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Vaccines to prevent COVID-19: A living systematic review with Trial Sequential Analysis and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Korang, Steven Kwasi; von Rohden, Elena; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Ong, Giok; Ngalamika, Owen; Siddiqui, Faiza; Juul, Sophie; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Feinberg, Joshua Buron; Petersen, Johanne Juul; Legart, Christian; Kokogho, Afoke; Maagaard, Mathias; Klingenberg, Sarah; Thabane, Lehana; Bardach, Ariel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Jakobsen, Janus C; Gluud, Christian.
  • Korang SK; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • von Rohden E; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Veroniki AA; Knowledge Translation Program, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Ong G; Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction & Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
  • Ngalamika O; Systematic Review Initiative, NHS Blood and Transplant, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  • Siddiqui F; Dermatology & Venereology Division, University Teaching Hospital, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Juul S; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Nielsen EE; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Feinberg JB; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Petersen JJ; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Legart C; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Kokogho A; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Maagaard M; Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark.
  • Klingenberg S; United States Army Medical Research Directorate West Africa, Henry M. Jackson Foundation Medical Research International (HJFMRI), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Thabane L; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Bardach A; Centre for Anaesthesiological Research, Department of Anaesthesiology, Zealand University Hospital, The Zealand Region of Denmark, Køge, Denmark.
  • Ciapponi A; Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Thomsen AR; The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group, Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, The Capital Region, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Jakobsen JC; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
  • Gluud C; Argentine Cochrane Center. Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria (IECS-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643240
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

COVID-19 is rapidly spreading causing extensive burdens across the world. Effective vaccines to prevent COVID-19 are urgently needed. METHODS AND

FINDINGS:

Our objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines through analyses of all currently available randomized clinical trials. We searched the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and other sources from inception to June 17, 2021 for randomized clinical trials assessing vaccines for COVID-19. At least two independent reviewers screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We conducted meta-analyses, network meta-analyses, and Trial Sequential Analyses (TSA). Our primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, vaccine efficacy, and serious adverse events. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. We identified 46 trials; 35 trials randomizing 219 864 participants could be included in our analyses. Our meta-analyses showed that mRNA vaccines (efficacy, 95% [95% confidence interval (CI), 92% to 97%]; 71 514 participants; 3 trials; moderate certainty); inactivated vaccines (efficacy, 61% [95% CI, 52% to 68%]; 48 029 participants; 3 trials; moderate certainty); protein subunit vaccines (efficacy, 77% [95% CI, -5% to 95%]; 17 737 participants; 2 trials; low certainty); and viral vector vaccines (efficacy 68% [95% CI, 61% to 74%]; 71 401 participants; 5 trials; low certainty) prevented COVID-19. Viral vector vaccines decreased mortality (risk ratio, 0.25 [95% CI 0.09 to 0.67]; 67 563 participants; 3 trials, low certainty), but comparable data on inactivated, mRNA, and protein subunit vaccines were imprecise. None of the vaccines showed evidence of a difference on serious adverse events, but observational evidence suggested rare serious adverse events. All the vaccines increased the risk of non-serious adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS:

The evidence suggests that all the included vaccines are effective in preventing COVID-19. The mRNA vaccines seem most effective in preventing COVID-19, but viral vector vaccines seem most effective in reducing mortality. Further trials and longer follow-up are necessary to provide better insight into the safety profile of these vaccines.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews / Systematic review Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: PLoS One Journal subject: Science / Medicine Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Journal.pone.0260733

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Vaccines / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews / Systematic review Topics: Vaccines Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: PLoS One Journal subject: Science / Medicine Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Journal.pone.0260733