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Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination in Autoimmune Disease Patients With B Cell Depletion.
Simon, David; Tascilar, Koray; Schmidt, Katja; Manger, Bernhard; Weckwerth, Leonie; Sokolova, Maria; Bucci, Laura; Fagni, Filippo; Manger, Karin; Schuch, Florian; Ronneberger, Monika; Hueber, Axel; Steffen, Ulrike; Mielenz, Dirk; Herrmann, Martin; Harrer, Thomas; Kleyer, Arnd; Krönke, Gerhard; Schett, Georg.
  • Simon D; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Tascilar K; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Schmidt K; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Manger B; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Weckwerth L; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Sokolova M; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Bucci L; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Fagni F; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Manger K; Rheumatology Practice Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
  • Schuch F; Rheumatology Practice Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Ronneberger M; Rheumatology Practice Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Hueber A; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Steffen U; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Mielenz D; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Herrmann M; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Harrer T; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Kleyer A; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Krönke G; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Schett G; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(1): 33-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527417
ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:

B cell depletion is an established therapeutic principle in a wide range of autoimmune diseases. However, B cells are also critical for inducing protective immunity after infection and vaccination. We undertook this study to assess humoral and cellular immune responses after infection with or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with B cell depletion and controls who are B cell-competent.

METHODS:

Antibody responses (tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and T cell responses (tested using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were assessed in a limited number of previously infected (n = 6) and vaccinated (n = 8) autoimmune disease patients with B cell depletion, as well as previously infected (n = 30) and vaccinated (n = 30) healthy controls.

RESULTS:

As expected, B cell and T cell responses to the nucleocapsid protein were observed only after infection, while respective responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 were found after both infection and vaccination. A SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was observed in all vaccinated controls (30 of 30 [100%]) but in none of the vaccinated patients with B cell depletion (0 of 8). In contrast, after SARS-CoV-2 infection, both the patients with B cell depletion (spike S1, 5 of 6 [83%]; nucleocapsid, 3 of 6 [50%]) and healthy controls (spike S1, 28 of 30 [93%]; nucleocapsid, 28 of 30 [93%]) developed antibodies. T cell responses against the spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were found in both infected and vaccinated patients with B cell depletion and in the controls.

CONCLUSION:

These data show that B cell depletion completely blocks humoral but not T cell SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response. Furthermore, limited humoral immune responses are found after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with B cell depletion.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Autoimmune Diseases / B-Lymphocytes / Lymphocyte Depletion / COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Arthritis Rheumatol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Art.41914

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Autoimmune Diseases / B-Lymphocytes / Lymphocyte Depletion / COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Arthritis Rheumatol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Art.41914