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Kinetics of the Antibody Response to Boostering With Three Different Vaccines Against SARS-CoV-2.
Markewitz, Robert; Juhl, David; Pauli, Daniela; Görg, Siegfried; Junker, Ralf; Rupp, Jan; Engel, Sarah; Steinhagen, Katja; Herbst, Victor; Zapf, Dorinja; Krüger, Christina; Brockmann, Christian; Leypoldt, Frank; Dargvainiene, Justina; Schomburg, Benjamin; Sharifzadeh, Shahpour; Nejad, Lukas Salek; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Ziemann, Malte.
  • Markewitz R; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Juhl D; Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Pauli D; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Görg S; Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Junker R; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Rupp J; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Engel S; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Steinhagen K; Institute for Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Herbst V; Institute for Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Zapf D; Institute for Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Krüger C; Institute for Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Brockmann C; Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.
  • Leypoldt F; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Dargvainiene J; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Schomburg B; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Sharifzadeh S; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Nejad LS; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Wandinger KP; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
  • Ziemann M; Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674341
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Heterologous vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine have been shown to be more immunogenic than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the current study, we examined the kinetics of the antibody response to the second dose of three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal manner; whether there are differences in latency or amplitude of the early response and which markers are most suitable to detect these responses.

METHODS:

We performed assays for anti-S1 IgG and IgA, anti-NCP IgG and a surrogate neutralization assay on serum samples collected from 57 participants on the day of the second vaccination as well as the following seven days.

RESULTS:

All examined vaccination regimens induced detectable antibody responses within the examined time frame. Both heterologous regimens induced responses earlier and with a higher amplitude than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Between the heterologous regimens, amplitudes were somewhat higher for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + mRNA-1273. There was no difference in latency between the IgG and IgA responses. Increases in the surrogate neutralization assay were the first changes to be detectable for all regimens and the only significant change seen for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.

DISCUSSION:

Both examined heterologous vaccination regimens are superior in immunogenicity, including the latency of the response, to homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. While the IgA response has a shorter latency than the IgG response after the first dose, no such difference was found after the second dose, implying that both responses are driven by separate plasma cell populations. Early and steep increases in surrogate neutralization levels suggest that this might be a more sensitive marker for antibody responses after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 than absolute levels of anti-S1 IgG.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Immunization, Secondary / Antibodies, Neutralizing / SARS-CoV-2 Topics: Vaccines Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged / Young adult Language: English Journal: Front Immunol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Fimmu.2022.811020

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Immunization, Secondary / Antibodies, Neutralizing / SARS-CoV-2 Topics: Vaccines Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male / Middle aged / Young adult Language: English Journal: Front Immunol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Fimmu.2022.811020