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COVID-19 related stigma among the general population in Iran.
Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Nourinia, Hossein; Rafiei-Rad, Ali Ahmad; Adeli, Aliyeh Mahdavi; Yeganeh, Mohammad Reza Javadi; Sharifi, Hamid; Namazi, Hamidreza; Khosravifar, Shaghayegh; Bahramian, Alaleh; Fathimakvand, Mahdi; Golalipour, Elnaz; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Thornicroft, Graham; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein.
  • Faghankhani M; Mental Health Research Center, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Mansouri Street, Niyayesh Street, Satarkhan Avenue, Tehran, 1445613111, Iran.
  • Nourinia H; Academic Center for Education, Culture, and Research, Humanities and Social Studies Research Center, 47 Nazari Street, Abureyhan Street, Enghelab Avenue, Tehran, 141554364, Iran.
  • Rafiei-Rad AA; HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Haft-Bagh Highway, Medical University Campus, 7616911320, Kerman, Iran.
  • Adeli AM; School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Highway, Next to Milad Tower, Tehran, 1449614535, Iran.
  • Yeganeh MRJ; Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Jalal Al-e Ahmad Highway, Tehran, 1411713118, Iran.
  • Sharifi H; HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Haft-Bagh Highway, Medical University Campus, 7616911320, Kerman, Iran.
  • Namazi H; Department of Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PourSina Street, Qods Street, Tehran, 1417613151, Iran.
  • Khosravifar S; Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PourSina Street, Qods Street, Tehran, 1417613151, Iran.
  • Bahramian A; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jerib Street, Isfahan, 8174673461, Iran.
  • Fathimakvand M; Department of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Mansouri Street, Niyayesh Street, Satarkhan Avenue, Tehran, 1445613111, Iran.
  • Golalipour E; CEO, Armandar Company, 16 Kambiz Street, West Zartosht Street, Apt. 7., Tehran, Iran.
  • Mirfazeli FS; School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi Avenue, Daneshjoo Boulevard, Velenjak, Tehran, 1983963113, Iran.
  • Baradaran HR; Department of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Mansouri Street, Niyayesh Street, Satarkhan Avenue, Tehran, 1445613111, Iran.
  • Thornicroft G; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Highway, Next to Milad Tower, Tehran, 1449614535, Iran.
  • Jalali Nadoushan AH; Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research Team, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB25 2ZD, UK.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1681, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009375
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020.

METHODS:

A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54; a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone.

RESULTS:

Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including "blaming", "social discrimination", "dishonor label", "interpersonal contact", and "retribution and requital attitude". The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile 22, 75the percentile 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant's stigma score.

CONCLUSION:

We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.
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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: BMC Public Health Journal subject: Public Health Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S12889-022-14039-2

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Full text: Available Collection: International databases Database: MEDLINE Main subject: COVID-19 Type of study: Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study / Randomized controlled trials Limits: Humans Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: English Journal: BMC Public Health Journal subject: Public Health Year: 2022 Document Type: Article Affiliation country: S12889-022-14039-2