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Psychological distress and trauma in doctors providing frontline care during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom and Ireland: a prospective longitudinal survey cohort study.
Roberts, Tom; Daniels, Jo; Hulme, William; Hirst, Robert; Horner, Daniel; Lyttle, Mark David; Samuel, Katie; Graham, Blair; Reynard, Charles; Barrett, Michael; Foley, James; Cronin, John; Umana, Etimbuk; Vinagre, Joao; Carlton, Edward.
  • Roberts T; TERN, The Royal College of Emergency Medicine, London, UK tomkieranroberts@gmail.com.
  • Daniels J; Emergency Department, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, UK.
  • Hulme W; Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
  • Hirst R; Statistical Consultant, Oxford, UK.
  • Horner D; Department of Anaesthesia, North Bristol NHS Trust, Westbury on Trym, UK.
  • Lyttle MD; Department of Intensive Care, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK.
  • Samuel K; Emergency Department, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, UK.
  • Graham B; Faculty of Health and Applied Science, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
  • Reynard C; Department of Anaesthesia, North Bristol NHS Trust, Westbury on Trym, UK.
  • Barrett M; Emergency Department, Plymouth Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Plymouth, UK.
  • Foley J; Urgent and Emergency Care, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.
  • Cronin J; The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
  • Umana E; School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Vinagre J; Emergency Department, Children's Health Ireland at Crumlin, Crumlin, Ireland.
  • Carlton E; Emergency Department, University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Ireland.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049680, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304231
ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES:

The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on doctors is a significant concern. Due to the emergence of multiple pandemic waves, longitudinal data on the impact of COVID-19 are vital to ensure an adequate psychological care response. The primary aim was to assess the prevalence and degree of psychological distress and trauma in frontline doctors during the acceleration, peak and deceleration of the COVID-19 first wave. Personal and professional factors associated with psychological distress are also reported.

DESIGN:

A prospective online three-part longitudinal survey.

SETTING:

Acute hospitals in the UK and Ireland.

PARTICIPANTS:

Frontline doctors working in emergency medicine, anaesthetics and intensive care medicine during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME

MEASURES:

Psychological distress and trauma measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 and the Impact of Events-Revised.

RESULTS:

The initial acceleration survey distributed across networks generated a sample of 5440 doctors. Peak and deceleration response rates from the original sample were 71.6% (n=3896) and 56.6% (n=3079), respectively. Prevalence of psychological distress was 44.7% (n=1334) during the acceleration, 36.9% (n=1098) at peak and 31.5% (n=918) at the deceleration phase. The prevalence of trauma was 23.7% (n=647) at peak and 17.7% (n=484) at deceleration. The prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder was 12.6% (n=343) at peak and 10.1% (n=276) at deceleration. Worry of family infection due to clinical work was the factor most strongly associated with both distress (R2=0.06) and trauma (R2=0.10).

CONCLUSION:

Findings reflect a pattern of elevated distress at acceleration and peak, with some natural recovery. It is essential that policymakers seek to prevent future adverse effects through (a) provision of vital equipment to mitigate physical and psychological harm, (b) increased awareness and recognition of signs of psychological distress and (c) the development of clear pathways to effective psychological care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ISRCTN10666798.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Psychological Distress / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prevalence study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: BMJ Open Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Bmjopen-2021-049680

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Psychological Distress / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prevalence study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: BMJ Open Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Bmjopen-2021-049680