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An Overview of the Treatment Options Used for the Management of COVID-19 in Pakistan: Retrospective Observational Study.
Akhtar, Hashaam; Akhtar, Samar; Rahman, Fazal-Ul; Afridi, Maham; Khalid, Sundas; Ali, Sabahat; Akhtar, Nasim; Khader, Yousef S; Ahmad, Hamaad; Khan, Muhammad Mujeeb.
  • Akhtar H; Yusra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yusra Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Akhtar S; Yusra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yusra Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Rahman FU; Department of Medicine, Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
  • Afridi M; Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Khalid S; School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Ali S; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Pakistan Air Force Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Akhtar N; Department of Infectious Diseases, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Khader YS; Medical Education and Biostatistics, Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
  • Ahmad H; Yusra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yusra Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Khan MM; Department of Infectious Diseases, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e28594, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261327
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Challenge TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Challenge
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
2. Treatment Protocols NEG_TREATS Causative_agents
Subject
Treatment Protocols
Predicate
NEG_TREATS
Object
Causative_agents
3. Infection AFFECTS Complication
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Complication
4. Therapeutic procedure TREATS Infection
Subject
Therapeutic procedure
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Infection
5. Analysis USES Injection of therapeutic agent
Subject
Analysis
Predicate
USES
Object
Injection of therapeutic agent
6. Pharmaceutical Preparations TREATS Cohort
Subject
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Cohort
7. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
8. Therapeutic procedure TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Therapeutic procedure
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
9. Antibiotics TREATS resistant infection
Subject
Antibiotics
Predicate
TREATS
Object
resistant infection
10. Complication COEXISTS_WITH Immunocompromised Host
Subject
Complication
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
Immunocompromised Host
11. Antibiotics TREATS Coronavirus Infections
Subject
Antibiotics
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Coronavirus Infections
12. Challenge TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Challenge
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
13. Treatment Protocols NEG_TREATS Causative_agents
Subject
Treatment Protocols
Predicate
NEG_TREATS
Object
Causative_agents
14. Infection AFFECTS Complication
Subject
Infection
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Complication
15. Therapeutic procedure TREATS Infection
Subject
Therapeutic procedure
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Infection
16. Analysis USES Injection of therapeutic agent
Subject
Analysis
Predicate
USES
Object
Injection of therapeutic agent
17. Pharmaceutical Preparations TREATS Cohort
Subject
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Cohort
18. COVID-19 PROCESS_OF Patients
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Patients
19. Therapeutic procedure TREATS COVID-19
Subject
Therapeutic procedure
Predicate
TREATS
Object
COVID-19
20. Antibiotics TREATS resistant infection
Subject
Antibiotics
Predicate
TREATS
Object
resistant infection
21. Complication COEXISTS_WITH Immunocompromised Host
Subject
Complication
Predicate
COEXISTS_WITH
Object
Immunocompromised Host
22. Antibiotics TREATS Coronavirus Infections
Subject
Antibiotics
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Coronavirus Infections
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Since the first reports of COVID-19 infection, the foremost requirement has been to identify a treatment regimen that not only fights the causative agent but also controls the associated complications of the infection. Due to the time-consuming process of drug discovery, physicians have used readily available drugs and therapies for treatment of infections to minimize the death toll.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study is to provide a snapshot analysis of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 Pakistani patients during the period from May to July 2020, when the first wave of COVID-19 peaked in Pakistan.

METHODS:

A retrospective observational study was performed to provide an overview of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the four major tertiary-care hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in the country (May-July 2020).

RESULTS:

Antibiotics were the most common choice out of all the therapies employed, and they were used as first line of treatment for COVID-19. Azithromycin was the most prescribed drug for treatment. No monthly trend was observed in the choice of antibiotics, and these drugs appeared to be a random but favored choice throughout the months of the study. It was also noted that even antibiotics used for multidrug resistant infections were prescribed irrespective of the severity or progression of the infection. The results of the analysis are alarming, as this approach may lead to antibiotic resistance and complications in immunocompromised patients with COVID-19. A total of 1562 patients (1064 male, 68.1%, and 498 female, 31.9%) with a mean age of 47.35 years (SD 17.03) were included in the study. The highest frequency of patient hospitalizations occurred in June (846/1562, 54.2%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Guidelines for a targeted treatment regime are needed to control related complications and to limit the misuse of antibiotics in the management of COVID-19.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Cohort study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: JMIR Public Health Surveill Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: 28594

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Cohort study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: JMIR Public Health Surveill Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: 28594