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Deprivation and exposure to public activities during the COVID-19 pandemic in England and Wales.
Beale, Sarah; Braithwaite, Isobel; Navaratnam, Annalan Md; Hardelid, Pia; Rodger, Alison; Aryee, Anna; Byrne, Thomas E; Fong, Erica Wing Lam; Fragaszy, Ellen; Geismar, Cyril; Kovar, Jana; Nguyen, Vincent; Patel, Parth; Shrotri, Madhumita; Aldridge, Robert; Hayward, Andrew.
  • Beale S; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Braithwaite I; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
  • Navaratnam AM; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Hardelid P; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Rodger A; Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
  • Aryee A; Research Department of Infection and Population Health, Royal Free Campus, University College London, London, UK.
  • Byrne TE; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Fong EWL; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Fragaszy E; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Geismar C; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Kovar J; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medecine, London, UK.
  • Nguyen V; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Patel P; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Shrotri M; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Aldridge R; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
  • Hayward A; Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 76(4): 319-326, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467721
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ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Differential exposure to public activities may contribute to stark deprivation-related inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes but has not been directly investigated. We set out to investigate whether participants in Virus Watch-a large community cohort study based in England and Wales-reported differential exposure to public activities and non-household contacts during the autumn-winter phase of the COVID-19 pandemic according to postcode-level socioeconomic deprivation.

METHODS:

Participants (n=20 120-25 228 across surveys) reported their daily activities during 3 weekly periods in late November 2020, late December 2020 and mid-February 2021. Deprivation was quantified based on participants' residential postcode using English or Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles. We used Poisson mixed-effect models with robust standard errors to estimate the relationship between deprivation and risk of exposure to public activities during each survey period.

RESULTS:

Relative to participants in the least deprived areas, participants in the most deprived areas exhibited elevated risk of exposure to vehicle sharing (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) range across time points 1.73-8.52), public transport (aRR 3.13-5.73), work or education outside of the household (aRR 1.09-1.21), essential shops (aRR 1.09-1.13) and non-household contacts (aRR 1.15-1.19) across multiple survey periods.

CONCLUSION:

Differential exposure to essential public activities-such as attending workplaces and visiting essential shops-is likely to contribute to inequalities in infection risk and outcomes. Public health interventions to reduce exposure during essential activities and financial and practical support to enable low-paid workers to stay at home during periods of intense transmission may reduce COVID-related inequalities.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: J Epidemiol Community Health Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Jech-2021-217076

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Risk factors Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Europa Language: English Journal: J Epidemiol Community Health Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Jech-2021-217076