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SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Antibody Response and Breakthrough Infection in Patients Receiving Dialysis.
Anand, Shuchi; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Han, Jialin; Garcia, Pablo; Cadden, LinaCel; Hunsader, Patti; Morgan, Curt; Kerschmann, Russell; Beyer, Paul; Dittrich, Mary; Block, Geoffrey A; Chertow, Glenn M; Parsonnet, Julie.
  • Anand S; Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (S.A., M.E.M., J.H., P.G.).
  • Montez-Rath ME; Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (S.A., M.E.M., J.H., P.G.).
  • Han J; Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (S.A., M.E.M., J.H., P.G.).
  • Garcia P; Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (S.A., M.E.M., J.H., P.G.).
  • Cadden L; Ascend Clinical Laboratory, Redwood City, California (L.C., P.H., C.M., R.K., P.B.).
  • Hunsader P; Ascend Clinical Laboratory, Redwood City, California (L.C., P.H., C.M., R.K., P.B.).
  • Morgan C; Ascend Clinical Laboratory, Redwood City, California (L.C., P.H., C.M., R.K., P.B.).
  • Kerschmann R; Ascend Clinical Laboratory, Redwood City, California (L.C., P.H., C.M., R.K., P.B.).
  • Beyer P; Ascend Clinical Laboratory, Redwood City, California (L.C., P.H., C.M., R.K., P.B.).
  • Dittrich M; U.S. Renal Care, Plano, Texas (M.D.).
  • Block GA; U.S. Renal Care, Golden, Colorado (G.A.B.).
  • Chertow GM; Departments of Medicine (Nephrology) and Epidemiology and Population Health, Stanford University, Stanford, California (G.M.C.).
  • Parsonnet J; Departments of Medicine (Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine) and Epidemiology and Population Health, Stanford University, Stanford, California (J.P.).
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): 371-378, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572915
Preprint
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ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Whether breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination are related to the level of postvaccine circulating antibody is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine longitudinal antibody-based response and risk for breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

DESIGN:

Prospective study.

SETTING:

Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS 4791 patients receiving dialysis. MEASUREMENTS Remainder plasma from a laboratory processing routine monthly tests was used to measure qualitative and semiquantitative antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate whether peak or prebreakthrough RBD values were associated with breakthrough infection, a nested case-control analysis matched each breakthrough case patient to 5 control patients by age, sex, and vaccination month and adjusted for diabetes status and region of residence.

RESULTS:

Of the 4791 patients followed with monthly RBD assays, 2563 were vaccinated as of 14 September 2021. Among the vaccinated patients, the estimated proportion with an undetectable RBD response increased from 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.8%) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 20.2% (CI, 17.0% to 23.3%) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Estimated median index values decreased from 91.9 (CI, 78.6 to 105.2) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 8.4 (CI, 7.6 to 9.3) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days before breakthrough infection. Compared with prebreakthrough index RBD values of 23 or higher (equivalent to ≥506 binding antibody units per milliliter), prebreakthrough RBD values less than 10 and values from 10 to less than 23 were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (rate ratios, 11.6 [CI, 3.4 to 39.5] and 6.0 [CI, 1.5 to 23.6], respectively).

LIMITATIONS:

Single measure of vaccine response; ascertainment of COVID-19 diagnosis from electronic health records.

CONCLUSION:

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly in persons receiving dialysis. In this population, the circulating antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE Ascend Clinical Laboratory.

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Observational study / Qualitative research / Risk factors Language: English Journal: Ann Intern Med Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Type of study: Observational study / Qualitative research / Risk factors Language: English Journal: Ann Intern Med Year: 2022 Document Type: Article