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Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: interim results from a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, phase 2 trial, and 3-month follow-up of a double-blind, randomised phase 1 trial.
Ella, Raches; Reddy, Siddharth; Jogdand, Harsh; Sarangi, Vamshi; Ganneru, Brunda; Prasad, Sai; Das, Dipankar; Raju, Dugyala; Praturi, Usha; Sapkal, Gajanan; Yadav, Pragya; Reddy, Prabhakar; Verma, Savita; Singh, Chandramani; Redkar, Sagar Vivek; Gillurkar, Chandra Sekhar; Kushwaha, Jitendra Singh; Mohapatra, Satyajit; Bhate, Amit; Rai, Sanjay; Panda, Samiran; Abraham, Priya; Gupta, Nivedita; Ella, Krishna; Bhargava, Balram; Vadrevu, Krishna Mohan.
  • Ella R; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Reddy S; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Jogdand H; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Sarangi V; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Ganneru B; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Prasad S; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Das D; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Raju D; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Praturi U; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Sapkal G; Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.
  • Yadav P; Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.
  • Reddy P; Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.
  • Verma S; Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, India.
  • Singh C; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.
  • Redkar SV; Redkar Hospital, Dargalim, India.
  • Gillurkar CS; Gillurkar Hospital, Nagpur, India.
  • Kushwaha JS; Prakhar Hospital, Kanpur, India.
  • Mohapatra S; SRM Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, India.
  • Bhate A; Jeevan Rekha Hospital, Belgaum, India.
  • Rai S; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
  • Panda S; Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.
  • Abraham P; Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.
  • Gupta N; Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.
  • Ella K; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India.
  • Bhargava B; Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.
  • Vadrevu KM; Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address: kmohan@bharatbiotech.com.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(7): 950-961, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290388
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ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (3 µg or 6 µg) formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule (IMDG) adsorbed to alum (Algel). We previously reported findings from a double-blind, multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 1 trial on the safety and immunogenicity of three different formulations of BBV152 (3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, or 6 µg with Algel) and one Algel-only control (no antigen), with the first dose administered on day 0 and the second dose on day 14. The 3 µg and 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulations were selected for this phase 2 study. Herein, we report interim findings of the phase 2 trial on the immunogenicity and safety of BBV152, with the first dose administered on day 0 and the second dose on day 28.

METHODS:

We did a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of BBV152 in healthy adults and adolescents (aged 12-65 years) at nine hospitals in India. Participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and serology tests were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (11) to receive either 3 µg with Algel-IMDG or 6 µg with Algel-IMDG. Block randomisation was done by use of an interactive web response system. Participants, investigators, study coordinators, study-related personnel, and the sponsor were masked to treatment group allocation. Two intramuscular doses of vaccine were administered on day 0 and day 28. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 wild-type neutralising antibody titres and seroconversion rates (defined as a post-vaccination titre that was at least four-fold higher than the baseline titre) at 4 weeks after the second dose (day 56), measured by use of the plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT50) and the microneutralisation test (MNT50). The primary outcome was assessed in all participants who had received both doses of the vaccine. Cell-mediated responses were a secondary outcome and were assessed by T-helper-1 (Th1)/Th2 profiling at 2 weeks after the second dose (day 42). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the vaccine. In addition, we report immunogenicity results from a follow-up blood draw collected from phase 1 trial participants at 3 months after they received the second dose (day 104). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04471519.

FINDINGS:

Between Sept 5 and 12, 2020, 921 participants were screened, of whom 380 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (n=190) or 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (n=190). Geometric mean titres (GMTs; PRNT50) at day 56 were significantly higher in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (197·0 [95% CI 155·6-249·4]) than the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (100·9 [74·1-137·4]; p=0·0041). Seroconversion based on PRNT50 at day 56 was reported in 171 (92·9% [95% CI 88·2-96·2] of 184 participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 174 (98·3% [95·1-99·6]) of 177 participants in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. GMTs (MNT50) at day 56 were 92·5 (95% CI 77·7-110·2) in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 160·1 (135·8-188·8) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. Seroconversion based on MNT50 at day 56 was reported in 162 (88·0% [95% CI 82·4-92·3]) of 184 participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group and 171 (96·6% [92·8-98·8]) of 177 participants in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group. The 3 µg with Algel-IMDG and 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulations elicited T-cell responses that were biased to a Th1 phenotype at day 42. No significant difference in the proportion of participants who had a solicited local or systemic adverse reaction in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group (38 [20·0%; 95% CI 14·7-26·5] of 190) and the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group (40 [21·1%; 15·5-27·5] of 190) was observed on days 0-7 and days 28-35; no serious adverse events were reported in the study. From the phase 1 trial, 3-month post-second-dose GMTs (MNT50) were 39·9 (95% CI 32·0-49·9) in the 3µg with Algel-IMDG group, 69·5 (53·7-89·9) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 53·3 (40·1-71·0) in the 6 µg with Algel group, and 20·7 (14·5-29·5) in the Algel alone group.

INTERPRETATION:

In the phase 1 trial, BBV152 induced high neutralising antibody responses that remained elevated in all participants at 3 months after the second vaccination. In the phase 2 trial, BBV152 showed better reactogenicity and safety outcomes, and enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses compared with the phase 1 trial. The 6 µg with Algel-IMDG formulation has been selected for the phase 3 efficacy trial.

FUNDING:

Bharat Biotech International. TRANSLATION For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Vaccines, Inactivated / Immunogenicity, Vaccine / COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged / Young adult Language: English Journal: Lancet Infect Dis Journal subject: Communicable Diseases Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S1473-3099(21)00070-0

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Vaccines, Inactivated / Immunogenicity, Vaccine / COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged / Young adult Language: English Journal: Lancet Infect Dis Journal subject: Communicable Diseases Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S1473-3099(21)00070-0