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1.
Ginekol Pol ; 92(2): 165-173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964413

ABSTRACT

The Polish Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathophysiology (PTKiPSM) together with the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (PTGiP) issued a final summary of interim guidelines for secondary cervical cancer prevention during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic based on the analysis of the latest directional publications and the authors' own experiences. The aim of the summary is to facilitate the implementation of the most effective possible screening of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer due to temporary significant limitation of screening as a consequence of the ongoing epidemiological threat. These final guidelines are taking into account the 2020 call of the World Health Organization (WHO) for global epidemiological elimination of cervical cancer. The guidelines supplement the interim guidelines of PTKiPSM and PTGiP announced in March 2020 on the possible deferral of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with abnormal screening tests results in secondary prevention of cervical cancer in current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Colposcopy , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Secondary Prevention , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poland , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Precancerous Conditions/prevention & control , Precancerous Conditions/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
3.
Orv Hetil ; 163(27): 1055-1060, 2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963097

ABSTRACT

Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS; neuralgic amyotrophy) is a generally unilateral neuritis with sudden onset, severe shoulder or upper arm pain. Although the intense pain is usually self-limiting, two-thirds of patients experience progressive motor weakness, narrowed range of motion, reflex changes, dysesthesias and chronic neuropathic pain in the shoulder girdle musculature and proximal upper limb muscles. The aetiology is unclear, in addition to some idiopathic cases the most common triggers of PTS are surgery, trauma, infection or vaccination. It is reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and unilateral PTS has been described in some cases following different types of COVID-19 vaccines. We are currently presenting the case of a middle-aged woman who developed partial neuralgic amyotrophy on the right shoulder one month after receiving the second dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech), and seven months later the symptoms appeared in the contralateral upper limb. The diagnosis of PTS was also confirmed by magnetic resonance and electrodiagnostic examination. The PTS is not an uncommon condition, but in the absence of knowledge it is rarely thought of. The purpose of this report is to draw attention to the possibility of PTS in shoulder or upper arm pain following both SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination, as early diagnosis and adequate therapy may help to shorten the course of the disease. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(27): 1055-1060.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/diagnosis , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/drug therapy , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pain , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Orv Hetil ; 163(26): 1015-1022, 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963091

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural effusion is a complication of tumors heralding poor outcome. It may be life-threatening, so advanced cases should be treated as an oncological emergency. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide complex care to patients with malignant pleural effusion during the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of Pécs Medical School, in the Department of Oncotherapy. During the pandemic, we introduced the thoracocentesis as a routine method in our department without previous experiences. METHOD: Results of diagnosing and treating pleural effusion of patients between March 18th of 2020 and May 31st of 2021 were summarized. RESULTS: We have analyzed data of 45 patients, two-thirds (66.7%) of them were women, the median age was 67 years. 57.8% of patients received systemic anticancer therapy during the study. The total number of thoracocentesis was over 120, one-third of the patients required more than five interventions. Only three iatrogenic pneumothorax cases were detected, no other serious complications were experienced. The procedures - that were aimed to mitigate symptoms in most cases (80%) - were considered successful. However, 48.9% of the patients were no longer alive at the end of the study period indicating very poor prognosis of pleural carcinosis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Clinical care of oncological patients was continuous during the pandemic; patients treated as part of emergency care were often seen in advanced disease state. Treatment of malignant pleural effusion requires oncological foresight as well as implementing an invasive approach. Our study has shown that discussion of the topic is relevant, may reveal difficulties and need for improvement. Our results are consistent with literature data, we have experienced less complications than reported in the literature. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(26): 1015-1022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Pleural Effusion , Pneumothorax , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/therapy , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/etiology , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/therapy , Pneumothorax/therapy
5.
Rev Neurol ; 75(3): 71-74, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965111

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Botulism is a potentially fatal neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. The 25% are food-borne botulism cases. CASE REPORT: We describe a confirmed case of botulism attended in our hospital in September 2020, together with a second case in a patient's relative, suspected but not confirmed by laboratory tests. Clinical presentation consisted on general weakness, bilateral cranial palsy, mydriasis, and rapidly progressive tetraparesis in case 1, involving respiratory and swallowing function so she required hospitalization and support treatment. Non specific and transient symptoms occurred in case 2. SARS-CoV-2 infection was initially suspected in both cases due to pandemic situation in our country, ruled out by negative PCR. When B neurotoxin was detected in stool sample of patient 1 we confirmed the diagnosis of food-borne botulism probably linked to home-made conserved beans. CONCLUSION: Early clinical suspicion, together with laboratory and electromyography findings, and support treatment provided at hospital were crucial for favourable outcome. Being aware of this rare syndrom might contribute to its better management.


TITLE: Botulismo alimentario durante la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2. Descripción de un caso y de un posible brote familiar en Barcelona.Introducción. El botulismo es un síndrome neuroparalítico hoy en día infrecuente, potencialmente fatal, causado por neurotoxinas de Clostridium botulinum. El origen es alimentario en el 25% de los casos. Caso clínico. Describimos el caso confirmado de botulismo alimentario en una paciente atendida en nuestro hospital en septiembre de 2020 y la sospecha de un segundo caso en un familiar de la paciente, no confirmado éste por las pruebas de laboratorio. La instauración en pocos días de una afectación bilateral de pares craneales, incluyendo disfagia, disnea y disartria, junto con midriasis y tetraparesia graves, precedida de diarrea, constituyó la presentación clínica en el primer caso; mientras que en su familiar cursó con síntomas inespecíficos y transitorios. Constatamos disautonomía consistente en hipotensión arterial en ambos casos. Teniendo en cuenta la situación pandémica en aquel momento, se descartó repetidamente la infección por SARS-CoV-2 antes de plantear alternativas diagnósticas. La neurotoxina B de C. botulinum fue detectada en las heces de la paciente, confirmando el diagnóstico de botulismo, que relacionamos con la ingesta de una conserva casera de alubias. Se completó el diagnóstico diferencial del cuadro descartando otras posibles etiologías. Conclusión. La sospecha clínica temprana, confirmada con los hallazgos de laboratorio y neurofisiológicos y que llevaron al manejo específico de la paciente, fueron cruciales para la evolución favorable. No fue necesario aplicar medidas de salud pública, a excepción de la notificación a sus allegados de la contaminación detectada. Conocer la existencia de esta patología puede contribuir a su pronóstico.


Subject(s)
Botulism , COVID-19 , Clostridium botulinum , Botulism/diagnosis , Botulism/epidemiology , Botulism/etiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e74, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965019

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence and mortality trends from COVID-19 in Brazil as well as in federation units and their capitals. Method: An ecological study was performed using COVID-19 incidence and mortality data covering the period from 25 February 2020 (first case recorded in Brazil) to 31 July 2021. Data were grouped by month for calculation of crude rates (by 100 000 population) and assessment of time trends in federation units and capitals. Significant changes in time trends were analyzed by joinpoint regression. Results: Two waves of new cases and deaths were identified. The highest incidence rates were recorded in the states of Amapá, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia, and Roraima. The states of Amazonas and Rondônia had the highest mortality rates. In general, incidence and mortality rates were worse in the second wave. In the first wave, the mean number of months until the onset of reduction in new cases was higher in capitals, whereas in the second wave the onset of reduction in new cases took longer in the federation units. The decline in mortality began earlier in capital cities in both waves. Conclusion: The regional differences detected underscore the notion that COVID-19 incidence and mortality are associated with political, geographic, cultural, social, and economic factors.


Objetivo: Analizar las tendencias de la incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad en Brasil (unidades federativas y capitales). Método: Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos sobre incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad en el período comprendido entre el 25 de febrero del 2020 (fecha del primer caso notificado en Brasil) y el 31 de julio del 2021. Los datos se agruparon por mes para calcular las tasas brutas (por 100 000 habitantes) y evaluar las tendencias temporales observadas en las unidades federativas y sus capitales. Las modificaciones significativas en las tendencias temporales se analizaron con el método de regresión de punto de inflexión (joinpoint). Resultados: Se identificaron dos olas de casos nuevos y muertes. Las unidades federativas con las mayores tasas de incidencia fueron Amapá, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia y Roraima; Amazonas y Rondônia tuvieron las mayores tasas de mortalidad. En general, la incidencia y la mortalidad fueron peores en la segunda ola. En la primera ola, el promedio de meses transcurridos hasta que empezó a reducirse el número de casos nuevos fue mayor en las capitales, mientras que, en la segunda ola, fue mayor en los estados. En ambas olas, el número de muertes se redujo en menos tiempo en las capitales. Conclusión: La heterogeneidad regional detectada refuerza la idea de que la incidencia de la COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad guardan relación con factores políticos, geográficos, culturales, sociales y económicos.

7.
Acta Med Port ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964897

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic forced the reorganization of primary health care services. The aim of this study was to describe how the health services responded to organizational requests; how the health services involved and supported their employees; how professionals perceived their involvement in the procedures and what support was provided to them. Additions aims included assessing the levels of anxiety and depression of professionals and their association with the perceived support, availability of personal protective equipment and involvement in pandemic-related tasks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study directed at professionals from three health center groups using an online questionnaire. We collected information from sociodemographic data, access to personal protective equipment, perceived support, workload and levels of anxiety and depression. Between each variable and the levels of anxiety and depression, multivariate logistic regression was applied. RESULTS: There were responses from 237 professionals (83.8% women; mean age 43.7 years; 43.2% physicians). Almost 60% worked with COVID-19 patients. The availability of personal protective equipment in March versus June 2020 increased (17.7% vs 55.3%). There was a risk management plan in 86% of the workplaces. A high workload (90%) and time pressure (74.6%) were identified. Physicians and nurses had a higher prevalence of depression associated with workload and fatigue (p < 0.001). Protective anxiety factors were having space to talk about problems, support in face of these problems and having a place to relax in the health unit. A lower risk of depression was found in the administrative staff group, in those who felt supported, and in those who actively participated in the contingency plans. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to considerable changes in the dynamics of primary health care. The time pressure to carry out tasks and the level of concentration required were associated with a higher risk of mental disease. The support felt by healthcare professionals regarding their problems and concerns and the existence of places to relax in the health units were identified as protective factors. Health promotion, the maintenance of the social contacts of healthcare professionals and their involvement in the processes should be taken into account in the organizational dynamics of the institutions.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 forçou a reorganização dos serviços dos cuidados de saúde primários. Com este estudo pretendemos descrever como responderam os serviços de saúde às solicitações organizacionais, como envolveram e apoiaram os seus colaboradores; como os profissionais percecionaram o seu envolvimento nos procedimentos e que apoio lhes foi fornecido. Pretendemos também avaliar os níveis de ansiedade e depressão dos profissionais e a sua associação não só com o apoio sentido pelos profissionais, mas também com a disponibilidade de equipamentos de proteção individual e com o seu envolvimento nas tarefas relacionadas com a pandemia.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal analítico dirigido aos profissionais de três agrupamentos de centros de saúde usando um questionário online. Colhemos dados sociodemográficos, informação sobre o acesso a equipamento de proteção individual, apoio percecionado, carga de trabalho e níveis de ansiedade e depressão. Entre cada variável e os níveis de ansiedade e depressão aplicou-se regressão logística multivariada.Resultados: Responderam 237 profissionais (83,8% mulheres; idade média 43,7 anos; 43,2% de médicos). Quase 60% trabalhou com doentes COVID-19. A disponibilidade de equipamento de proteção individual em março versus junho de 2020 aumentou (17,7% vs 55,3%). Existia plano de gestão do risco em 86% dos locais. Identificou-se uma alta carga de trabalho (90%) e pressão do tempo (74,6%). Médicos e enfermeiros apresentavam maior prevalência de depressão associada à carga de trabalho e fadiga (p < 0,001). Ter espaço para falar dos problemas, apoio sentido perante esses problemas e dispor na unidade de saúde de um espaço para relaxar foram alguns fatores protetores de ansiedade. Foi encontrado menor riso de depressão no grupo do secretariado clínico, nos profissionais que se sentiram apoiados, e nos que tiveram participação ativa nos planos de contingência.Conclusão: A pandemia de COVID-19 levou a grandes alterações na dinâmica dos CSP. A pressão do tempo para realização de tarefas e a concentração exigida associaram-se a maior risco de desenvolvimento de patologia mental. O apoio sentido pelos profissionais perante os seus problemas e preocupações, e a existência de espaços para relaxar nas USF foram identificados como fatores protetores. A promoção da saúde, a manutenção dos contactos sociais dos profissionais e o seu envolvimento nos processos deverão ser tidos em conta na dinâmica organizacional das instituições.

8.
PeerJ ; 10: e13518, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964570

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is a limited health resource because of a scarcity of qualified personnel and limited availability of equipment. Non-adherence to endoscopy appointments therefore wastes healthcare resources and may compromise the early detection and treatment of GI diseases. We aimed to identify factors affecting non-attendance at scheduled appointments for GI endoscopy and thus improve GI healthcare outcomes. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study performed at a tertiary hospital gastroenterology endoscopy unit, 12 months before and 12 months after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to identify variables associated with non-attendance at scheduled appointments. Results: Overall, 5,938 appointments were analyzed, and the non-attendance rate was 18.3% (1,088). The non-attendance rate fell significantly during the pandemic (22.6% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis identified the absence of deep sedation (OR: 3.253, 95% CI [2.386-4.435]; p < 0.001), a referral from a physician other than a gastroenterologist (OR: 1.891, 95% CI [1.630-2.193]; p < 0.001), a longer lead time (OR: 1.006, 95% CI [1.004-1.008]; p < 0.001), and female gender (OR: 1.187, 95% CI [1.033-1.363]; p = 0.015) as associated with appointment non-attendance. Conclusions: Female patients, those undergoing endoscopic procedures without deep sedation, those referred by physicians other than gastroenterologists, and with longer lead time were less likely to adhere to appointments. Precautions should be directed at patients with one or more of these risk factors, and for those scheduled for screening procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05033, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964529

ABSTRACT

Background: Recovery of health services disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic represents a significant challenge in low- and middle-income countries. In April 2021, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), which provides health care to 68.5 million people, launched the National Strategy for Health Services Recovery (Recovery policy). The study objective was to evaluate whether the Recovery policy addressed COVID-related declines in maternal, child health, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) services. Methods: We analysed the data of 35 IMSS delegations from January 2019 to November 2021 on contraceptive visits, antenatal care consultations, deliveries, caesarean sections, sick children's consultations, child vaccination, breast and cervical cancer screening, diabetes and hypertension consultations, and control. We focused on the period before (April 2020 - March 2021) and during (April 2021 - November 2021) the Recovery policy and used an interrupted time series design and Poisson Generalized Estimating Equation models to estimate the association of this policy with service use and outcomes and change in their trends. Results: Despite the third wave of the pandemic in 2021, service utilization increased in the Recovery period, reaching (at minimum) 49% of pre-pandemic levels for sick children's consultations and (at maximum) 106% of pre-pandemic levels for breast cancer screenings. Evidence for the Recovery policy role was mixed: the policy was associated with increased facility deliveries (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.11-1.19) with a growing trend over time (IRR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.03-1.05); antenatal care and child health services saw strong level effects but decrease over time. Additionally, the Recovery policy was associated with diabetes and hypertension control. Services recovery varied across delegations. Conclusions: Health service utilization and NCDs control demonstrated important gains in 2021, but evidence suggests the policy had inconsistent effects across services and decreasing impact over time. Further efforts to strengthen essential health services and ensure consistent recovery across delegations are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964291

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance can provide estimates of population-level exposure to infectious pathogens and has been used extensively during the COVID-19 pandemic. Simultaneous, serological testing for multiple pathogens can be done using bead-based immunoassays to add value to disease-specific serosurveys. We conducted a validation of four SARS-CoV-2 antigens-full-length spike protein, two receptor binding domain proteins, and the nucleocapsid protein-on our existing multiplex bead assay (MBA) for enteric diseases, malaria, and vaccine preventable diseases. After determining the optimal conditions for coupling the antigens to microsphere beads, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined on two instruments (Luminex-200 and MAGPIX) when testing singly (monoplex) versus combined (multiplex). Sensitivity was assessed using plasma from 87 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) positive persons collected in March-May of 2020 and ranged from 94.3% to 96.6% for the different testing conditions. Specificity was assessed using 98 plasma specimens collected prior to December 2019 and plasma from 19 rRT-PCR negative persons and ranged from 97.4% to 100%. The positive percent agreement was 93.8% to 97.9% using 48 specimens collected > 21 days post-symptom onset, while the negative percent agreement was ≥ 99% for all antigens. Test performance was similar using monoplex or multiplex testing. Integrating SARS-CoV-2 serology with other diseases of public health interest could add significant value to public health programs that have suffered severe programmatic setbacks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964281

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the important role molecular surveillance plays in public health. Such capacity however is either weak or nonexistent in many low-income countries. This article outlines a 2-year effort to establish two high-throughput molecular surveillance laboratories in Myanmar for tracking asymptomatic and drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The lessons learned from this endeavor may prove useful for others seeking to establish similar molecular surveillance capacity in other resource-limited settings.

13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(7): 912-918, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964140

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the common viral infection among the surveillance cases of fever respiratory syndrome (FRS) in nine provinces in China. Methods: The research data were obtained from nine provinces (Anhui, Beijing, Guangdong, Hebei, Hunan, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi and Xinjiang) in the "Infectious Disease Surveillance Technology Platform Information Management System" of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from January 2009 to June 2021. Finally, 8 243 FRS cases with nucleic acid detection results of eight viruses [human influenza virus (HIFV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV) and human Boca virus (HBoV)] were included in the study. The χ2 test/Fisher exact probability method was used to analyze the difference of virus detection rate in different age groups, regions and seasons. Results The M (Q1, Q3) age of 8 243 FRS cases was 4 (1, 18) years old, and 56.56% (4 662 cases) were children under 5 years old. Males accounted for 58.1% (4 792 cases) of all cases. All cases were from outpatient/emergency department (2 043 cases) and inpatient department (6 200 cases). The virus detection rates of FRS cases from high to low were HRSV, HIFV, HPIV, HRV, HAdV, HMPV, HCoV and HBoV. Two or more viruses were detected simultaneously in 524 cases, accounting for 15.66% of virus-positive cases. The difference of the virus detection rate in different age groups was statistically significant (all P values<0.05), and the virus detection rate in children<5 years old was higher (49.96%). The positive rate of any virus in south China was higher than that in north China (P<0.001). The virus-positive FRS cases were detected throughout the year. The detection rate of HRSV was higher in autumn and winter. The detection rate of HIFV was higher in winter. The detection rate of HMPV was higher in winter and spring. The detection rates of HPIV, HRV, HCoV and HBoV were higher in summer and autumn, while there was no significant difference in the detection rate of HAdV in different seasons. Compared with 2009-2019, the detection rate of any virus in 2020-2021 decreased from 41.37% to 37.86%. The detection rate of HIFV decreased sharply from 10.62% to 1.37%. The detection rate of HPIV decreased from 8.24% to 5.88%. The detection rate of HRV and HBoV increased from 5.43% and 1.79% to 9.67% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: HRSV and HIFV infections are more common among FRS cases in nine provinces in China from 2009 to 2021, and the epidemiological characteristics of eight common respiratory viruses vary in different age groups, regions and seasons.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
14.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964112

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in unprecedented morbidity and mortality worldwide. The host cells use a number of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for early detection of coronavirus infection, and timely interferon secretion is highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the virus has developed many strategies to delay interferon secretion and disarm cellular defense by intervening in interferon-associated signaling pathways on multiple levels. As a result, some COVID-19 patients suffered dramatic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while another part of the population showed only mild or no symptoms. One hypothesis suggests that functional differences in innate immune integrity could be the key to such variability. This review tries to decipher possible interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human antiviral interferon sensors. We found that SARS-CoV-2 actively interacts with PRR sensors and antiviral pathways by avoiding interferon suppression, which could result in severe COVID-19 pathogenesis. Finally, we summarize data on available antiviral pharmaceutical options that have shown potential to reduce COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in recent clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964101

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenicity, genetic evolution, and potential cross-species transmission. Furthermore, the potential two-receptor binding motif system for BCoV entry and the association between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed in this review. Our aim is to provide valuable information for the prevention and treatment of BCoV infection throughout the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Mar Drugs ; 20(6)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964023

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing global pandemic that poses an unprecedented threat to the global economy and human health. Several potent inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 have been published; however, most of them have failed in clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic compounds among aldehyde derivatives from seaweeds as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors using a computer simulation protocol. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties of the compounds were analyzed using a machine learning algorithm, and the docking simulation of these compounds to the 3C-like protease (Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 6LU7) was analyzed using a molecular docking protocol based on the CHARMm algorithm. These compounds exhibited good drug-like properties following the Lipinski and Veber rules. Among the marine aldehyde derivatives, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 5-bromoprotocatechualdehyde were predicted to have good absorption and solubility levels and non-hepatotoxicity in the ADME/Tox prediction. 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde were predicted to be non-toxic in TOPKAT prediction. In addition, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was predicted to exhibit interactions with the 3C-like protease, with binding energies of -71.9725 kcal/mol. The computational analyses indicated that 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde could be regarded as potential a SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Seaweed , Aldehydes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seaweed/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
17.
Hematol Rep ; 14(3): 228-234, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963786

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This review summarizes data from patients with COVID-19 requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The goals of this study are to showcase some morphological anomalies found in peripheral blood smears from COVID-19 patients and to bring attention to how some hematologic abnormalities in COVID-19 that correspond to disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of hematologic parameters using peripheral blood smear analysis from 31 COVID-19 patients hospitalized between April 2021 and January 2022. RESULTS: We found abnormal morphology that has not been previously reported. We also report that severe lymphopenia, neutrophilia, acute hemolysis, hematologic malignancies, and increased LDH are associated with ICU admissions, respiratory failure requiring intubation, and poor clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: We propose these recommendations in the management of COVID-19 patients: 1. Early diagnosis and follow-up of DIC; 2. Optimization of thromboprophylaxis regimen.

18.
Brain Sci ; 12(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963726

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) include excessive activity, difficulty sustaining attention, and inability to act in a reflective manner. Early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is key but may be influenced by the observation and communication skills of caregivers, and the experience of the medical professional. Attempts to obtain additional measures to support the medical diagnosis, such as reaction time when performing a task, can be found in the literature. We propose an information recording system that allows to study in detail the behavior shown by children already diagnosed with ADHD during a car driving video game. We continuously record the participants' activity throughout the task and calculate the error committed. Studying the trajectory graphs, some children showed uniform patterns, others lost attention from one point onwards, and others alternated attention/inattention intervals. Results show a dependence between the age of the children and their performance. Moreover, by analyzing the positions by age over time using clustering, we show that it is possible to classify children according to their performance. Future studies will examine whether this detailed information about each child's performance pattern can be used to fine-tune treatment.

19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963725

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a fully automated point-of-care device for protein quantification using short-DNA aptamers, where no manual sample preparation is needed. The device is based on our novel aptamer-based methodology combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which we employ for very sensitive protein quantification. DNA amplification through qPCR, sensing and real-time data processing are seamlessly integrated into a point-of-care device equipped with a disposable cartridge for automated sample preparation. The system's modular nature allows for easy assembly, adjustment and expansion towards a variety of biomarkers for applications in disease diagnostics and personalised medicine. Alongside the device description, we also present a new algorithm, which we named PeakFluo, to perform automated and real-time quantification of proteins. PeakFluo achieves better linearity than proprietary software from a commercially available qPCR machine, and it allows for early detection of the amplification signal. Additionally, we propose an alternative way to use the proposed device beyond the quantitative reading, which can provide clinically relevant advice. We demonstrate how a convolutional neural network algorithm trained on qPCR images can classify samples into high/low concentration classes. This method can help classify obese patients from their leptin values to optimise weight loss therapies in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Point-of-Care Systems , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Software
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 919668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963645

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 with correct and early detection of cases using laboratory testing central to the response. Hence, the establishment of quality management systems and monitoring their implementation are critical. This study describes the experience of implementing the COVID-19 Laboratory Testing and Certification Program (CoLTeP) in Africa. Methods: Private and public laboratories conducting SARS-CoV-2 testing using polymerase chain reaction were enrolled and assessed for quality and safety using the CoLTeP checklists. Results: A total of 84 laboratories from 7 countries were assessed between April 2021 to December 2021 with 52% of these from the private sector. Among them, 64% attained 5 stars and were certified. Section 4 had the highest average score of 92% and the lowest of 78% in Section 3. Also, 82% of non-conformities (NCs) were related to sample collection, transportation, and risk assessments. Non-availability, inconsistency in performing, recording, instituting corrective actions for failed internal and external quality controls were among major NCs reported. Conclusions: Laboratories identified for SARS-CoV-2 testing by public and private institutions mostly met the requirements for quality and safe testing as measured by the CoLTeP checklist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Certification , Africa , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2
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