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Characterisation of SARS-CoV-2-infected children developing neutralising antibodies
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):53-54, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250660
ABSTRACT

Background:

Further knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) in children is needed in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT), alongside antigen (Ag) specific cellular response, in relation to virus load in nasopharyngeal swabs.

Methods:

We analysed 42 CoV-2 patients at 7 days after symptoms onset. CoV-2 viral load (VL) was measured by RT-PCR and digital droplet PCR on longitudinal samples of nasopharyngeal swabs (NP). Virus infectivity (FFU) was tested by virus focus forming assay. CoV-2 antibodies were investigated by Diasorin (CoV-2 Ab) and neutralization assay (PRNT). CoV-2-specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma proteomic profiling was measured by 2 Olink panels. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) of the viral load from NP collected every 48 hours up to undetectable VL. Mann-Whitney was used to compare means in individuals with neutralizing activity (PRNT+) or not (PRNT-);linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between virus load and infectivity over time. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse proteomic data.

Results:

Higher VL was found in seronegative patients expressed in terms of both CoV-2 Ab (p=0.003) and PRNT (p=0.0007). Similarly, lower FFU was associated with higher CoV-2 Ab (p=0.003;rho=-0.67) and PRNT (p=0.023;rho=-0.46). Further, the AUC of the viral load in NP showed an inverse correlation with CoV-2 Ab (p=0.031;rho=-0.54). Development of humoral response was associated with the presence of CoV-2 specific IgD-CD27+ B cells, with a higher frequency of CoV-2 specific B cells found in seropositive compared to seronegative (p=0.001). Besides, individuals developing neutralizing Ab had higher frequency CD4-CD40L+ T-cells compared to PRNT- (p=0.03). The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G).

Conclusion:

This work provides a virological and immunological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infected children presenting a differential Abmediated neutralizing activity. It demonstrates that children with neutralizing antibodies present reduced viral load, faster virus clearance and lower in vitro infectivity. These data provide information that can drive vaccination endpoints and quarantine measures policies.
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Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Experimental Studies / Prognostic study Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: Topics in Antiviral Medicine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

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Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Experimental Studies / Prognostic study Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: Topics in Antiviral Medicine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article