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Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and their association with clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in Estonia (KoroSero-EST-1 study).
Jõgi, Piia; Soeorg, Hiie; Ingerainen, Diana; Soots, Mari; Lättekivi, Freddy; Naaber, Paul; Toompere, Karolin; Peterson, Pärt; Haljasmägi, Liis; Zusinaite, Eva; Vaas, Hannes; Pauskar, Merit; Shablinskaja, Arina; Kaarna, Katrin; Paluste, Heli; Kisand, Kai; Oona, Marje; Janno, Riina; Lutsar, Irja.
  • Jõgi P; Children's Clinic of Tartu University Hospital, N. Lunini 6, 50406 Tartu, Estonia; Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tartu, L. Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address: piia.jogi@kliinikum.ee.
  • Soeorg H; Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Ingerainen D; Family Doctor Center "Järveotsa", Õismäe tee 179, 13517 Tallinn, Estonia.
  • Soots M; Family Doctor Center "Kuressaare", Aia 25a, 93815 Kuressaare, Estonia.
  • Lättekivi F; Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia; Development Centre, United Chancery Service, Tartu University Hospital, Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Naaber P; Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia; SYNLAB Estonia, Tallinn, Estonia.
  • Toompere K; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Peterson P; Molecular Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Haljasmägi L; Molecular Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Zusinaite E; Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Vaas H; Children's Clinic of Tartu University Hospital, N. Lunini 6, 50406 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Pauskar M; Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Shablinskaja A; Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Kaarna K; Development Centre, United Chancery Service, Tartu University Hospital, Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu, Estonia; Clinical Research Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Paluste H; Ministry of Social Affairs, Republic of Estonia, Suur-Ameerika 1, 10122 Tallinn, Estonia.
  • Kisand K; Molecular Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Oona M; Department of Family Medicine, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Janno R; Development Centre, United Chancery Service, Tartu University Hospital, Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu, Estonia.
  • Lutsar I; Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5376-5384, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340875
ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:

In Estonia, during the first wave of COVID-19 total number of cases confirmed by PCR was 13.3/10,000, similar in most regions, including capital Tallinn, but in the hotspot of Estonian epidemic, an island Saaremaa, the cumulative incidence was 166.1/10,000. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in these two regions, symptoms associated with infection and factors associated with antibody concentrations.

METHODS:

Participants were selected using stratified (formed by age decades) random sampling and recruited by general practitioners. IgG or neutralizing antibodies were determined from sera by four assays. Symptoms associated with seropositivity were analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis, antibody concentrations by multiple linear regression.

RESULTS:

Total of 3608 individual were invited and 1960 recruited from May 8 to July 31, 2020. Seroprevalence was 1.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.5) and 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.9), infection fatality rate 0.1% (95% CI 0.0-0.2) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.4-2.1) in Tallinn and Saaremaa, respectively. Of seropositive subjects 19.2% (14/73) had acute respiratory illness. Fever, diarrhea and the absence of cough and runny nose were associated with seropositivity in individuals aged 50 or more years. IgG, but not neutralizing antibodies concentrations were higher if fever, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, chest pain or diarrhea was present, or hospitalization required.

CONCLUSION:

Similarly to other European countries the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Estonia was low even in the hotspot region Saaremaa suggesting that majority of population is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Focusing only on respiratory symptoms may delay accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prevalence study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: Vaccine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prevalence study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: Vaccine Year: 2021 Document Type: Article