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Effects of covid-19 pandemic on life expectancy and premature mortality in 2020: time series analysis in 37 countries.
Islam, Nazrul; Jdanov, Dmitri A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Khunti, Kamlesh; Kawachi, Ichiro; White, Martin; Lewington, Sarah; Lacey, Ben.
  • Islam N; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK nazrul.islam@ndph.ox.ac.uk.
  • Jdanov DA; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  • Shkolnikov VM; International Laboratory for Population and Health, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation.
  • Khunti K; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  • Kawachi I; International Laboratory for Population and Health, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation.
  • White M; Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
  • Lewington S; NIHR Applied Research Collaboration-East Midlands, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK.
  • Lacey B; Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
BMJ ; 375: e066768, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501690
ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the changes in life expectancy and years of life lost in 2020 associated with the covid-19 pandemic.

DESIGN:

Time series analysis.

SETTING:

37 upper-middle and high income countries or regions with reliable and complete mortality data.

PARTICIPANTS:

Annual all cause mortality data from the Human Mortality Database for 2005-20, harmonised and disaggregated by age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME

MEASURES:

Reduction in life expectancy was estimated as the difference between observed and expected life expectancy in 2020 using the Lee-Carter model. Excess years of life lost were estimated as the difference between the observed and expected years of life lost in 2020 using the World Health Organization standard life table.

RESULTS:

Reduction in life expectancy in men and women was observed in all the countries studied except New Zealand, Taiwan, and Norway, where there was a gain in life expectancy in 2020. No evidence was found of a change in life expectancy in Denmark, Iceland, and South Korea. The highest reduction in life expectancy was observed in Russia (men -2.33, 95% confidence interval -2.50 to -2.17; women -2.14, -2.25 to -2.03), the United States (men -2.27, -2.39 to -2.15; women -1.61, -1.70 to -1.51), Bulgaria (men -1.96, -2.11 to -1.81; women -1.37, -1.74 to -1.01), Lithuania (men -1.83, -2.07 to -1.59; women -1.21, -1.36 to -1.05), Chile (men -1.64, -1.97 to -1.32; women -0.88, -1.28 to -0.50), and Spain (men -1.35, -1.53 to -1.18; women -1.13, -1.37 to -0.90). Years of life lost in 2020 were higher than expected in all countries except Taiwan, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, and South Korea. In the remaining 31 countries, more than 222 million years of life were lost in 2020, which is 28.1 million (95% confidence interval 26.8m to 29.5m) years of life lost more than expected (17.3 million (16.8m to 17.8m) in men and 10.8 million (10.4m to 11.3m) in women). The highest excess years of life lost per 100 000 population were observed in Bulgaria (men 7260, 95% confidence interval 6820 to 7710; women 3730, 2740 to 4730), Russia (men 7020, 6550 to 7480; women 4760, 4530 to 4990), Lithuania (men 5430, 4750 to 6070; women 2640, 2310 to 2980), the US (men 4350, 4170 to 4530; women 2430, 2320 to 2550), Poland (men 3830, 3540 to 4120; women 1830, 1630 to 2040), and Hungary (men 2770, 2490 to 3040; women 1920, 1590 to 2240). The excess years of life lost were relatively low in people younger than 65 years, except in Russia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and the US where the excess years of life lost was >2000 per 100 000.

CONCLUSION:

More than 28 million excess years of life were lost in 2020 in 31 countries, with a higher rate in men than women. Excess years of life lost associated with the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 were more than five times higher than those associated with the seasonal influenza epidemic in 2015.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Developed Countries / Global Health / Life Expectancy / Mortality, Premature / COVID-19 Subject: Developed Countries / Global Health / Life Expectancy / Mortality, Premature / COVID-19 Language: English Journal: BMJ Year: 2021

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Document Type: Article Main subject: Developed Countries / Global Health / Life Expectancy / Mortality, Premature / COVID-19 Subject: Developed Countries / Global Health / Life Expectancy / Mortality, Premature / COVID-19 Language: English Journal: BMJ Year: 2021
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