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1.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(4-s):119-126, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1744443

ABSTRACT

Neem (Azadirachta indica) a member of Meliaceae plays an immense role in human health and disease which is attributed to its composition of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites (BASM). It has been widely used in Indian Traditional Systems of Medicine that includes Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and other Folklore Systems of Medicine practiced in the Indian Subcontinent for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Current global health perspectives and medical practice in the post COVID era has no other way but to seek to merge alternative systems of medicine with evidence-based therapeutic aspects for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-B, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. Besides, NEEM plays a vital role in the management of diabetics and its associated long term complication through ROS scavenging and ameliorative potentials to restore oxidative injury/inhibit enzymes linked to. Overall NEEM is considered as GRAS medicinal plant that modulates metabolic inflammations without side effects. Though it has been confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical and prevention of disease pathogenesis, a clear scientific basis of its pharmacoinformatics is still lacking. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of 62 metabolites.

2.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(4-s):236-241, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1608127

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019, pneumonia of unknown cause was detected in Wuhan, China, and was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China. On 30 January 2020, the outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. It was an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and got spread across China and beyond. WHO officially named the disease - Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on February 12, 2020. It has been spreading worldwide for a period of atleast a year & half. This review article addresses the current scenario caused by the SARS- Co V along with the treatment protocols and ongoing vaccines.

3.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(3-s):142-144, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1603524

ABSTRACT

Unani System of Medicine is also known as Greco-Arabic medicine, and developed into an elaborate scientific medical system by Arab and Persian physicians, such as Rhazes (850-925AD), Avicenna (980-1037AD), Al-Zahrawi and Ibn Nafis. It is practiced in India since eighth century AD and is a recognized Indian traditional system of medicine with good infrastructure for education;research and manufacturing unitswhich are well regulated by the Government. In Unani medicine there are well developed pharmacopeia and pharmaceutical processings for single & compound formulations for the treatment of several local and systemic ailments. The most important formulation among various Unani formulations is Sharbat-e-Unnab, a Unani pharmaceutical preparation acting as Dafa-e-Sual (antitussive), Khashunat-e-Halaq (sore throat), Musaffi-e-Khoon (blood purifier), Musakkin-e-Hiddat-e-Khoon (suppressive blood heat) etc. Unnab (Ziziphus jujuba Mill./Jujube) fruit is the main ingredient of the formulation. Unnab is also an ingredient of Unani Joshanda which has been recommended for relief in upper respiratory tract symptoms in mild cases of COVID-19. Few scientific studies related to Sharbat Unnab have been conducted in problems like Acne vulgaris and Primary Hypertension. Apart from this Unnab, the main ingredient has also been studied for its antioxidant and anti-cancerous activities. This formulation is being used by Unani physicians since time immemorial. Therefore, this paper will describe the brief review of the formulation along with its ingredient.

4.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(5):158-173, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1535046

ABSTRACT

Science has uncovered much about SARS-CoV-2 and made extraordinary and unprecedented progress on the development of COVID-19 vaccines, but there is still great uncertainty as the pandemic continues to evolve. We are simply moving to a new phase of the pandemic. Tiryaq Wabai, is on the polyherbal medicine used for centuries by Unani doctors as preventative medicine in epidemics. It consists of three ingredients: Sibr (Aloe barbadensis), Zafran (Crocus sativus), and Mur-Makki (Commiphora myrrh). All the three ingredients of Tiryaq Wabai have various pharmacological activities like immunomodulatory, antitussive, expectorant, and antiviral activity which provide a strong basis for its prophylactic use for covid-19 infection. Further, research on this important prophylactic Unani formulation Tiryaq Wabai in Covid-19 is the need of the hour.

5.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(3):160-162, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1503037

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has impacted individuals in each and every field of life. The rapid spread of the disease to nearly all parts of the country has posed enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. In the absence of any effective drugs and vaccines for treatment, social distancing and Wearing mask are important measures. But these measures were not followed properly so Lockdown was among one of the options suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce spread of the virus. On March 22, 2020 In India world's largest COVID lockdown came into existence. In this lockdown there was a kind of fear different theories of virus spread were in existence. So People have to change their lifestyle. Cinema hall, resurents were closed online food delivery system was also under suspicion so it was a question how to adopt healthy food habit and keep healthy to himself. In this critical time application of ayurvedic principles and follow them properly was a heat of hope.

6.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(2):145-152, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1503036

ABSTRACT

Molecular docking analysis is routinely used in modern drug research to understand and predict the relationship between a drug molecule and a target prot ein from a microbe. The entry and replication of pathogens in host cells can be prevented by drugs identified in this way. The coronavirus disease associated with SARS - CoV - 2, COVID - 19, has become today's most infectious and lethal pandemic disease in the w orld. Burgeoning in the absence of any particular vaccine or therapeutic agent against SARS - CoV - 2. The situation urges the need for appropriate medications to treat patients infected with the virus. Consequently, the study focus on evaluate the therapeutic potential of flavonoids present in Corriandrum sativum seeds that could serve as suitable remedies for COVID19.We analyzed the binding affinity of four flavonoids were screened against Mpro protein of SARS - CoV - 2 by PyRx Virtual Screening tool and also resu lts are validated with Lig - Plot Plus. Lopinavir shows binding affinity of - 8.3 Kcal/mol and exhibit stable, strong interaction with active site of COVID19 main protease. Besides flavonoids, Rutin found to have the highest binding affinity compared to Lopin avir with the Mpro protease, followed by Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin and Caffeic acid. The present study concludes that Rutin present in the integrant of seeds shows the highest potentiality for acting as in inhibitor of main protease enzyme. Further, char acterization of the amino acid residues comprising the viral binding site and the nature of the hydrogen bonding involved in the ligand receptor interaction shows significant findings with Rutin binding to the MPro protein at amino acid. The amino acid ac id present in active sites of Mpro protease responsible for virus pathogenicity. The findings of the present study need in vivo experiments to prove the utility of Rutin compounds and further use in making Corriandrum sativum seeds as anti - SARS - CoV - 2 produ ct in near future.

7.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(2):171-177, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1498246

ABSTRACT

A sudden health crisis has shut down the entire world for almost a year due to a new virus called Covid-19 and thus the WHO has declared the COVID-19 as a pandemic disease. As vaccines stimulate the immune system to fight against future infections, thereby conferring immunity, so far, vaccine development in a race throughout the world. Therefore, disseminating the overview of the vaccine development at present with their critical situation for COVID-19 is the aim of this review. The world is looking eagerly for a potential vaccine candidate that can save every life. Here, we reported the overview of the possible types of vaccines against Covid-19 as well as a glimpse of vaccine race with different phases of clinical trial data, comparison of the rate of success of phase-III clinical trials and their safety, and drawbacks with the present status. We have studied literature from clinical trial data of respective vaccine candidates published in the journals and collected data from databases dedicated to corona vaccine and the vaccine company's website to enrich our review and aiming to focus on clinical trial data stages, how consequences it faces, and how to position it belongs towards a successful vaccine candidate.

8.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(2):76-86, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1498245

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of unlock-3 and unlock-4 measure related to COVID-19 transmission change points in India, for projecting the infected population, to help in prospective planning of suitable measures related to future interventions and lifting of restrictions so that the economic settings are not damaged beyond repair.

9.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(1-s):15-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1436493

ABSTRACT

Objective: With the rapid increase in the rate of infection, repurposing use of many drugs like antivirals, antibiotics, LMWH, steroid, oxygen therapy were considered as an option to find promising anti-COVID therapeutics. In this study, we aim to observe the extent and variety of drugs used in different clinical categories of COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital in Bangladesh. To observe the requirement of oxygen therapy according to severity was also a prime objective to reveal the overall trend, frequency, and pattern of pharmacotherapy in a COVID-dedicated hospital. Materials and method: A total of 1348 patients were admitted, of whom 473 were included in this single-center retrospective study. The critical group consists of 99 ICU patients, the severe group has 38, moderate was 82 and mild group 254 cases, admitted in the general ward. Hospital records of each patient were screened and information about drug and supportive therapy were collected manually by the researchers in the data collection sheet. Data express in MS excel spreadsheet and result expressed in percentage.

10.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(1-s):7-14, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1436492

ABSTRACT

Background: Over past few months due to COVID-19 lockdown, our society has been in indoor settings where the education, work and entertainment are through digital platform. This created an increase in rate of digital eye strain. Method & materials: An epidemiological observational study conducted during lockdown period among people of Kerala with a structured and validated questionnaire using Google form. People with age 18 years, using digital screen on continuous basis were included in the study. Inform consent were collected from the participants before the survey. The statistical analysis were done using SPSS software. Results and Discussions: A total of 584 were participated in the study where more than 86% reported at least one symptom. Smart phone and computer were the major platform used by participants mainly for learning and entertainment. 31% of participants were continuously using digital screen for >2 hours. One fourth of participants were using the screen for >9 hours and a 20% uses the screen in dark room or dim light for >5 hours. 66% had mild and 2.2% had severe symptoms. Headache was the common symptom found followed by eye pain and neck/shoulder/joint pain. Females were found to be more prone to develop CVS. Headache, eye redness, burning, etc. were correlated with duration of use.

11.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(1):13-22, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409926

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Repurposing existing drugs approved for other conditions is crucial to identifying specific therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Towards this attempt, it is important to understand how this virus hijacks the host system during the course of infection and determine potential virus- and host-targeted inhibitors.

12.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(1):121-129, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409925

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease has spread all over the world. Till now no medicine, vaccine, and any other monoclonal antibodies have been approved for the diagnosis or prevention of COVID-19. In many countries, doctors are considering "repurposing" different approved drugs like interferon-a, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, etc. to treat COVID-19. Remedesivir (GS-5734) is a prodrug of monophosphoramidate of adenosine analogue. Remedesivir block the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerease (RdRp). Favipiravir (T-705) is also a prodrug and was revealed during evaluating the antiviral activity of chemical agents concerning the influenza virus. This review summarizes the status, mechanisms, preclinical research, and clinical trial progress of remedesivir and favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19.

13.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(1):156-161, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409924

ABSTRACT

SARS COV-2 belongs to the beta coronavirus genera, it is believed that bats as warm-blooded flying vertebrates are ideal hosts for coronavirus gene source. COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus was originated from Wuhan city of Hubei Province in China in December 2019. The common symptoms comprise fever, cough, malaise, and shortness of breath. The incubation period is between 2 - 14 days. In this paper we have deliberated the structure of viruses;varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS, and approach to tackling this problem with utmost effective Unani alternatives. Unani medicine endeavors to find the best conceivable ways by which a person can lead a hale and hearty life with minimum or zero sicknesses. Unani scholars believe by practicing important things like the use of fresh and clean water, breathing clean air and eating fresh food, upholding a balance between the mind and the body so that the metabolic processes can function effortlessly and the body wastes are evacuated, by enhancing immunity, and keeping an equilibrium between (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya) six essential factors for life one can stay away from diseases.

14.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(4):141-148, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395612

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to a massive change in every aspect of our lives. It has grossly affected the healthcare system, business and world trade, disruption of movement and supply of essential goods and has crippled the global economy. Although few vaccines have been approved for the control of disease, targeted therapy options for this virulent disease still remain limited and elusive. Exhaustive search for potent therapeutic candidate is in progress, for which herbal armory are also being explored. Medicinal plants and their products play a vital role in alleviating various diseases and have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Plant-based drugs with antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulotry activities were hypothetically considered as potential drugs to prevent and mitigate the prevailing situation caused by SARS-CoV-2. Arq Ajib 'a Unani formulation' presents compelling approach in treating numerous diseases. The ingredients of Arq Ajib and their phytocompounds have been reported for wide-ranging pharmaco-biological activities including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulotry, anti-allergic, antitussive and bronchodilatory activities. Scientific data available on the formulation ingredients and their phytocompounds indicates that the formulation may have a significant role in augmenting the immune status of individual, protecting them from infection and providing symptomatic relief to patients affected with COVID-19. Hence, it may be considered as a potential drug for the development of novel therapeutic candidate for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This multi-faceted review highlights the therapeutic significance and pharmacological actions of Arq Ajib and its ingredients to demonstrate the plausible role of the formulation in combating COVID-19.

15.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):133-141, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395611

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a global pandemic. In the absence of vaccines or specific drugs for COVID-19, a better understanding and implementation of universal safety precautions is essential for the prevention of COVID-19 virus infection globally. People's adherence to the universal precautions safety measures against COVID-19 is essential which is largely affected by their knowledge and belief. Objectives: To assess the public's knowledge and belief toward the universal safety precautions during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted in general public in Nepal during April, 2020. A self-designed questionnaire was prepared using Google forms via docs.google.com/forms for the collection of the data. The study participants were grouped into two categories according to their level of knowledge: excellent (score 80% and above) and average (score less than 80%). Descriptive statistics mean, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data.

16.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):271-279, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395610

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (nCOV 2019) or Coronavirus is one which is associate communicable disease amongst variety of viruses that causes cold, fever, difficulty in breathing and ultimately death. The viruses cause metabolism infections, together with the mundane cold, that square measure usually delicate, although a lot of occasional forms like respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, the illness is that the reason for the 2019-20 coronavirus irruption. It's primarily unfolded between individuals by diminutive droplets from infected people once they breathe or cough. Individuals could have few symptoms or develop febrility, cough, and shortness of breath. Whereas Feb 2020, different countries together with European country Asian Countries enclosed within the list. Antiviral drugs being tested embrace antimalarial drug, the ribonucleic acid enzyme substance remdesivir, and triazavirin, Umifenovir (Arbidol) and darunavir were planned. Remdesivir and antimalarial drug effectively inhibit the coronavirus in vitro. Favilavir approved as experimental corona virus drug. The objective of this review article to provide basic knowledge & preliminary opinion and to provide an advice which can be proved as the best mantra for defeating nCOV. Thus this review aims to throw light to the new and exciting areas of Virology, Replication cycle of corona virus, sign & symptoms and diagnosis, Spreading of corona virus, Structural biology of corona virus, the ways of treatment with alternative medicines other than antiviral drugs, and prevention in its early stage of COVID-19, and also Current Research on Corona.

17.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):251-255, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395609

ABSTRACT

Background: Contemplating the severity of pandemic sequel for public health many researchers are working recklessly for new targeted drugs and vaccines. Despite the challenging opportunities, the setup for the development of new effective remedy against COVID-19 is unforeseeable.

18.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):311-321, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395608

ABSTRACT

In last of 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started monitoring the outbreak of a new corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the respiratory illness now known as COVID-19. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. More than 82542 case of Corona virus in China at 31 March 2020. Health authorities have identified many other people with COVID-19 around the world. On 31 March 2020, the virus spread more than 750890 People in the World. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19. Since then, this strain has been diagnosed in several residents of world. The CDC have advised that it is likely to spread to more people. COVID-19 has affected at least 213 countries or territories or areas. The first people with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. This fact suggested that animals initially transmitted the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, confirming that humans can pass the virus to each other. Corona viruses will infect most people at some time during their lifetime. Corona viruses can mutate effectively, which makes them so contagious. Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from corona viruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts. On 17 February 2020, the Director-General of the WHO presented at a media briefing the following updates on how often the symptoms of COVID-19. However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear how rapidly corona viruses will spread. Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared Novel Corona virus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak as a Pandemic.

19.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):286-294, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious, spreading swiftly from man to man which has not been previously recognized in humans. World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 named the infection as COVID-19 as an acronym for 'coronavirus disease-2019' and on March 11, 2020 declared the outbreak as pandemic. It affects all the people without discrimination, however, older, immune compromised are more susceptible. The virus chiefly spread through droplet infection from infected person to healthy one by coughing, sneezing or with infected hands when touched to eyes, nose or mouth. Symptoms of the infection range from mild to severe ones. In severe cases (approx. 14% of cases) fever typically of high grade (104oF), breathlessness, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome may appear. So far no specific treatment or vaccine for novel coronavirus-2019 is there. From the past and recent past experiences we have learnt that herbal medicines have proven beneficial against various dreadful viral infections. Assessment of immune enhancing herbs in this paper may definitely be helpful for the body to fight COVID-19 infection.

20.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(5-s):205-208, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1353033

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is arguably the biggest health crisis the world has faced in 21st century. It is an infectious disease and declared pandemic by the World Health Organization. It is a pandemic disease of modern time with unique and rapid transmission rate and affected almost all the nations without respecting any border. It's a novel infection which is caused by SARS CoV-2 with Serious Clinical manifestation i.e. Fever, Cough, Cold, Respiratory distress further may result into Death. There is no definite therapeutic drug or vaccine available for COVID-19 so far despite numerous series of experimental and clinical research. Research is in progress on therapeutic efficacy of various agents including antimalarials (Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drugs, and convalescent serum of recovered patients. Unani system of medicine is one of the traditional systems of medicine which is being explored for providing preventive, supportive and rehabilitative care to patients. Unani system of medicine has a detailed description of drugs that are utilized in many infectious diseases, including respiratory infections. Immune response is essential to eliminate virus and to preclude disease progression to severe stages. Therefore, strategies to boost immune response are certainly important. Therefore, it is important to summarize the evidence regarding the preventive measures, control options such as immunostimulator and prophylactic treatment in Unani medicine against Covid- 19. This review summarizes various pharmacological actions of Unani formulation Tiryaq e wabai in unani literature and various reported pharmacological activities which can possibly provide prevention, control and reduction of complications of this deadly disease.

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