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SARS-CoV-2 infection: The role of PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 axis.
Aghbash, Parisa Shiri; Eslami, Narges; Shamekh, Ali; Entezari-Maleki, Taher; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh.
  • Aghbash PS; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Eslami N; Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Drug Applied Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Shamekh A; Drug Applied Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Entezari-Maleki T; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Baghi HB; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address
Life Sci ; 270: 119124, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051825
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Virus CAUSES Immune response
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Immune response
2. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Persons
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Persons
3. peripheral blood PART_OF Persons
Subject
peripheral blood
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Persons
4. PDCD1 gene|PDCD1 CAUSES interferon-gamma production
Subject
PDCD1 gene|PDCD1
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
interferon-gamma production
5. Exhaustion PROCESS_OF Persons
Subject
Exhaustion
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Persons
6. Virus CAUSES Immune response
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Immune response
7. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Persons
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Persons
8. peripheral blood PART_OF Persons
Subject
peripheral blood
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
Persons
9. PDCD1 gene|PDCD1 CAUSES interferon-gamma production
Subject
PDCD1 gene|PDCD1
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
interferon-gamma production
10. Exhaustion PROCESS_OF Persons
Subject
Exhaustion
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Persons
ABSTRACT
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan of China in December 2019 and its worldwide spread has turned into the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory disorders, lymphopenia, cytokine cascades, and the immune responses provoked by this virus play a major and fundamental role in the severity of the symptoms and the immunogenicity which it causes. Owing to the decrease in the inflammatory responses' regulation in the immune system and the sudden increase in the secretion of cytokines, it seems that an investigation of inhibitory immune checkpoints can influence theories regarding this disease's treatment methods. Acquired cell-mediated immune defense's T-cells have a key major contribution in clearing viral infections thus reducing the severity of COVID-19's symptoms. The most important diagnostic feature in individuals with COVID-19 is lymphocyte depletion, most importantly, T-cells. Due to the induction of interferon-γ (INF-γ) production by neutrophils and monocytes, which are abundantly present in the peripheral blood of the individuals with COVID-19, the expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints including, PD-1 (programmed death), PD-L1 and CTLA4 on the T-cells' surface is enhanced. The purpose of this review is to discuss the functions of these checkpoints and their effects on the dysfunction and exhaustion of T-cells, making them almost ineffective in individuals with COVID-19, especially in the cases with extreme symptoms.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: T-Lymphocytes / B7-H1 Antigen / CTLA-4 Antigen / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Subject: T-Lymphocytes / B7-H1 Antigen / CTLA-4 Antigen / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Language: English Journal: Life Sci Year: 2021

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: T-Lymphocytes / B7-H1 Antigen / CTLA-4 Antigen / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Subject: T-Lymphocytes / B7-H1 Antigen / CTLA-4 Antigen / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Language: English Journal: Life Sci Year: 2021
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