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Childhood Obesity and Respiratory Diseases: Which Link?
di Palmo, Emanuela; Filice, Emanuele; Cavallo, Alessandra; Caffarelli, Carlo; Maltoni, Giulio; Miniaci, Angela; Ricci, Giampaolo; Pession, Andrea.
  • di Palmo E; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Filice E; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Cavallo A; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Caffarelli C; Department of Medicine and Surgery, Pediatric Clinic, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy.
  • Maltoni G; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Miniaci A; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Ricci G; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
  • Pession A; Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
Children (Basel) ; 8(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211900
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. 6/5 PROCESS_OF Woman
Subject
6/5
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
2. 6/5 PROCESS_OF Boys
Subject
6/5
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Boys
3. Virulence Factors CAUSES Asthma
Subject
Virulence Factors
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Asthma
4. Virulence Factors CAUSES Obesity
Subject
Virulence Factors
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Obesity
5. Obesity PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Obesity
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
6. lung growth PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
lung growth
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
7. Respiratory Insufficiency PROCESS_OF Adult
Subject
Respiratory Insufficiency
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Adult
8. Genes ASSOCIATED_WITH Asthma
Subject
Genes
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Asthma
9. Genes ASSOCIATED_WITH Obesity
Subject
Genes
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Obesity
10. Obesity COEXISTS_WITH Pediatric Disorder
Subject
Obesity
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
Pediatric Disorder
11. Respiration Disorders PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Respiration Disorders
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
12. Die PROCESS_OF C0008059
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Die
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C0008059
13. 6/5 PROCESS_OF Woman
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6/5
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PROCESS_OF
Object
Woman
14. 6/5 PROCESS_OF Boys
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6/5
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Boys
15. Virulence Factors CAUSES Asthma
Subject
Virulence Factors
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Asthma
16. Virulence Factors CAUSES Obesity
Subject
Virulence Factors
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Obesity
17. Obesity PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Obesity
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
18. lung growth PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
lung growth
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
19. Respiratory Insufficiency PROCESS_OF Adult
Subject
Respiratory Insufficiency
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Adult
20. Genes ASSOCIATED_WITH Asthma
Subject
Genes
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Asthma
21. Genes ASSOCIATED_WITH Obesity
Subject
Genes
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Obesity
22. Obesity COEXISTS_WITH Pediatric Disorder
Subject
Obesity
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
Pediatric Disorder
23. Respiration Disorders PROCESS_OF Child
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Respiration Disorders
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PROCESS_OF
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Child
24. Diet, Healthy PROCESS_OF Child
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Diet, Healthy
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PROCESS_OF
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Child
ABSTRACT
Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Co-occurrence of asthma and obesity may be due to common pathogenetic factors including exposure to air pollutants and tobacco smoking, Western diet, and low Vitamin D levels. Lung growth and dysanapsis phenomenon in asthmatic obese children play a role in impaired respiratory function which appears to be different than in adults. Genes involved in both asthma and obesity have been identified, though a gene-by-environment interaction has not been properly investigated yet. The identification of modifiable environmental factors influencing gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms may change the natural history of both diseases. Another important pediatric respiratory condition associated with obesity is Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB), especially Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). OSAS and obesity are linked by a bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. In OSAS pathogenesis, obesity's role appears to be mainly due to mechanical factors leading to an increase of respiratory work at night-time. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSAS pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. To prevent obesity and its complications, family education and precocious lifestyle changes are critical. A healthy diet may lead to an improved quality of life in obese children suffering from respiratory diseases. The present review aimed to investigate the links between obesity, asthma and OSAS, focusing on the available evidence and looking for future research fields.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Children8030177

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Observational study / Prognostic study Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Children8030177