. Monitoring of laboratory results in confirmed cases of COVID-19 is crucial. Methods: This study was a retrospective study on data collected from the Bali Branch of Indonesia Pediatric Society COVID-19 Team and the Bali Provincial Government Health Department, Indonesia, from March 2020 until February 2021. The study population included children aged 0-18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Subjects were selected using the total sampling method. Results: During the study period, 3,674 children were confirmed to have COVID-19. In this study, the majority of age was 12-18 years. Nineteen (0.5%) were neonates with a vertical transmission source. The most prevalent source of transmission was living in the same house, which was found in 1,811 cases (49.3%). Out of 181 confirmed cases of COVID-19 treated at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, 49 (27.1%) had comorbidities. In 2,701 (73.5%) cases, the subjects were found to be asymptomatic. 652 (17.7%) subjects had fever, 771 (21%) had cough, and only 17 (0.5%) had anosmia. A total of 139 (3.8%) subjects had symptoms of shortness of breath, and only 4 subjects required treatment with a ventilator. Regarding the infection markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and procalcitonin showed higher levels in the critical group compared to other groups. Conclusion: The highest incidence of COVID-19 occurs in children aged 12-18 years, and the most frequent sources of close contact come from household contacts. Most children who have confirmed COVID-19 have asymptomatic clinical manifestation. The most common clinical manifestation was cough (21%). Increased infection markers such as LDH, CRP, procalcitonin and D-dimer occur in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

73.
Zdravniski Vestnik ; 90(9/10):528-532, 2021.
Article in English, Slovenian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524431

ABSTRACT

Voice, speech and swallowing disorders are not uncommon. Professional voice users, children and adults with congenital anomalies or neurological disorders, and patients after treatment of head and neck cancer are affected the most by these problems. Phoniatrician is an otorhinolaryngologist who treats these disorders. The fundamental phoniatric examinations are endoscopic examinations of the larynx and flexible endoscopic analysis of swallowing. The surgical endoscopic laryngeal procedures are performed under general or local anaesthesia. During the COVID-19 pandemic, due to the high-risk aerosol production interventions, the work of the phoniatrician is adapted to the situation. The present recommendations on the manner and necessity of performing phoniatric diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are derived from review articles and the position paper of the Union of the European Phoniatricians (UEP). Consistent use of personal protective equipment, consideration of cleaning and room ventilation, and the associated sufficient time for the treatment of an individual patient are essential. It is necessary to decide individually for each patient whether the examination should be performed or would rather be replaced by another examination that does not pose such a danger to the attending healthcare professionals.

74.
Central European Journal of Paediatrics ; 17(2):128-134, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1524393

ABSTRACT

Objective - To present the characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated at the Pediatrics Department, Ilidza Primary Health Care, The Public Institution Health Centre of Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods - This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 56 children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 - May 2021. The parameters included were: aged 0-6 years, gender, clinical signs and symptoms, type of transmission, the presence of comorbidities, vaccination with Bacillus Calmette - Guerin (BCG) vaccine, laboratory and radiology results, and treatment. Results - Out of a total of children 57.1% were aged 3-6 years. There were 58.9% boys and 41.1% girls, 36 children had symptoms and 20 were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (57.1%) and cough (35.7%). 44 children had a mild form of the disease and they were treated at home with counseling by a pediatrician over the phone, 10 children required outpatient treatment by a pediatrician, 2 were hospitalized. After treatment, all of them recovered. Most of the children (83.9%) were infected by transmission from a household member. Conclusions - COVID-19 in children is generally a mild disease. Children with SARS-CoV-2 were mostly infected by contact with an adult, and transmission from children is minimal. Most children were treated symptomatically at home, only a small number were hospitalized.

75.
Central European Journal of Paediatrics ; 17(2):69-78, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524392

ABSTRACT

Objective - To assess diagnostic criteria, laboratory findings and response to therapy among children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients and Methods - retrospective study at the Clinic for Children's Diseases Tuzla in the period November 2020-April 2021. Results - 13 children fulfilled diagnostic criteria, median age 7.2 years, 5 were treated at the intensive care unit;one with lethal outcome. The most common symptoms and signs were: unremitting fever (100%), skin rash (84.6%), gastrointestinal symptoms (76.9%), pneumonia (92.3%);one girl required invasive mechanical support. Cardiac manifestations were present in 76.9%, one of three children with acute kidney injury required hemoperfusion. Altered mental status was present in 69.2%. Inflammatory markers were elevated and we found strong correlation between IL-6 and procalcitonin (r<sub>s</sub>=0.85), CRP and IL-6 (r<sub>s</sub>=0.70), and medium correlation between ferritin and procalcitonin (r<sub>s</sub>=0.53), ferritin and IL-6 (r<sub>s</sub>=0.52) values. Clinical improvement and a drop in inflammatory markers were seen within the first 48 to 72 hours of initiating IVIG and corticosteroid therapy (7/13 children), but it was also evident with corticosteroids alone (6/13 children). Conclusion - MIS-C is a potentially fatal condition with very different presentations and strong inflammatory response. The key for a positive outcome is early recognition of MIS-C and adequate and prompt treatment.

76.
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons ; 26(6):466, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1524321
77.
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 10(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1524275

ABSTRACT

[...]blood donation shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are wrecking Africa’s already overwhelmed blood transfusion services and are a guaranteed threat to a positive patient outcome, particularly for children under the age of 5, who are the recipients of 54% of the 118.5 million blood collected in low-income countries. 3 In countries that rely on voluntary blood donations, particularly from students, the trends of blood supply and donation are likely to decline in many other countries if the COVID-19 pandemic continues. The World Health Organization preferentially recommends voluntary non-renumerated donors as the major source of blood for transfusion purposes. 5 , 6 The uncertainty in the pattern of blood demand and supply and the inadequacy of human resources (which can be reduced due to ill health) are some of the most pressing challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. 7 The major contributors to low donations in Africa are restricted movements, lockdowns, and closure of blood donation institutions. 8 Others include fear of contracting COVID-19 by both donors and healthcare workers due to limited knowledge on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. 11 In Kenya, COVID-19 has also reduced blood collection manpower (staff) due to ill health, social distancing measures placed in all institutions, and the lack of sufficient effective protective equipment to ensure staff and client safety. 9 A study conducted at a teaching hospital in Nigeria revealed that 71.4% of patients with various types of malignancies such as acute myeloid leukaemia, bladder cancer, extra-orbital malignancy, prostate cancer, and lung cancer died due to the lockdown imposed in the country which disrupted the availability of blood donors. 12 To this end, transfusion institutions – both hospital and independent blood transfusion units – have a key role to play in monitoring the demand and supply of blood and blood products to ensure that these products are adequately available. [...]the use of ‘namaste’ as the mode of greetings to avoid handshakes was reinforced. 14 Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 infects the upper and lower respiratory tract and its RNA is shed into the serum or plasma of infected persons. [...]some studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in either blood plasma or serum. 15 , 16 Theoretically, this implies that blood recipients can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 if they receive infected blood or blood products.

78.
Vaccines ; 9(11):1353, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524227

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a new systemic inflammatory acute onset disease that mainly affects children (MIS-C) and, at a lesser frequency, adults (MIS-A);it typically occurs 3–6 weeks after acute SARS-CoV infection. It has been postulated and shown in adults that MIS may occur after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (MIS-V). Our current case is one of the first published cases with a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in an 18-year-old adolescent after the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from Pfizer/BionTech (BNT162b2), who fulfills the published level 1 criteria for a definitive disease: age <21 years, fever >3 consecutive days, pericardial effusion, elevated CRP/NT-BNP/Troponin T/D-dimeres, cardiac involvement, and positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The disease starts 10 weeks after the second vaccination, with a fever (up to 40 °C) and was treated with amoxicillin for suspected pneumonia. The SARS CoV-2-PCR and several antigen tests were negative. With an ongoing fever, he was hospitalized 14 days later. A pericardial effusion (10 mm) was diagnosed by echocardiography. The C-reactive protein (174 mg/L), NT-BNP (280 pg/mL), and Troponin T (28 pg/mL) values were elevated. Due to highly elevated D-dimeres (>35,000 μg/L), a pulmonary embolism was excluded by thoracal computer tomography. If the boy did not improve with intravenous antibiotics, he was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins;however, the therapy was discontinued after 230 mg/kg if he developed high fever and hypotension. A further specialized clinic treated him with colchicine and ibuprofen. The MIS-V was discovered late, 4 months after the onset of the disease. As recently shown in four children with MIS-C after SARS-CoV-2 infection and a girl with Hashimoto thyroiditis after BNT162b2 vaccination, we found elevated functional autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors that may be important for pathophysiology but are not conclusive for the diagnosis of MIS-C. Conclusion: We are aware that a misattribution of MIS-V as a severe complication of coronavirus vaccination can lead to increased vaccine hesitancy and blunt the global COVID-19 vaccination drive. However, the pediatric population is at a higher risk for MIS-C and a very low risk for COVID-19 mortality. The publication of such cases is very important to make doctors aware of this complication of the vaccination, so that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins can be initiated at an early stage.

79.
Social Sciences ; 10(11):439, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524129

ABSTRACT

During certain crises, displacement of populations seeking safe refuge elsewhere can occur without the certainty of a return, if at all. Children and young people in such contexts often face the additional challenge of restrictions or disregard towards engaging their agency in migration decision-making processes. Through 60 in-depth interviews with 30 trans-Himalayan participants (ages of 16–23) and multi-sited ethnography throughout Nepal, this paper investigates multiple experiences of crises experienced by young people and the effects on their life course trajectories. From focusing on the Civil War in 1996–2006, the 2015 earthquake, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper proposes that initial displacements from the Civil War, when connected with other crises later on in a participant’s life course, better prepared them to deal with crises and enabled them to create a landscape of resilience. Furthermore, a landscape of resilience that connects past and present life course experiences during crises prepared some participants for helping their larger communities alleviate certain crises-related tension. Overall, this paper extends analysis on an under-researched group of young migrants by connecting crises that shaped their (im)mobility and life trajectories, rather than approaching crises as singular, isolated experiences.

80.
Nutrients ; 13(11):4174, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524098

ABSTRACT

Background: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric parameters in children aged 11/12 years. Methods: Fifty Spanish children aged 11/12 years (M = 11.40;SD = 0.50) participated: 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. For data collection, we used an anthropometry kit;the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices;and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic and other data under investigation. Results: There were significant differences in the anthropometric parameters measured and in the results obtained for Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage pre- and post-lockdown in both boys and girls (p <0.05). No significant differences were found in waist-circumference measurements (p >0.05). Conclusions: There is evidence of a significant impact of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on anthropometric parameters in boys and girls aged 11/12 years.

81.
Nutrients ; 13(11):4138, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524097

ABSTRACT

Lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced feeding behaviour and lifestyle in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to analyse feeding behaviour and lifestyle in children and adolescents one year after lockdown by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. In this cross-sectional study an online survey was implemented in 1083 parents and caregivers regarding their children’s feeding behaviour and lifestyle and sociodemographic background. The results showed that “eat breakfast daily” (89.2%), “not overnight food intake” (69.9%) and “not fast-food intake” (66.0%) were the most frequent reported feeding behaviours, particularly in pre-school children. Respondents declaring healthy feeding behaviours and lifestyle were 23.4 and 23.7%, respectively, with no significant differences by sex. In pre-school children, families with three or fewer members and parents or caregivers with an undergraduate or postgraduate degree reported a significantly better feeding behaviour and lifestyle compared to families with more than three members and parents or caregivers without an undergraduate or postgraduate degree. In conclusion, the pandemic lockdown had a negative impact in lifestyle in children and particularly in adolescents. Healthier feeding behaviour was associated with fewer family members and parents or caregivers with at least an undergraduate degree.

82.
Microorganisms ; 9(11):2371, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524078

ABSTRACT

We studied the secondary attack rate (SAR), risk factors, and precautionary practices of household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal study. We further compared transmission between the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant and non-Variant of Concern (non-VOC) viruses. From May 2020 throughout April 2021, we recruited 70 confirmed COVID-19 cases with 146 household contacts. Participants donated biological samples eight times over 6 weeks and answered questionnaires. SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Whole genome sequencing and droplet digital PCR were used to establish virus variant and viral load. SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurred in 60% of the households, and the overall SAR for household contacts was 50%. The SAR was significantly higher for the Alpha variant (78%) compared with non-VOC viruses (43%) and was associated with a higher viral load. SAR was higher in household contacts aged ≥40 years (69%) than in younger contacts (40–47%), and for contacts of primary cases with loss of taste/smell. Children had lower viral loads and were more often asymptomatic than adults. Sleeping separately from the primary case reduced the risk of transmission. In conclusion, we found substantial household transmission, particularly for the Alpha variant. Precautionary practices seem to reduce SAR, but preventing household transmission may become difficult with more contagious variants, depending on vaccine use and effectiveness.

83.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12197, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524008

ABSTRACT

The study investigated how pediatric speech-language pathologists (SLPs) applied telepractice to compensate for the loss of in-person services and the dynamics of telepractice use during the COVID-19 pandemic in a rural state. We conducted interviews with 10 SLPs and then a statewide survey in which 51 SLPs participated. The qualitative interviews revealed themes including changes in service environment due to the pandemic (e.g., transition to telepractice, losing clients), challenges in the transition to telepractice (e.g., limited training, difficulty engaging clients), worsening wellbeing of clinicians and clients, and SLPs’ perspectives and suggestions towards telepractice in the future. Survey results showed service disruptions and transition dynamics during the pandemic. SLPs’ weekly caseloads reduced from an average of 42.3 clients prior to the pandemic to 25.9 and 23.4 from March to May and from June to September 2020, respectively, and then recovered to 37.2 clients from October to December 2020. In contrast, the number of telepractice caseloads sharply increased from 0.2 clients per week prior to the pandemic to 14.8 from March to May 2020. The weekly telepractice caseloads then declined to 5.5 clients from June to September and 7.9 clients from October to December 2020. In the months right after the pandemic outbreak (i.e., March to May), client children struggled with treatment gains and behavioral wellbeing. However, their outcomes gradually improved by October to December and approached pre-pandemic levels. About one-third of the SLPs reported that they would be more likely or much more likely to use telepractice in the future regardless of the pandemic. However, only about a quarter perceived telepractice as comparable to in-person services. We concluded that the transition from in-person services to telepractice substantially mitigated service disruptions right after the pandemic outbreak and that telepractice’s substitute role evolved over time.

84.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12176, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524002

ABSTRACT

Many countries chose to establish social distancing as lockdowns after the COVID-19 outbreak. Households had to adapt their day-to-day lifestyles to new circumstances, affecting routines and time dedication to tasks. This national study was carried out to find out how the confinement by COVID-19 affected Spanish households on the perceived habit changes during this period, in relation to their socio-demographic characteristics and household composition. An online questionnaire was launched during the COVID-19 lockdown, from 30 April to 22 June 2020. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, stratified by gender, on time dedication, routine, home leaving, and habit change variables. Chi-square tests were used to explore the relations of significance with socio-demographic characteristics and home composition. All contrast analyses were performed for a 95% confidence level (significance considered for p <0.05). In total, 1673 respondents participated from different age groups, educational level, employment status and household composition. Sixty percent of respondents maintained their routines. A third tried to establish a new one, being related to women, young people, not a university student, and living with others, including minors. Regarding dedication to tasks, adults aged 35–54 years, with more cohabitants, especially women, devoted themselves intensively to the home or to care, while those under 35 were dedicated more to rest, leisure, television or reading. People with university studies were more related to teleworking. The frequency of going outside was related to gender, age, educational level and living with elders, specifically for grocery shopping and taking out garbage. Changes in habits, routines and time dedication in confinement were strongly linked to the sociodemographic and coexistence conditions in Spanish homes. The greatest impacts were suffered by women, people with children, and adults between 35–54 years of age, especially on care and domestic chores.

85.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12165, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523998

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries adopted various non-pharmacological interventions to contain the number of infections. The most often used policy was school closures. We describe the strategy adopted by the Veneto Regional Authority to contain transmission in school settings. This included a detailed school surveillance system, strict contact tracing, and maintaining school attendance with self-monitoring for symptoms whenever possible. All analyzed COVID-19 cases among children, adolescents (0–19 years old), and school staff were registered using a web-based application between 4 January 2021 and 13 June 2021. During the study period, 6272 episodes of infection in schools were identified;87% were linked to a student index case and 13% to school staff;69% generated no secondary cases;24% generated one or two;and only 7% caused more than two. Our data may help to clarify the role of school closures, providing useful input for decisions in the months to come. Good practice in public health management needs tools that provide a real-time interpretation of phenomena like COVID-19 outbreaks. The proposed measures should be easy to adopt and accessible to policymakers.

86.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12117, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523988

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has led to enormous challenges in pediatric dental care. In contrast to adults, many children are without any symptoms of disease if infected with COVID-19 and are not vaccinated. The aim of this study was to conduct an inquiry into the perspective of pediatric dentists in Germany towards the impact of COVID-19 on daily patient care during the lockdowns caused by the pandemic. All members of the Germany Society of Pediatric Dentistry were invited to participate in an online survey. The questionnaire focused on five topics: safety measures, well-being/knowledge, patient care, prospects, and demographic data. A total of 549 pediatric dentists participated (58.11% females, 8.2% males, 0.18% inter/diverse, and 33.51% no answer). In total, 75.2% of the dental clinics were open during the first lockdown (LD1) and 78.1% during the second lockdown (LD2). In LD1, only 22.2% were operating at full capacity, while 40.1% were open with restrictions, and 11.8% only offered emergency treatment. In LD2, 71.2% of practices were operating again and resumed offering all treatment methods. A significant decrease in pediatric patients was reported due to the fact of COVID-19. Furthermore, measures, such as oral hygiene and recall appointments, were reduced. Measures that were performed after the lockdown were mainly aerosol-generating procedures and extractions as well as general anesthesia or sedation. The increased willingness to treat in the second lockdown has shown that pediatric dentists have adapted to the pandemic conditions, which seems to be of great importance, especially in view of the problem of unvaccinated children.

87.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12095, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523983

ABSTRACT

Although a large part of the world’s workforce engaged in mandatory Work from Home during the COVID-19 pandemic, the experience was not the same for everyone. This study explores whether different groups of employees, based on their work and organizational characteristics (i.e., organizational size, number of days per week working from home, working in team) and personal characteristics (i.e., remote work experience, having children at home), express different beliefs about working remotely, acceptance of the technology necessary to Work from Home, and well-being. A study was conducted with 163 Italian workers who answered an online questionnaire from November 2020 to January 2021. A cluster analysis revealed that work, organizational, and personal variables distinguish five different types of workers. ANOVA statistics showed that remote workers from big companies who worked remotely several days a week, had experience (because they worked remotely before the national lockdowns), and worked in a team, had more positive beliefs about working remotely, higher technology acceptance, and better coping strategies, compared to the other groups of workers. Practical implications to support institutional and organizational decision-makers and HR managers to promote remote work and employee well-being are presented.

88.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12080, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523977

ABSTRACT

Pandemic-related disruptions, including school, child care, and workplace closures, financial stressors, and relationship challenges, present unique risks to families’ mental health. We examined the mental health impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among parents with children <18 years old living at home over three study rounds in May 2020 (n = 618), September 2020 (n = 804), and January 2021 (n = 602). Data were collected using a cross-sectional online survey of adults living in Canada, nationally representative by age, gender, household income, and region. Chi-square tests and logistic regression compared outcomes between parents and the rest of the sample, among parent subgroups, and over time. Parents reported worsened mental health compared with before the pandemic, as well as not coping well, increased alcohol use, increased suicidal thoughts/feelings, worsened mental health among their children, and increases in both negative and positive parent–child interactions. Mental health challenges were more frequently reported among parents with pre-existing mental health conditions, disabilities, and financial/relationship stressors. Increased alcohol use was more frequently reported among younger parents and men. Sustained mental health challenges of parents throughout nearly a year of the pandemic suggest that intervention efforts to support family mental health may not be adequately meeting families’ needs. Addressing family stressors through financial benefit programs and virtual mental health supports should be further explored.

89.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(22):12053, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523971

ABSTRACT

Background: Varicella is a common pediatric infection. Even if it generally has a benign course, it may complicate and require hospitalization. The aim of our study was to estimate the acute hospitalization cost (AHC) for varicella in the acute phase in a pediatric population. Methods: We calculated the AHC of pediatric patients admitted for varicella at Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 November 2005 to 1 November 2020. Results: In the study period, 825 pediatric patients affected by varicella were hospitalized. The mean hospitalization cost was EUR 4015.35 (range from EUR 558.44 to EUR 42,608.00). Among patients, 55% were unvaccinable due to either their age or their immunosuppression status. They would benefit from herd immunity, reducing the overall AHC by EUR 182,196,506. Since the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against varicella in Italy, we observed a significant reduction in AHC cost of 60.6% in 2019 and of 93.5% in 2020. Finally, from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we documented a decline of 81.2% and 76.9% in varicella hospitalization, compared to 2018 and 2019, respectively. Conclusions: Varicella AHC is an important economic and health assessment point and can be useful for improving preventive strategies.

90.
Srpski Arhiv Za Celokupno Lekarstvo ; 149(9-10):604-608, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1523647

ABSTRACT

Introduction Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a post-viral, life-threatening, inflammatory state with multisystem involvement that typically manifests 3-4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this article, we present the first case of MIS-C at the Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina at the beginning of the COVID-1 9 pandemic. Case outline A previously healthy 11-year-old girl got sick two days before admission to the hospital with a fever, headache, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fatigue. She was tested positive for COVID-19 by a nasopharyngeal KR swab with positive IgM and IgG antibodies. In the further course, the illness presented with prolonged fever, laboratory evidence of inflammation, multiorgan involvement such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and dermatologic. Based on CDC and WHO criteria, the diagnosis of MIS-C was made and IVIG and methylprednisolone were introduced with favorable clinical course. Conclusion Every prolonged and unusual febrile state, especially if it is accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms, in a school-age child, should be investigated in the direction of recent COVID-19 infection or exposure. In a case of a positive COVID-19 history or history of exposure, the MIS-C diagnosis should be considered.

91.
International Journal of Women's Health ; 13:1115-1122, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1523546

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increased mothers’ caregiving demands, potentially placing them at increased risk for reduced engagement in healthful behaviors and high psychological distress. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe perceived changes in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors and the prevalence of different measures of psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and positive and negative affect) among mothers. We also evaluated the associations of perceived change in MVPA and sedentary behaviors with measures of psychological distress. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 317 mothers living with children (0– 20 years old) at home. Mothers self-reported perceived changes in MVPA and sedentary behaviors from before the pandemic to during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders and early reopening, and levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology, perceived stress, and positive and negative affect during the pandemic. Results: Compared to pre-pandemic levels, 39% of mothers reported engaging less in MVPA, and 63% reported engaging in more sedentary activities. One-quarter and 31% of mothers reported moderate/severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, and 78% medium/high levels of perceived stress. Adjusted linear regression analyses revealed that reduced MVPA and increased sedentary behaviors were associated with high average scores of depressive and anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, negative affect, and low scores of positive affect. Conclusion: A large proportion of mothers reported being less physically active and more engaged in sedentary behaviors, which were associated with increases in psychological distress. Clinical and public health intervention efforts should consider how to improve mothers’ physical and mental health as the country emerges from this crisis.

92.
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical ; 54:e0383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523492

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report the occurrence of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome among 64 children (2 deaths) with recent severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infections in the northeast region of Brazil. The major clinical symptoms and signs reported were exanthema (60.9%), abdominal pain (56.3%), nausea and vomiting (46.9%), diarrhea (37.5%), and dyspnea (37.5%). Laboratory findings revealed that the levels of C-reactive protein (75.0%), hemoglobin (51.6%), D-dimer (48.4%), lymphocytes (43.8%), LDH (45.3%), AST (42.2%), ALT (51.6%), and ferritin (48.4%) were above the reference values for a given age and gender. The clinical findings were similar to those observed in Kawasaki disease, although it represents a separate entity, emphasizing the need for proactive surveillance and early treatment.

93.
Neurology neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation ; 9(1):01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19;(2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected;and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients;110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.

94.
International Journal of Microbiology ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1523093

ABSTRACT

Нuman bocaviruses (hBoVs) are often associated with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Information on the distribution and molecular epidemiology of hBoVs in Bulgaria is currently limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of hBoVs detected in patients with ARIs in Bulgaria. From October 2016 to September 2019, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected from 1842 patients of all ages and tested for 12 common respiratory viruses using a real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of the hBoV VP1/VP2 gene/protein were performed. HBoV was identified in 98 (5.3%) patients and was the 6th most prevalent virus after respiratory-syncytial virus (20.4%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (11.1%), A(H3N2) (10.5%), rhinoviruses (9.9%), and adenoviruses (6.8%). Coinfections with other respiratory viruses were detected in 51% of the hBoV-positive patients. Significant differences in the prevalence of hBoVs were found during the different study periods and in patients of different age groups. The detection rate of hBoV was the highest in patients aged 0–4 years (6.9%). In this age group, hBoV was the only identified virus in 9.7%, 5.8%, and 1.1% of the children diagnosed with laryngotracheitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, respectively. Among patients aged ≥5 years, hBoV was detected as a single agent in 2.2% of cases of pneumonia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Bulgarian hBoV strains belonged to the hBoV1 genotype. A few amino acid substitutions were identified compared to the St1 prototype strain. This first study amongst an all-age population in Bulgaria showed a significant rate of hBoV detection in some serious respiratory illnesses in early childhood, year-to-year changes in the hBoV prevalence, and low genetic variability in the circulating strains. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Microbiology is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

95.
Kinesiology Review ; 10(4):369-371, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1522888

ABSTRACT

Times are always a bit uncertain, and our initial plan for the 2021 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Annual Workshop was to focus on challenges and opportunities facing higher education on the horizon. We were to address matters such as the pending enrollment cliff (Kline, 2019), which is not so much pending as it is upon us—with particular impact in the Northeast and Midwest United States. We would consider the Fourth Industrial Revolution whereby the digital, physical, psychological, and social features of work and the broader human experience are merging and reconfiguring in disruptive ways (Schwab, 2015). Recent advancements in artificial intelligence, for example, encapsulate the great potential we see for the future of work, with newly found efficiencies also bringing discomfort about their potential for widening societal inequities. We would discuss how to strengthen the standing of kinesiology in an ever-competitive higher education context, how to attract and meet the needs of a more diverse student body, and generally attempt to project what our world might look like a decade or more down the road. We had crystalized this plan in February 2020. Then March 2020 arrived. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant disruption to higher education and our broader lives that month. Our in-person instruction was abruptly shifted to remote formats, introducing significant stressors related to use of and access to technology, what might be lost without the “hands on” learning of lab and clinical techniques, and the assessment of student academic performance. Students were sent away from their campuses, which for many introduced changes in family expectations and obligations, financial and other burdens associated with abruptly moving, and, in some cases, concerns about safety and well-being. Research programs were suspended, complicating the execution of funded projects and significantly hampering career progress for those seeking to complete graduate degrees, advance toward promotion and tenure, and build upon developing research agendas. The intensified demands associated with this disruption to higher education occurred in concert with significant personal challenges—concern about the welfare of older family members, managing educational and other needs of children now at home full time, protecting one’s own health, and many other issues. That spring also brought intensified social unrest in the United States tied to anti-Blackness, white supremacy, and political polarization, which experienced a flashpoint with the May 25 murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by a police officer. Protests followed in Minneapolis and expanded to other cities throughout the country. Among others, higher education organizations and scholarly societies expressed their dismay and voiced commitment to addressing racism and inequitable practices within their own organizations and in society. In a statement distributed on Juneteenth of 2020, the AKA expressed that it “resolves to undermine racism, value Black lives and perspectives, and equip kinesiology leaders to promote social justice, equity, and inclusive excellence. We are reflecting on how our communications, workshop programming, and committee activities can be stronger and more sustainable platforms to achieve these goals” (American Kinesiology Association, 2020). Our workshop programming became decidedly more focused on diversity, equity, inclusion, and social justice as an expression of this commitment. In our roles as president and president elect of the association, we committed to addressing these topics in meaningful ways during our upcoming meetings. Whereas we initially thought the 2021 Workshop would address matters on a more distant horizon, the COVID-19 pandemic and social unrest of early 2020 significantly accelerated the pace of change and disruption to higher education. Widespread adoption of digital technology in instruction was upon us. Setting aside the quality of usage, which varied considerably, this raised questions about how education would be delivered moving forward. Concerns about drawing in late adopters were no longer relevant—nearly everyone, to some degree, was required to jump into the proverbial deep end of the pool. Also, more serious attention was directed to advancing social justice. Organizations were now on record with their positions, and their commitment would be measured by the continuing actions that followed. It would become evident in time whether calls to activism were merely performative or whether they were substantive. We found ourselves fast-forwarded to the distant horizon well ahead of schedule, which made for greater uncertainty about the future but greater clarity as to how we would proceed with our plans to host the annual workshop and preworkshops. Our annual AKA gathering is intended to allow our members to network, discuss contemporary leadership and other issues as related to kinesiology, and contribute to the AKA mission of promoting and enhancing kinesiology as a unified field of study and advancing the field’s applications. Our gathering in January 2021 was themed, “Leading Through Times of Uncertainty: The Future of Higher Education, Work, and Kinesiology.” Our original plans were updated to focus on the uncertainties we were experiencing during such a unique period in history, with special emphasis on diversity, equity, and inclusion. We encouraged participants to consider immediate challenges relative to the evolving contexts of higher education, work, and kinesiology. As was true for many professional organizations, we “pivoted” to a virtual format for our main workshop, undergraduate and graduate program-focused preworkshops, dean’s forum, and fireside chat with senior leaders. There was robust participation with over 190 attendees from associate-granting through doctoral-granting institutions. As we have done in recent years, we publish in this special issue of Kinesiology Review a set of scholarly, peer-reviewed manuscripts that are based on keynote presentations and other sessions at our annual gathering. This special issue allows us to document core themes and recommendations shared at the meetings, enabling us to revisit them in the future and gauge our progress in making kinesiology more just, accessible, and effective within the higher education, work, and societal contexts. The special issue opens with reflection on the history of kinesiology and the marginalization of cultural, historical, and philosophical knowledge. Wiggins (2021) draws from this discussion to warn that only producing highly specialized scholars of kinesiology within ever splintering subdisciplines will leave us less adaptable to future challenges. He encourages us to make space for those with broad vision and perspectives, enabling us to draw on the full spectrum of talents and knowledges we will need to thrive into the coming decades. This is followed by Russell et al. (2021), who likewise argue that thriving in the future will require commitment to inclusive excellence that, during crises like those we face today, is strategically prioritized, centered on justice, and deliberately advanced by leaders through meaningful behaviors and action steps. Complementing this article, Mahar et al. (2021) share examples of sustained and impactful practices to promote inclusive excellence in three kinesiology units that have been recognized with the AKA Inclusive Excellence Award. Altogether, these articles point to ways that we can help students, and each other, develop the cultural competencies and commitments needed to advance justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion within kinesiology and broader society. These broadly focused pieces are followed by three complementary articles that address specific ways to broaden perspectives and cultivate student success. Haibach-Beach et al. (2021) discuss how the development of global competence in future kinesiology professionals can be fostered by building virtual exchange into courses, which is highly accessible and allows formation of meaningful partnerships. Liu et al. (2021) follow with an overview of how a kinesiology unit at a Hispanic-serving institution developed and implemented strategies for successfully recruiting and retaining master’s degree students. They discuss how programming, deliberate partnerships, and mentoring can contribute to a thriving graduate program. Finally, Waldron (2021) offers a deeper dive into mentoring as a pathway to graduate student success. She presents a model outlining an institutional approach to mentorship, emphasizing transparent socialization, mutually shared expectations, and conceiving of the student as a whole individual. The next two articles focus specifically on the future of work, which is rapidly evolving and necessitates that students leave their academic programs with the foundational knowledge, resilience, and grit necessary to thrive into the future. Duitch (2021) offers an overview of the future of work and its implications for higher education. She argues that educators will need to think more broadly and holistically about their roles to successfully model to students the qualities necessary to thrive in ever-changing workplaces. Wheeler and Van Mullem (2021) follow this overview by presenting high-impact practices within two kinesiology units that are designed to prepare students for this future. These practices are undergirded by emphasizing idea-based and learner-centered approaches, leveraging strategic partnerships, and recognizing how the practices shape the student learning experience. This special issue also includes articles addressing the immediate demands and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in practices that might be carried forward. Leary et al. (2021) highlight remote and hybrid teaching strategies employed during the pandemicthat can be retained to benefit student learning and preparation for the workforce. Knudson and Bopp (2021) focus on how we measure learning and promote academic integrity in the context of online instruction, sharing lessons learned during the pandemic and encouraging the use of more authentic, holistic assessments as kinesiology departments expand online learning. Aside from these instruction-related demands, kinesiology leaders faced the challenge of rapidly instituting policies tied to the full span of academic work, addressing the well-being of colleagues and students, and maintaining personal well-being and effectiveness. Carpenter et al. (2021) share how kinesiology units within the California State University and Pennsylvania State University systems, respectively, developed collaborative models to build community, share expertise, and form connections that can be used to benefit both student and faculty success into the future. Many of the articles in this special issue point to practical strategies for promoting inclusive excellence, instructional effectiveness, student success, and faculty effectiveness. A number of these strategies were driven by acute challenges and necessity, even if conceptually grounded. In the final article, Duke et al. (2021) offer a theoretical overview of adaptive, complexity, and transformational leadership approaches. They present these approaches and then consider how they can apply to the future of higher education, work, and kinesiology, respectively, encouraging a commitment to the blending of the art and science of leadership to help kinesiology thrive. This holistic perspective brings us full circle back to Wiggins’ (2021) opening critique of where we have traveled as a field of study and his assertion that thriving into the future will require an inclusive approach that makes space for connecting visioning with focused inquiry and practice. Uncertainty and change are reliable constants, as we have been reminded over the course of 2020 and 2021. Our unified field of study has adapted well over its history to become highly popular, scientifically and theoretically rich, and impactful. We believe this special issue illustrates that kinesiology has been highly effective and reflective over the course of the recent COVID-19 pandemic and intensified social unrest. As we continue to navigate our current challenges, address the future of higher education and work, and face new challenges into the future, we hope that kinesiology leaders will benefit from the wisdom offered by the authors who contributed to this collection of articles. We also hope that they will avail themselves of continued AKA programming that is directed toward promoting inclusive excellence and a bright future for kinesiology over the coming decades. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the authors for sharing their ideas during the 2021 AKA Annual Workshop and preworkshops, for extending those ideas and contributing them in written form for this special issue, and for their responsiveness during the review and editorial process. Also, we thank the members of the AKA Publications Committee for each contributing multiple timely and thoughtful reviews to the authors. The members of the committee are as follows: Gonzalo A. Bravo, West Virginia University;Timothy P. Gavin, Purdue University (committee chair);Jenny O, California State University, East Bay;Daniel T. Tarara, High Point University;A. Mark Williams, Institute of Human and Machine Cognition;and Amelia Mays Woods, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. References * American Kinesiology Association. (2020, June 19). Juneteenth statement from the AKA president: Black Lives Matter. https://mailchi.mp/4bac4c7a272e/message-from-aka-president-al-smith-7992356 American Kinesiology Association. (2020,June19).Juneteenth statement from the AKA president: Black Lives Matter.https://mailchi.mp/4bac4c7a272e/message-from-aka-president-al-smith-7992356);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Carpenter, P., Stylianides, K., Weiler-Timmins, R., Randolph-Krisova, A., Sprinkle, K., & Angulo-Barrosso, R. (2021). No one is an island: Connecting, collaborating and coping during the pandemic. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0038 Carpenter,P.,Stylianides,K.,Weiler-Timmins,R.,Randolph-Krisova,A.,Sprinkle,K., &Angulo-Barrosso,R.(2021).No one is an island: Connecting, collaborating and coping during the pandemic.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0038);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Duitch, S. (2021). The future of work: What it is and how our resilience in the face of it matters. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0044 Duitch,S.(2021).The future of work: What it is and how our resilience in the face of it matters.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0044);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Duke, L.M., Gorman, J.P., & Browne, J.M. (2021). How kinesiology leaders can use the constructs of adaptive, complexity, and transformational leadership to anticipate and prepare for future possibilities. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0046 Duke,L.M.,Gorman,J.P., &Browne,J.M.(2021).How kinesiology leaders can use the constructs of adaptive, complexity, and transformational leadership to anticipate and prepare for future possibilities.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0046);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Haibach-Beach, P., Perreault, M., & Malete, L. (2021). Global engagement in the kinesiology classroom through virtual exchange. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0043 Haibach-Beach,P.,Perreault,M., &Malete,L.(2021).Global engagement in the kinesiology classroom through virtual exchange.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0043);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Kline, M. (2019). The looming higher ed enrollment cliff. https://www.cupahr.org/issue/feature/higher-ed-enrollment-cliff/ Kline,M.(2019).The looming higher ed enrollment cliff.https://www.cupahr.org/issue/feature/higher-ed-enrollment-cliff/);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Knudson, D., & Bopp, M. (2021). Measuring learning and promoting academic integrity in online instruction. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0037 Knudson,D., &Bopp,M.(2021).Measuring learning and promoting academic integrity in online instruction.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0037);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Leary, M.E., Bryner, R.W., & Eddo, O.O. (2021). Lessons learned during the pandemic: Recommendations for kinesiology programs’ emerging future. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0050 Leary,M.E.,Bryner,R.W., &Eddo,O.O.(2021).Lessons learned during the pandemic: Recommendations for kinesiology programs’ emerging future.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0050);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Liu, T., Hamilton, M., Chen, Y., Harris, K., & Pandya, R. (2021). Recruiting and retaining graduate students in kinesiology at a Hispanic serving institution. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0048 Liu,T.,Hamilton,M.,Chen,Y.,Harris,K., &Pandya,R.(2021).Recruiting and retaining graduate students in kinesiology at a Hispanic serving institution.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0048);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Mahar, M.T., Baweja, H., Atencio, M., Barkhoff, H., Yolisa Duley, H., Makuakāne-Lundin, G., McClain, Z.D., Pacheco, M., Wright, E.M., & Russell, J. (2021). Inclusive excellence in kinesiology units in higher education. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0042 Mahar,M.T.,Baweja,H.,Atencio,M.,Barkhoff,H.,Yolisa Duley,H.,Makuakāne-Lundin,G.,McClain,Z.D.,Pacheco,M.,Wright,E.M., &Russell,J.(2021).Inclusive excellence in kinesiology units in higher education.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0042);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Russell, J.A., Gonzales, L.D., & Barkhoff, H. (2021). Demonstrating equitable and inclusive crisis leadership in higher education. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0051 Russell,J.A.,Gonzales,L.D., &Barkhoff,H.(2021).Demonstrating equitable and inclusive crisis leadership in higher education.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0051);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Schwab, K. (2015, December 12). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What it means and how to respond. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-12-12/fourth-industrial-revolution Schwab,K.(2015,December12).The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What it means and how to respond.Foreign Affairs.https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-12-12/fourth-industrial-revolution);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Waldron, J.J. (2021). Institutional strategies to enhance graduate student success through mentoring. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0049 Waldron,J.J.(2021).Institutional strategies to enhance graduate student success through mentoring.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0049);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Wheeler, W., & Van Mullem, H. (2021). High-impact educational practices in kinesiology: Examples of curricular advancements to prepare students for the future of work. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0047 Wheeler,W., &Van Mullem,H.(2021).High-impact educational practices in kinesiology: Examples of curricular advancements to prepare students for the future of work.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0047);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation * Wiggins, D.K. (2021). Looking back at kinesiology’s future: The need for both focused frogs and visionary birds. Kinesiology Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0036 Wiggins,D.K.(2021).Looking back at kinesiology’s future: The need for both focused frogs and visionary birds.Kinesiology Review,10(4).https://doi.org/10.1123/KR.2021-0036);false * Search Google Scholar * Export Citation

96.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal ; 40(12):E482-E487, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1522379

ABSTRACT

In children, the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID) being severe is low. However, the risk of persistent symptoms following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is uncertain in this age group, and the features of "long COVID" are poorly characterized. We reviewed the 14 studies to date that have reported persistent symptoms following COVID in children and adolescents. Almost all the studies have major limitations, including the lack of a clear case definition, variable follow-up times, inclusion of children without confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reliance on self- or parent-reported symptoms without clinical assessment, nonresponse and other biases, and the absence of a control group. Of the 5 studies which included children and adolescents without SARS-CoV-2 infection as controls, 2 did not find persistent symptoms to be more prevalent in children and adolescents with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This highlights that long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated symptoms are difficult to distinguish from pandemic-associated symptoms.

97.
Anpassungen für Therapeuten, die während der COVID-19 Pandemie online Emotionsfokussierte Familientherapie anboten ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1522043

ABSTRACT

The urgency to implement distance-based methods to provide ongoing mental health care during the novel coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic represents a critical shift in treatment delivery for children, youth, and families. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional strain on the mental health of families and children. As a result, there is an increased need for brief, family-based interventions. Emotion-Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) is an empirically-supported intervention targeting caregivers of children with mental health challenges. The EFFT group therapy modality typically involves thirty caregivers who participate in a two-day intensive workshop, serving as a brief yet efficient intervention with enduring impact. Based on experiences within our clinic, this article provides practical intervention strategies to address common challenges therapists may contend with while providing EFFT intervention to caregivers and families through a secure videoconferencing platform. Additional research in distance-based mental health care for children and their caregivers can assess effectiveness, efficiency and improved access to mental health care throughout the pandemic. (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] La urgencia de implementar métodos basados en la distancia para brindar atención de salud mental continua durante la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19), representa un cambio crítico en la prestación de tratamiento para niños, jóvenes y familias. La pandemia de COVID-19 ha ejercido una presión adicional sobre la salud mental de las familias y los niños. Como resultado, existe una mayor necesidad de intervenciones breves basadas en la familia. La terapia familiar centrada en las emociones (EFFT) es una intervención con apoyo empírico dirigida a los cuidadores de niños con problemas de salud mental. La modalidad de terapia de grupo EFFT generalmente involucra a treinta cuidadores que participan en un taller intensivo de dos días, que sirve como una intervención breve pero eficiente con un impacto duradero. Basado en experiencias dentro de nuestra clínica, este artículo proporciona estrategias prácticas de intervención para abordar los desafíos comunes que los terapeutas pueden enfrentar mientras brindan intervención EFFT a los cuidadores y familias a través de una plataforma segura de videoconferencia. La investigación adicional en la atención de salud mental a distancia para niños y sus cuidadores puede evaluar la efectividad, la eficiencia y un mejor acceso a la atención de salud mental durante la pandemia. (Spanish) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] L’urgence à développer des méthodes distancielles pour fournir des soins de santé mentale continus pendant la pandémie du nouveau coronavirus (COVID-19) constitue un changement critique pour la dispensation d’un traitement aux enfants, aux jeunes et aux familles. La pandémie de la COVID-19 a mis à rude épreuve la santé mentale des familles et des enfants. Un besoin accru d’interventions brèves et pour les familles en a été la conséquence. La Thérapie familiale centrée sur les émotions (TFCE) est une intervention basée sur des données empiriques ciblant les aidants naturels d’enfants ayant des problèmes de santé mentale. La modalité d’une thérapie de groupe menée selon la TFCE qui est présentée implique spécifiquement trente soignants qui participent à un atelier intensif de deux jours, servant de base à une intervention brève mais efficace ayant un impact durable. Sur la base de l’expérience menée au sein de notre clinique, cet article fournit des stratégies d’intervention pratiques pour relever les défis courants auxquels les thérapeutes peuvent être confrontés en proposant une intervention de TFCE à des soignants et à leurs familles via une plate-forme de vidéoconférence sécurisée. Des recherches supplémentaires sur les soins de santé mentale à distance pour les enfants et leurs soignants pourront évaluer l’efficacité, l’efficience et l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins de santé mentale tout au long de la pandémie. (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Die Dringlichkeit, mit der während der neuartigen Coronavirus- (COVID-19) Pandemie distanzbasierte Methoden eingeführt werden mussten, um weiterhin bereits laufende psychotherapeutische Unterstützung anbieten zu können, bedeutete eine kritische Veränderung in der Bereitstellung von Behandlung für Kinder, Jugendliche und Familien. Die COVID-19 Pandemie hat die psychische Gesundheit von Familien und Kindern zusätzlich belastet. In der Folge ist der Bedarf für kurze familienbasierte Interventionen gestiegen. Emotionsfokussierte Familientherapie (EFFT) ist eine empirisch abgestützte Intervention, die sich an die Betreuungspersonen von psychisch belasteten Kindern richtet. Die EFFT Gruppentherapie-Modalität umfasst normalerweise 30 Betreuungspersonen, die an einem zweitägigen Intensiv-Workshop teilnehmen, der sich als kurze und dennoch effiziente Intervention mit nachhaltiger Wirkung erweist. Basierend auf Erfahrungen in unserer Klinik werden in diesem Artikel praktische Interventionsstrategien für klassische Herausforderungen dargelegt, mit denen Therapierende konfrontiert sein können, wenn sie Betreuungspersonen und Familien mit EFFT Interventionen im Rahmen einer gesicherten Videoplattform vertraut machen. Weitere Forschung zur distanzbasierten psychotherapeutischen Gesundheitsversorgung für Kinder und ihre Betreuungspersonen kann die Wirksamkeit, Effizienz und den verbesserten Zugang zur psychotherapeutischen Versorgung während der Pandemie aufzeigen. (German) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] A urgência de implementar métodos de prestação de cuidados de saúde mental à distância no decurso da nova pandemia de coronavírus (COVID‐19) representa uma mudança crítica no tratamento de crianças, jovens e famílias. A pandemia COVID-19 trouxe uma pressão adicional à saúde mental das famílias e das crianças. Como resultado, há uma necessidade crescente de intervenções breves e centradas na família. A Terapia Familiar Focada na Emoção (EFFT) é uma intervenção apoiada empiricamente dirigida a cuidadores de crianças com desafios de saúde mental. A modalidade de terapia de grupo EFFT envolve tipicamente trinta cuidadores que participam num workshop intensivo de dois dias, servindo como uma intervenção breve mas eficiente com impacto duradouro. Com base em experiências na nossa clínica, este artigo fornece estratégias práticas de intervenção para enfrentar desafios comuns que os terapeutas podem enfrentar, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona uma intervenção EFFT aos cuidadores e famílias através de uma plataforma de videoconferência segura. Pesquisas adicionais em cuidados de saúde mental à distância para crianças e os seus cuidadores podem avaliar a eficácia, eficiência e acesso melhorado aos cuidados de saúde mental durante a pandemia. (Portuguese) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

98.
Journal of Social Work Practice ; : 1-14, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1521972

ABSTRACT

In the recent decades, social work has undergone quite extensive process of digitisation. Since the 1970s, it had faced computerisation, which peaked in the 1990s. However, since the start of the 21st century information and communication technologies have changed significantly. They developed in many forms, became more accessible and penetrated the performance of social work, where they have become a common tool of work. The aim of the research was therefore to find out and describe how information and communication technologies, according to social workers, affects the form of Czech social work interventions with vulnerable children and their families. We used a qualitative research strategy and situation analysis as our research approach. We conducted interviews with 37 social workers of the Department of Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Activation Services for Families with Children. One of the topics of the interviews was the electronic communication between social workers and their clients, which currently appears to be extremely important for emergency measures related to COVID-19. We focus on the benefits and pitfalls of e-communication as perceived by social workers, and in the discussion, we will present various options of dealing with them in practice. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Social Work Practice is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

99.
Physics of Fluids ; 33(11), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1521930

ABSTRACT

Traditional, in-person classroom settings have been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic due to their potential to transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among students, teachers, and other educational workers. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, mitigation strategies that span approaches using face coverings, various ventilation schemes, air purifiers/cleaners, and desk shields are systematically evaluated in thermally controlled classrooms. Individually, face coverings and source control were the most effective, which was followed by well-designed ventilation systems. The use of desk shields was also studied and appeared to be ineffective. The best mitigation approach is shown to be through multiple measures - using face coverings and ventilation systems combined with air purifiers. The studies were extended to elementary schools and consider Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2. In elementary settings, the reduced pulmonary and viral emission rates of small children are observed to drive reduced transmission rates, to values even lower than those observed with several mitigation methods for classrooms with adults. The Delta variant, with adults, was evaluated by considering an increase in quanta and indicated higher transmission probabilities. These increases are levels that are controllable by increasing the mitigation methods. Results indicate several plans of action for schools to return to in-person schooling in the context of age and new variants. © 2021 Author(s).

100.
World Development ; 151:105728, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1521601

ABSTRACT

Acute land scarcity in Rwanda limits poor people’s ability to accumulate and move out of poverty. Options for livelihood diversification are restricted by the absence of a vibrant and job-rich non-farm rural economy, and by high rural–urban inequality which makes the urban economy somewhat inaccessible, particularly given the regulated nature of the urban informal sector, limiting opportunities for migration. Competition for employment is made more challenging by low capabilities, which place high-return jobs beyond reach for many poor people. This paper relies on mixed methods research to explore a land-education-jobs nexus and identify the linked human capital and livelihood determinants of poverty escapes to understand the factors slowing poverty reduction in Rwanda. The quantitative analysis uses three waves of nationally representative panel data between 2010/11 and 2016/17 to investigate correlates of poverty trajectories. The qualitative analysis uses content analysis to explore life histories, focus group discussions and key informant interviews from 14 study sites to explore factors driving change in livelihoods and well-being. Our findings show that the triple challenges of acute land scarcity, low capabilities and a sluggish non-farm economy lock together to form a nexus which limits sustained poverty escapes. In the regression analysis, households headed by primary school graduates are half as likely to be poor as those headed by a primary school dropouts while secondary completion or higher virtually eliminates the risk of poverty. Despite demand, secondary school completion in the fieldwork is beyond the reach of most children from poor households, limiting their later options for livelihood diversification. Near landlessness constrains accumulation and Rwanda’s thin rural non-farm economy provides few jobs or opportunities for self-employment. Rebooting poverty reduction in Rwanda particularly following the Covid-19 pandemic will require finding ways to sustain poverty escapes through fuelling job-rich ‘growth from below’ by generating additional demand in the rural economy, continuing to boost agricultural productivity and including even the poorest peasant farmers in that, creating a more conducive business environment for small enterprises and continuing to stimulate investment in job-rich enterprise. Underpinning these strategies should be strengthened efforts to enhance capabilities, education quality, and progression into secondary education.

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