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Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis of preliminary data from 21 countries.
Pirkis, Jane; John, Ann; Shin, Sangsoo; DelPozo-Banos, Marcos; Arya, Vikas; Analuisa-Aguilar, Pablo; Appleby, Louis; Arensman, Ella; Bantjes, Jason; Baran, Anna; Bertolote, Jose M; Borges, Guilherme; Brecic, Petrana; Caine, Eric; Castelpietra, Giulio; Chang, Shu-Sen; Colchester, David; Crompton, David; Curkovic, Marko; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Du, Chengan; Dwyer, Jeremy; Erlangsen, Annette; Faust, Jeremy S; Fortune, Sarah; Garrett, Andrew; George, Devin; Gerstner, Rebekka; Gilissen, Renske; Gould, Madelyn; Hawton, Keith; Kanter, Joseph; Kapur, Navneet; Khan, Murad; Kirtley, Olivia J; Knipe, Duleeka; Kolves, Kairi; Leske, Stuart; Marahatta, Kedar; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Neznanov, Nikolay; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Nielsen, Emma; Nordentoft, Merete; Oberlerchner, Herwig; O'Connor, Rory C; Pearson, Melissa; Phillips, Michael R; Platt, Steve; Plener, Paul L.
  • Pirkis J; Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: j.pirkis@unimelb.edu.au.
  • John A; Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK.
  • Shin S; Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
  • DelPozo-Banos M; Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK.
  • Arya V; Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia.
  • Analuisa-Aguilar P; Ministry of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion, Quito, Ecuador.
  • Appleby L; National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
  • Arensman E; School of Public Health, National Suicide Research Foundation, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
  • Bantjes J; Institute for Life Course Health Research, Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
  • Baran A; Working Group on Prevention of Suicide and Depression at Public Health Council, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Psychiatry, Blekinge Hospital, Karlshamn, Sweden.
  • Bertolote JM; Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Borges G; Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramon de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Brecic P; Department for Medical Ethics, University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Department for Psychiatry, University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Caine E; University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
  • Castelpietra G; Region Friuli Venezia Giulia, Central Health Directorate, Outpatient and Inpatient Care Service, Trieste, Italy; Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Trieste, Italy.
  • Chang SS; Institute of Health Behaviors and Community Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Colchester D; Thames Valley Local Criminal Justice Board, Bicester, UK.
  • Crompton D; Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
  • Curkovic M; Department for Medical Ethics, University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Deisenhammer EA; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Du C; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
  • Dwyer J; Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Coroners Court of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
  • Erlangsen A; Danish Research Institute for Suicide Prevention, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Centre for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
  • Faust JS; Brigham and Women's Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
  • Fortune S; School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Garrett A; Magistrates Court of Tasmania (Coronial Division), Hobart, TAS, Australia.
  • George D; Bureau of Vital Records and Statistics, Louisiana Office of Public Health, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
  • Gerstner R; Ministry of Public Health, Undersecretary of Health Services, Quito, Ecuador.
  • Gilissen R; Research Department, 113 Suicide Prevention, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Gould M; Departments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.
  • Hawton K; Centre for Suicide Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  • Kanter J; Louisiana Department of Health, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
  • Kapur N; Centre for Mental Health and Safety and National Institute for Health Research Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.
  • Khan M; Department of Psychiatry, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Kirtley OJ; KU Leuven, Center for Contextual Psychiatry, Leuven, Belgium.
  • Knipe D; Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
  • Kolves K; Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
  • Leske S; Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
  • Marahatta K; World Health Organization, Country Office for Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Mittendorfer-Rutz E; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Neznanov N; Bekhterev National Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Neurology, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
  • Niederkrotenthaler T; Unit Suicide Research and Mental Health Promotion, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
  • Nielsen E; School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
  • Nordentoft M; Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Oberlerchner H; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Klagenfurt, Austria.
  • O'Connor RC; Suicidal Behaviour Research Lab, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • Pearson M; Preventing Deaths from Poisoning Research Group, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Phillips MR; Suicide Research and Prevention Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Departments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Platt S; Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Plener PL; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683800
Semantic information from SemMedBD (by NLM)
1. COVID-19 AFFECTS Persons
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Persons
2. COVID-19 AFFECTS Persons
Subject
COVID-19
Predicate
AFFECTS
Object
Persons
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world.

METHODS:

We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis).

FINDINGS:

We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]).

INTERPRETATION:

This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold.

FUNDING:

None.
Subject(s)

Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Suicide / Global Health / Models, Statistical / COVID-19 Type of study: Prognostic study / Risk factors Topics: Long Covid Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Lancet Psychiatry Year: 2021 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Suicide / Global Health / Models, Statistical / COVID-19 Type of study: Prognostic study / Risk factors Topics: Long Covid Limits: Humans Language: English Journal: Lancet Psychiatry Year: 2021 Document Type: Article