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The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis.
Abou Ghayda, Ramy; Lee, Keum Hwa; Han, Young Joo; Ryu, Seohyun; Hong, Sung Hwi; Yoon, Sojung; Jeong, Gwang Hum; Yang, Jae Won; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Jun Young; Effenberger, Maria; Eisenhut, Michael; Kronbichler, Andreas; Solmi, Marco; Li, Han; Jacob, Louis; Koyanagi, Ai; Radua, Joaquim; Park, Myung Bae; Aghayeva, Sevda; Ahmed, Mohamed L C B; Al Serouri, Abdulwahed; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Amir-Behghadami, Mehrdad; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Bashour, Hyam; Bondarenko, Anastasiia; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Castro, Franz; Cox, Horace; Davtyan, Hayk; Douglas, Kirk; Dragioti, Elena; Ebrahim, Shahul; Ferioli, Martina; Harapan, Harapan; Mallah, Saad I; Ikram, Aamer; Inoue, Shigeru; Jankovic, Slobodan; Jayarajah, Umesh; Jesenak, Milos; Kakodkar, Pramath; Kebede, Yohannes; Kifle, Meron; Koh, David; Males, Visnja K; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Lakoh, Sulaiman.
  • Abou Ghayda R; Urology Institute, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
  • Lee KH; Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Han YJ; Hospital Medicine Center, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.
  • Ryu S; Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Hong SH; Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Yoon S; Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Jeong GH; College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
  • Yang JW; Department of Nephrology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
  • Lee HJ; Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Lee J; Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
  • Lee JY; Department of Nephrology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
  • Effenberger M; Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Eisenhut M; Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Luton, UK.
  • Kronbichler A; Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Solmi M; Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Li H; Department of Mental Health, The Ottawa Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
  • Jacob L; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) Clinical Epidemiology Program University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Koyanagi A; School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Radua J; University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Park MB; Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France.
  • Aghayeva S; Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Ahmed MLCB; Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Al Serouri A; ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Al-Shamsi HO; Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
  • Amir-Behghadami M; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
  • Baatarkhuu O; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Bashour H; Department of Gerontology Health and Welfare, Pai Chai University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
  • Bondarenko A; Department of Gastroenterology, Azerbaijan Medical University School of Medicine, Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • Camacho-Ortiz A; Research Unit in Epidemiology and Diversity of Microorganisms, Department of Biology, University of Nouakchott Al Aasriya, Nouakchott, Mauritania.
  • Castro F; Yemen Field Epidemiology Training Program, Sana'a, Yemen.
  • Cox H; College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
  • Davtyan H; Burjeel Cancer Institute, Burjeel Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  • Douglas K; Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management (IceHM), School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Dragioti E; Student Research Committee (SRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Ebrahim S; Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Iranian International Safe Community Support Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Ferioli M; School of Medicine, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulan Bator, Mongolia.
  • Harapan H; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
  • Mallah SI; Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
  • Ikram A; Servicio de Infectología, Hospital Universitario "Dr José Eleuterio González", Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.
  • Inoue S; Department of Research and Health Technology Assessment, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama.
  • Jankovic S; Ministry of Health Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana.
  • Jayarajah U; Tuberculosis Research and Prevention Center NGO, Yerevan, Armenia.
  • Jesenak M; Centre for Biosecurity Studies, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, St. Michael, Barbados.
  • Kakodkar P; Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
  • Kebede Y; Faculty of Medicine, University of Sciences, Techniques, and Technology, Bamako, Mali.
  • Kifle M; IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Respiratory and Critical Care Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
  • Koh D; Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Males VK; School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain, Busaiteen, Kingdom of Bahrain.
  • Kotfis K; National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Lakoh S; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Asia / Europa Language: English Journal: J Med Virol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Jmv.27610

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Observational study / Randomized controlled trials / Reviews Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Asia / Europa Language: English Journal: J Med Virol Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: Jmv.27610