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Novel insights into the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection: An overview of current clinical trials.
Oroojalian, Fatemeh; Haghbin, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad; Hemmat, Nima; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Hamblin, Michael R.
  • Oroojalian F; Department of Advanced Sciences and Technologies in Medicine, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran; Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
  • Haghbin A; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran; Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
  • Baradaran B; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Hemmat N; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Shahbazi MA; Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland; Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
  • Baghi HB; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Mokhtarzadeh A; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: mokhtarzadehah@tbzmed.ac.ir.
  • Hamblin MR; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: hambli
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Virus CAUSES Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
2. zanamivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
zanamivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
3. ritonavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
ritonavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
4. lopinavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
lopinavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
5. oseltamivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
oseltamivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
6. darunavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
darunavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
7. peramivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
peramivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
8. remdesivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
remdesivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
9. Virus CAUSES Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
10. zanamivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
zanamivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
11. ritonavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
ritonavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
12. lopinavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
lopinavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
13. oseltamivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
oseltamivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
14. darunavir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
darunavir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
15. peramivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
peramivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
16. remdesivir TREATS COVID-19
Subject
remdesivir
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
ABSTRACT
The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Clinical Trials as Topic / COVID-19 Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Int J Biol Macromol Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.ijbiomac.2020.09.204

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Clinical Trials as Topic / COVID-19 Type of study: Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Int J Biol Macromol Year: 2020 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: J.ijbiomac.2020.09.204