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Antithrombin and Its Role in Host Defense and Inflammation.
Schlömmer, Christine; Brandtner, Anna; Bachler, Mirjam.
  • Schlömmer C; Department of Cardiac Thoracic Vascular Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
  • Brandtner A; Division of General and Surgical Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Bachler M; Division of General and Surgical Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299445
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. Anticoagulants INTERACTS_WITH Peptide Hydrolases
Subject
Anticoagulants
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
Peptide Hydrolases
2. Liver LOCATION_OF Proteins
Subject
Liver
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Proteins
3. Antithrombins ASSOCIATED_WITH Systemic disease
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Systemic disease
4. Antithrombins AUGMENTS negative regulation of inflammatory response
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
negative regulation of inflammatory response
5. Antithrombins AUGMENTS glycosylation
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
glycosylation
6. Peptide Hydrolases CONVERTS_TO Peptide Fragments
Subject
Peptide Hydrolases
Predicate
CONVERTS_TO
Object
Peptide Fragments
7. Therapeutic Nutritional Supplementation TREATS Inflammatory disorder
Subject
Therapeutic Nutritional Supplementation
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Inflammatory disorder
8. Missense Mutation PROCESS_OF Antithrombins
Subject
Missense Mutation
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Antithrombins
9. Anticoagulants INTERACTS_WITH Peptide Hydrolases
Subject
Anticoagulants
Predicate
INTERACTS_WITH
Object
Peptide Hydrolases
10. Liver LOCATION_OF Proteins
Subject
Liver
Predicate
LOCATION_OF
Object
Proteins
11. Antithrombins ASSOCIATED_WITH Systemic disease
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
ASSOCIATED_WITH
Object
Systemic disease
12. Antithrombins AUGMENTS negative regulation of inflammatory response
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
negative regulation of inflammatory response
13. Antithrombins AUGMENTS glycosylation
Subject
Antithrombins
Predicate
AUGMENTS
Object
glycosylation
14. Peptide Hydrolases CONVERTS_TO Peptide Fragments
Subject
Peptide Hydrolases
Predicate
CONVERTS_TO
Object
Peptide Fragments
15. Therapeutic Nutritional Supplementation TREATS Inflammatory disorder
Subject
Therapeutic Nutritional Supplementation
Predicate
TREATS
Object
Inflammatory disorder
16. Missense Mutation PROCESS_OF Antithrombins
Subject
Missense Mutation
Predicate
PROCESS_OF
Object
Antithrombins
ABSTRACT
Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant that interacts with activated proteases of the coagulation system and with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the surface of cells. The protein, which is synthesized in the liver, is also essential to confer the effects of therapeutic heparin. However, AT levels drop in systemic inflammatory diseases. The reason for this decline is consumption by the coagulation system but also by immunological processes. Aside from the primarily known anticoagulant effects, AT elicits distinct anti-inflammatory signaling responses. It binds to structures of the glycocalyx (syndecan-4) and further modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells and leukocytes by interacting with surface receptors. Additionally, AT exerts direct antimicrobial effects depending on AT glycosylation it can bind to and perforate bacterial cell walls. Peptide fragments derived from proteolytic degradation of AT exert antibacterial properties. Despite these promising characteristics, therapeutic supplementation in inflammatory conditions has not proven to be effective in randomized control trials. Nevertheless, new insights provided by subgroup analyses and retrospective trials suggest that a recommendation be made to identify the patient population that would benefit most from AT substitution. Recent experiment findings place the role of various AT isoforms in the spotlight. This review provides an overview of new insights into a supposedly well-known molecule.
Subject(s)
Keywords

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Antithrombins / Disease Susceptibility / Host-Pathogen Interactions / Disease Resistance / Inflammation Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Clinical Practice Guide / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Animals / Humans Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Ijms22084283

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Antithrombins / Disease Susceptibility / Host-Pathogen Interactions / Disease Resistance / Inflammation Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Clinical Practice Guide / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Animals / Humans Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Ijms22084283