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Quantitative Fit Tested N95 Respirator-Alternatives Generated With CT Imaging and 3D Printing: A Response to Potential Shortages During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Ballard, David H; Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu; Meacham, Kathleen W; Hoegger, Mark J; Burke, Broc A; Morris, Jason A; Scott, Alexander R; O'Connor, Zachary; Gan, Connie; Hu, Jesse; Tappa, Karthik; Wahl, Richard L; Woodard, Pamela K.
  • Ballard DH; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110. Electronic address: davidballard@wustl.edu.
  • Jammalamadaka U; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110.
  • Meacham KW; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Hoegger MJ; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110.
  • Burke BA; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Morris JA; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Scott AR; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • O'Connor Z; 3D Printing Center, Barnes Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Gan C; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Hu J; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Tappa K; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110.
  • Wahl RL; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110.
  • Woodard PK; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Acad Radiol ; 28(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064684
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Responsive Disease COEXISTS_WITH COVID-19
Subject
Responsive Disease
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
COVID-19
2. N95 Respirators USES disposable
Subject
N95 Respirators
Predicate
USES
Object
disposable
3. Responsive Disease COEXISTS_WITH COVID-19
Subject
Responsive Disease
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
COVID-19
4. N95 Respirators USES disposable
Subject
N95 Respirators
Predicate
USES
Object
disposable
ABSTRACT
RATIONALE AND

OBJECTIVE:

Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows innovative solutions for personal protective equipment, particularly in times of crisis. Our goal was to generate an N95-alternative 3D-printed respirator that passed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-certified quantitative fit testing during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND

METHODS:

3D printed prototypes for N95 solutions were created based on the design of commercial N95 respirators. Computed tomography imaging was performed on an anthropomorphic head phantom wearing a commercially available N95 respirator and these facial contour data was used in mask prototyping. Prototypes were generated using rigid and flexible polymers. According to OSHA standards, prototypes underwent subsequent quantitative respirator fit testing on volunteers who passed fit tests on commercial N95 respirators.

RESULTS:

A total of 10 prototypes were 3D printed using both rigid (n = 5 designs) and flexible materials (n = 5 designs), Prototypes generated with rigid printing materials (n = 5 designs) did not pass quantitative respirator fit testing. Three of the five prototypes with flexible materials failed quantitative fit testing. The final two prototypes designs passed OSHA-certified quantitative fit tests with an overall mean fit factor of 138 (passing is over 100).

CONCLUSION:

Through rapid prototyping, 3D printed N95 alternative masks were designed with topographical facial computed tomography data to create mask facial contour and passed OSHA-certified quantitative respiratory testing when flexible polymer was used. This mask design may provide an alternative to disposable N95 respirators in case of pandemic-related shortages. Furthermore, this approach may allow customization for those that would otherwise fail fit testing on standard commercial respirators.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pandemics / COVID-19 Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Acad Radiol Journal subject: Radiology Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Pandemics / COVID-19 Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Acad Radiol Journal subject: Radiology Year: 2021 Document Type: Article