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Air Pollution, housing and respirfatory tract Infections in Children: NatIonal birth Cohort study (PICNIC): study protocol.
Favarato, Graziella; Clemens, Tom; Cunningham, Steven; Dibben, Chris; Macfarlane, Alison; Milojevic, Ai; Taylor, Jonathon; Wijlaars, Linda Petronella Martina Maria; Wood, Rachael; Hardelid, Pia.
  • Favarato G; Population, Policy and Practice Research and Teaching Department, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
  • Clemens T; School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Cunningham S; Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dibben C; School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Macfarlane A; Department of Midwifery, City University, London, UK.
  • Milojevic A; Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
  • Taylor J; Faculty of Built Environment, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
  • Wijlaars LPMM; Population, Policy and Practice Research and Teaching Department, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
  • Wood R; Clinical and Public Health Intelligence Team, Public Health Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Hardelid P; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048038, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214978
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Tract LOCATION_OF Infection
Subject
Tract
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Infection
2. Infection PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Infection
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
3. Respiratory Tract Infections PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Respiratory Tract Infections
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
4. Hospital admission TREATS young child
Subject
Hospital admission
Predicate
TREATS
Object
young child
5. Hospital admission TREATS Child
Subject
Hospital admission
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Child
6. Cohort USES National origin
Subject
Cohort
Predicate
USES
Object
National origin
7. Physiologic Organization PROCESS_OF young child
Subject
Physiologic Organization
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
young child
8. Tract LOCATION_OF Infection
Subject
Tract
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Infection
9. Infection PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Infection
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
10. Respiratory Tract Infections PROCESS_OF Child
Subject
Respiratory Tract Infections
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Child
11. Hospital admission TREATS young child
Subject
Hospital admission
Predicate
TREATS
Object
young child
12. Hospital admission TREATS Child
Subject
Hospital admission
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Child
13. Cohort USES National origin
Subject
Cohort
Predicate
USES
Object
National origin
14. Physiologic Organization PROCESS_OF young child
Subject
Physiologic Organization
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
young child
ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common reason for hospital admission among children <5 years in the UK. The relative contribution of ambient air pollution exposure and adverse housing conditions to RTI admissions in young children is unclear and has not been assessed in a UK context. METHODS AND

ANALYSIS:

The aim of the PICNIC study (Air Pollution, housing and respiratory tract Infections in Children NatIonal birth Cohort Study) is to quantify the extent to which in-utero, infant and childhood exposures to ambient air pollution and adverse housing conditions are associated with risk of RTI admissions in children <5 years old. We will use national administrative data birth cohorts, including data from all children born in England in 2005-2014 and in Scotland in 1997-2020, created via linkage between civil registration, maternity and hospital admission data sets. We will further enhance these cohorts via linkage to census data on housing conditions and socioeconomic position and small area-level data on ambient air pollution and building characteristics. We will use time-to-event analyses to examine the association between air pollution, housing characteristics and the risk of RTI admissions in children, calculate population attributable fractions for ambient air pollution and housing characteristics, and use causal mediation analyses to explore the mechanisms through which housing and air pollution influence the risk of infant RTI admission. ETHICS, EXPECTED IMPACT AND DISSEMINATION To date, we have obtained approval from six ethics and information governance committees in England and two in Scotland. Our results will inform parents, national and local governments, the National Health Service and voluntary sector organisations of the relative contribution of adverse housing conditions and air pollution to RTI admissions in young children. We will publish our results in open-access journals and present our results to the public via parent groups and social media and on the PICNIC website. Code and metadata will be published on GitHub.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Air Pollutants / Air Pollution Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Pregnancy Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: BMJ Open Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Bmjopen-2020-048038

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Air Pollutants / Air Pollution Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Pregnancy Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: BMJ Open Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Bmjopen-2020-048038