Your browser doesn't support javascript.
The Molecular Basis of COVID-19 Pathogenesis, Conventional and Nanomedicine Therapy.
Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Shariati, Laleh; Boshtam, Maryam; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Mirian, Mina; Esmaeili, Yasaman; Najaflu, Malihe; Khanahmad, Negar; Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Trovato, Maria; Tay, Franklin R; Khanahmad, Hossein; Makvandi, Pooyan.
  • Kouhpayeh S; Erythron Genetics and Pathobiology Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Isfahan 8164776351, Iran.
  • Shariati L; Department of Biomaterials, Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Boshtam M; Biosensor Research Center, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Rahimmanesh I; Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8158388994, Iran.
  • Mirian M; Applied Physiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Esmaeili Y; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Najaflu M; Biosensor Research Center, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Khanahmad N; Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Zeinalian M; School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 817467346, Iran.
  • Trovato M; Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
  • Tay FR; Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (IBBC), National Research Council (CNR), 80131 Naples, Italy.
  • Khanahmad H; The Graduate School, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
  • Makvandi P; Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Basis CAUSES COVID-19
Subject
Basis
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
COVID-19
2. Coronaviridae PROCESS_OF Family
Subject
Coronaviridae
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Family
3. Family INTERACTS_WITH Homo sapiens
Subject
Family
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
Homo sapiens
4. Cells LOCATION_OF Apoptosis
Subject
Cells
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Apoptosis
5. CLU gene|CLU INHIBITS Recepto
Subject
CLU gene|CLU
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Recepto
6. PARG gene|PARG INHIBITS Recepto
Subject
PARG gene|PARG
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Recepto
7. PARP1 gene|PARP1 INHIBITS Recepto
Subject
PARP1 gene|PARP1
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Recepto
8. Basis CAUSES COVID-19
Subject
Basis
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
COVID-19
9. Coronaviridae PROCESS_OF Family
Subject
Coronaviridae
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Family
10. Family INTERACTS_WITH Homo sapiens
Subject
Family
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
Homo sapiens
11. Cells LOCATION_OF Apoptosis
Subject
Cells
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Apoptosis
12. CLU gene|CLU INHIBITS Receptor, Angiotensin II
Subject
CLU gene|CLU
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Receptor, Angiotensin II
13. PARG gene|PARG INHIBITS Receptor, Angiotensin II
Subject
PARG gene|PARG
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Receptor, Angiotensin II
14. PARP1 gene|PARP1 INHIBITS Receptor, Angiotensin II
Subject
PARP1 gene|PARP1
Predicate
INHIBITS
Object
Receptor, Angiotensin II
ABSTRACT
In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Oxidative Stress / Nanomedicine / Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 / Cytokine Release Syndrome / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study Limits: Humans Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Ijms22115438

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Oxidative Stress / Nanomedicine / Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 / Cytokine Release Syndrome / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study Limits: Humans Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Ijms22115438