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Racial Segregation, Testing Site Access, and COVID-19 Incidence Rate in Massachusetts, USA.
Hu, Tao; Yue, Han; Wang, Changzhen; She, Bing; Ye, Xinyue; Liu, Regina; Zhu, Xinyan; Guan, Weihe Wendy; Bao, Shuming.
  • Hu T; Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  • Yue H; Geocomputation Center for Social Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.
  • Wang C; Center of GeoInformatics for Public Security, School of Geography and Remote Sensing, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.
  • She B; Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.
  • Ye X; Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
  • Liu R; Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA.
  • Zhu X; Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207, USA.
  • Guan WW; State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.
  • Bao S; Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011501
Preprint
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Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Infection AFFECTS African American
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
African American
2. Infection AFFECTS Hispanics
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Hispanics
3. Infection PROCESS_OF Minority Groups
Subject
Infection
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Minority Groups
4. Infection AFFECTS African American
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
African American
5. Infection AFFECTS Hispanics
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Hispanics
6. Infection PROCESS_OF Minority Groups
Subject
Infection
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Minority Groups
ABSTRACT
The U.S. has merely 4% of the world population, but contains 25% of the world's COVID-19 cases. Since the COVID-19 outbreak in the U.S., Massachusetts has been leading other states in the total number of COVID-19 cases. Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Moreover, disparities of access to health care have a large impact on COVID-19 cases. Thus, this study estimates racial segregation and disparities in testing site access and employs economic, demographic, and transportation variables at the city/town level in Massachusetts. Spatial regression models are applied to evaluate the relationships between COVID-19 incidence rate and related variables. This is the first study to apply spatial analysis methods across neighborhoods in the U.S. to examine the COVID-19 incidence rate. The findings are (1) Residential segregations of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black/African Americans have a significantly positive association with COVID-19 incidence rate, indicating the higher susceptibility of COVID-19 infections among minority groups. (2) Non-Hispanic Black/African Americans have the shortest drive time to testing sites, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Asians, and Non-Hispanic Whites. The drive time to testing sites is significantly negatively associated with the COVID-19 incidence rate, implying the importance of the accessibility of testing sites by all populations. (3) Poverty rate and road density are significant explanatory variables. Importantly, overcrowding represented by more than one person per room is a significant variable found to be positively associated with COVID-19 incidence rate, suggesting the effectiveness of social distancing for reducing infection. (4) Different from the findings of previous studies, the elderly population rate is not statistically significantly correlated with the incidence rate because the elderly population in Massachusetts is less distributed in the hotspot regions of COVID-19 infections. The findings in this study provide useful insights for policymakers to propose new strategies to contain the COVID-19 transmissions in Massachusetts.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Social Segregation / COVID-19 / Health Services Accessibility Subject: Social Segregation / COVID-19 / Health Services Accessibility Language: English Clinical aspect: Prognosis Year: 2020

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Social Segregation / COVID-19 / Health Services Accessibility Subject: Social Segregation / COVID-19 / Health Services Accessibility Language: English Clinical aspect: Prognosis Year: 2020
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