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The first wave of COVID-19 and concurrent social restrictions were not associated with a negative impact on mental health and psychiatric well-being.
Love, Thorvardur Jon; Wessman, Inga; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Rognvaldsson, Saemundur; Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Sigurdardottir, Gudrun Asta; Thordardottir, Asdis Rosa; Eythorsson, Elias; Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Bjornsson, Andri Steinthor; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Yngvi.
  • Love TJ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Wessman I; Department of Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Gislason GK; Faculty of Psychology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Rognvaldsson S; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Thorsteinsdottir S; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Sigurdardottir GA; Department of Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Thordardottir AR; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Eythorsson E; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Asgeirsdottir TL; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Aspelund T; Department of Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Bjornsson AS; Faculty of Economics, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Kristinsson SY; Centre for Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
J Intern Med ; 291(6): 837-848, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673220
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it have substantially affected the daily lives of most of the world's population.

OBJECTIVE:

We describe the impact of the first COVID-19 wave and associated social restrictions on the mental health of a large adult population.

METHODS:

We performed a cohort study nested in a prospective randomized clinical trial, comparing responses during the first COVID-19 wave to previous responses. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) of the population moving up one severity category on validated instruments used to measure stress (PSS-10), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Responses were linked to inpatient and outpatient ICD-10 codes from registries. Models were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and pre-existing diagnoses of mental illness.

RESULTS:

Of 63,848 invited participants, 42,253 (66%) responded. The median age was 60 (inter-quartile range 53-68) and 19,032 (45%) were male. Responses during the first wave of COVID-19 did not suggest increased stress (OR 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.01; p = 0.28) or anxiety (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.05; p = 0.61), but were associated with decreased depression (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.93, p < 0.0001) and increased satisfaction with life (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16, p < 0.0001). A secondary analysis of repeated measures data showed similar results.

CONCLUSIONS:

Social restrictions were sufficient to contain the pandemic but did not negatively impact validated measures of mental illness or psychiatric well-being. However, responses to individual questions showed signs of fear and stress. This may represent a normal, rather than pathological, population response to a stressful situation.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prevalence study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: J Intern Med Journal subject: Internal Medicine Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Joim.13461

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Controlled clinical trial / Etiology study / Incidence study / Observational study / Prevalence study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Risk factors Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: J Intern Med Journal subject: Internal Medicine Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Joim.13461