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Potential Cross-Reactive Immunity to COVID-19 Infection in Individuals With Laboratory-Confirmed MERS-CoV Infection: A National Retrospective Cohort Study From Saudi Arabia.
Khan, Anas A; Alahmari, Ahmed A; Almuzaini, Yasir; Alamri, Fahad; Alsofayan, Yousef Mohammad; Aburas, Alhanouf; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Van Kerkhove, Maria; Yezli, Saber; Ciottone, Gregory R; Assiri, Abdullah M; Jokhdar, Hani A.
  • Khan AA; Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Alahmari AA; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Almuzaini Y; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Alamri F; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Alsofayan YM; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Aburas A; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Al-Muhsen S; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Van Kerkhove M; Immunology Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Yezli S; Infectious Hazards Management, Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Ciottone GR; Global Center of Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Assiri AM; Department of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
  • Jokhdar HA; Deputyship of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality.

METHODS:

Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection.

FINDINGS:

A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

INTERPRETATION:

Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Cross Reactions / Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: Front Immunol Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Fimmu.2021.727989

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Cross Reactions / Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Male / Middle aged Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: Front Immunol Year: 2021 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Fimmu.2021.727989