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Development and Validation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection and Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 Salivary IgA and IgG.
Costantini, Veronica P; Nguyen, Kenny; Lyski, Zoe; Novosad, Shannon; Bardossy, Ana C; Lyons, Amanda K; Gable, Paige; Kutty, Preeta K; Lutgring, Joseph D; Brunton, Amanda; Thornburg, Natalie J; Brown, Allison C; McDonald, L Clifford; Messer, William; Vinjé, Jan.
  • Costantini VP; Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; vcostantini@cdc.gov.
  • Nguyen K; Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN.
  • Lyski Z; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
  • Novosad S; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Bardossy AC; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Lyons AK; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Gable P; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Kutty PK; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Lutgring JD; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Brunton A; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
  • Thornburg NJ; Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Brown AC; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • McDonald LC; Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
  • Messer W; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
  • Vinjé J; School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; and.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1500-1508, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715878
ABSTRACT
Oral fluids offer a noninvasive sampling method for the detection of Abs. Quantification of IgA and IgG Abs in saliva allows studies of the mucosal and systemic immune response after natural infection or vaccination. We developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect and quantify salivary IgA and IgG Abs against the prefusion-stabilized form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein expressed in suspension-adapted HEK-293 cells. Normalization against total Ab isotype was performed to account for specimen differences, such as collection time and sample volume. Saliva samples collected from 187 SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases enrolled in 2 cohorts and 373 prepandemic saliva samples were tested. The sensitivity of both EIAs was high (IgA, 95.5%; IgG, 89.7%) without compromising specificity (IgA, 99%; IgG, 97%). No cross-reactivity with endemic coronaviruses was observed. The limit of detection for SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and IgG assays were 1.98 ng/ml and 0.30 ng/ml, respectively. Salivary IgA and IgG Abs were detected earlier in patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms than in severe cases. However, severe cases showed higher salivary Ab titers than those with a mild infection. Salivary IgA titers quickly decreased after 6 wk in mild cases but remained detectable until at least week 10 in severe cases. Salivary IgG titers remained high for all patients, regardless of disease severity. In conclusion, EIAs for both IgA and IgG had high specificity and sensitivity for the confirmation of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections and evaluation of the IgA and IgG immune response.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Saliva / Immunoglobulin A / Immunoglobulin G / Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 / Antibodies, Viral Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Screening study Topics: Vaccines Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: J Immunol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: Saliva / Immunoglobulin A / Immunoglobulin G / Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 / Antibodies, Viral Type of study: Diagnostic study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials / Screening study Topics: Vaccines Limits: Adolescent / Adult / Aged / Child / Child, preschool / Female / Humans / Infant / Male / Middle aged Language: English Journal: J Immunol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article