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Vaccine-induced severe thrombotic thrombocytopenia following COVID-19 vaccination: a report of an autoptic case and review of the literature.
Fanni, D; Saba, L; Demontis, R; Gerosa, C; Chighine, A; Nioi, M; Suri, J S; Ravarino, A; Cau, F; Barcellona, D; Botta, M C; Porcu, M; Scano, A; Coghe, F; Orrù, G; Van Eyken, P; Gibo, Y; La Nasa, G; D'aloja, E; Marongiu, F; Faa, G.
  • Fanni D; Division of Pathology, Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. clarge@tiscali.it.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346861
ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:

Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission.

RESULTS:

At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels.

CONCLUSIONS:

In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Thrombosis / Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / COVID-19 Vaccines / COVID-19 Type of study: Case report Limits: Humans / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Journal subject: Pharmacology / Toxicology Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Eurrev_202108_26464

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Thrombosis / Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / COVID-19 Vaccines / COVID-19 Type of study: Case report Limits: Humans / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Journal subject: Pharmacology / Toxicology Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Eurrev_202108_26464