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Serologic Testing of US Blood Donations to Identify Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-Reactive Antibodies: December 2019-January 2020.
Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Patton, Monica E; Grimm, Kacie; Rasheed, Mohammed Ata Ur; Lester, Sandra; Mills, Lisa; Stumpf, Megan; Freeman, Brandi; Tamin, Azaibi; Harcourt, Jennifer; Schiffer, Jarad; Semenova, Vera; Li, Han; Alston, Bailey; Ategbole, Muyiwa; Bolcen, Shanna; Boulay, Darbi; Browning, Peter; Cronin, Li; David, Ebenezer; Desai, Rita; Epperson, Monica; Gorantla, Yamini; Jia, Tao; Maniatis, Panagiotis; Moss, Kimberly; Ortiz, Kristina; Park, So Hee; Patel, Palak; Qin, Yunlong; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Tatum, Heather; Vogan, Andrew; Zellner, Briana; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sapiano, Matthew R P; Havers, Fiona; Reed, Carrie; Gerber, Susan; Thornburg, Natalie J; Stramer, Susan L.
  • Basavaraju SV; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Patton ME; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Grimm K; American Red Cross, Scientific Affairs, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
  • Rasheed MAU; American Red Cross, Scientific Affairs, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
  • Lester S; American Red Cross, Scientific Affairs, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
  • Mills L; Synergy America, Inc, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Stumpf M; Synergy America, Inc, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Freeman B; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Tamin A; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Harcourt J; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Schiffer J; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Semenova V; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Li H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Alston B; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Ategbole M; IHRC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Bolcen S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Boulay D; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Browning P; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Cronin L; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • David E; CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
  • Desai R; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Epperson M; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Gorantla Y; IHRC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Jia T; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Maniatis P; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Moss K; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Ortiz K; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Park SH; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Patel P; CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
  • Qin Y; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Steward-Clark E; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Tatum H; IHRC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Vogan A; Eagle Global Scientific, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Zellner B; Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  • Drobeniuc J; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Sapiano MRP; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Havers F; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Reed C; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Gerber S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Thornburg NJ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Stramer SL; American Red Cross, Scientific Affairs, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1004-e1009, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269561
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Virus CAUSES Disease
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Disease
2. Anti-Antibodies PART_OF 2019 novel coronavirus
Subject
Anti-Antibodies
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
2019 novel coronavirus
3. Serum LOCATION_OF Antibodies
Subject
Serum
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Antibodies
4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay USES CD40LG wt Allele|CD40LG
Subject
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Predicate
USES
Object
CD40LG wt Allele|CD40LG
5. Virus CAUSES Disease
Subject
Virus
Predicate
CAUSES
Object
Disease
6. Anti-Antibodies PART_OF 2019 novel coronavirus
Subject
Anti-Antibodies
Predicate
PART_OF
Object
2019 novel coronavirus
7. Serum LOCATION_OF Antibodies
Subject
Serum
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Antibodies
8. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay USES CD40LG wt Allele|CD40LG
Subject
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Predicate
USES
Object
CD40LG wt Allele|CD40LG
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent worldwide spread. The first US cases were identified in January 2020.

METHODS:

To determine if SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were present in sera prior to the first identified case in the United States on 19 January 2020, residual archived samples from 7389 routine blood donations collected by the American Red Cross from 13 December 2019 to 17 January 2020 from donors resident in 9 states (California, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin) were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specimens reactive by pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the full spike protein were tested by IgG and IgM ELISAs, microneutralization test, Ortho total Ig S1 ELISA, and receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity assay.

RESULTS:

Of the 7389 samples, 106 were reactive by pan-Ig. Of these 106 specimens, 90 were available for further testing. Eighty-four of 90 had neutralizing activity, 1 had S1 binding activity, and 1 had receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity >50%, suggesting the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies. Donations with reactivity occurred in all 9 states.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have been introduced into the United States prior to 19 January 2020.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: North America / Asia Language: English Journal: Clin Infect Dis Journal subject: Communicable Diseases Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Cid

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: North America / Asia Language: English Journal: Clin Infect Dis Journal subject: Communicable Diseases Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Cid