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The Effects of Income Level on Susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 Morbidity/Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea.
Kim, So Young; Yoo, Dae Myoung; Min, Chanyang; Choi, Hyo Geun.
  • Kim SY; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 13496, Korea.
  • Yoo DM; Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.
  • Min C; Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.
  • Choi HG; Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470901
ABSTRACT
This study aimed to investigate the association of income level with susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Using the Korean National Health Insurance COVID-19 Database cohort, medical claim data from 2015 through 2020 were collected. A total of 7943 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020 were included. A total of 118,914 participants had negative COVID-19 PCR tests. Income levels were classified by 20th percentiles based on 2019 Korean National Health Insurance premiums. The 20th percentile income levels were categorized into three groups (low, middle, and high). The relationship of income level with susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. A high income level was related to lower odds of COVID-19 infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.83, p < 0.001). The negative association between income level and COVID-19 infection was maintained in all subgroups. Patients with low income levels were susceptible to COVID-19 infection; however, there was no relation of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with income level in the Korean population.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Language: English Year: 2021 Document Type: Article