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Extracellular vesicles carry SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and serve as decoys for neutralizing antibodies.
Troyer, Zach; Alhusaini, Najwa; Tabler, Caroline O; Sweet, Thomas; de Carvalho, Karina Inacio Ladislau; Schlatzer, Daniela M; Carias, Lenore; King, Christopher L; Matreyek, Kenneth; Tilton, John C.
  • Troyer Z; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Alhusaini N; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Tabler CO; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Sweet T; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • de Carvalho KIL; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Schlatzer DM; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Carias L; Division of General Medical Sciences School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • King CL; Division of General Medical Sciences School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Matreyek K; Department of Pathology School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
  • Tilton JC; Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics Department of Nutrition School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio USA.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(8): e12112, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272198
ABSTRACT
In late 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), spread rapidly and became a global pandemic in early 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for viral entry and binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells, making it a major target of the immune system - particularly neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are induced by infection or vaccines. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membraned particles constitutively released by cells, including virally-infected cells. EVs and viruses enclosed within lipid membranes share some characteristics they are small, sub-micron particles and they overlap in cellular biogenesis and egress routes. Given their shared characteristics, we hypothesized that EVs released from spike-expressing cells could carry spike and serve as decoys for anti-spike nAbs, promoting viral infection. Here, using mass spectrometry and nanoscale flow cytometry (NFC) approaches, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can be incorporated into EVs. Furthermore, we show that spike-carrying EVs act as decoy targets for convalescent patient serum-derived nAbs, reducing their effectiveness in blocking viral entry. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo and highlight the complex interplay between viruses, extracellular vesicles, and the immune system that occurs during viral infections.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Antibodies, Neutralizing / Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / Extracellular Vesicles / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: J Extracell Vesicles Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Antibodies, Neutralizing / Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / Extracellular Vesicles / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: J Extracell Vesicles Year: 2021 Document Type: Article