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A Case of a Relapsing Remitting Macrophage Activating Syndrome After Covid-19 Vaccine In a Teenager with UNC13D Heterozygous Variant of Uncertain Significance
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242997
ABSTRACT

Introduction:

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe hyper inflammatory condition caused by the over-activation and proliferation of T cells, NK cells and macrophages. It is often associated with complications of rheumatic/immune diseases. We present a case of a 15-year-old female who experiences recurrent episodes of MAS without any known definitive underlying etiology. Case Presentation A 15-year-old previously healthy female developed fatigue, fevers, myalgia, chest pain, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy 10 days after receiving her first Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. Her symptoms recurred 10 days after receiving the second dose. Her myocarditis, MIS-C, and infectious work up was negative except for positive EBV IgG. Laboratory studies revealed anemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hyperferritinemia. She initially responded to decadron;however, her symptoms recurred with steroid taper. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a heterozygous variant of uncertain significance in UNC13D c.962C>A (p.Thr321Asn). She had multiple re-admissions with significantly elevated inflammatory markers, including extremely high IL2-R, IL-18 and CXCL9. Each episode was complicated by an acute viral infection. She responds to high dose steroids, anti-IL-1, and JAK inhibitors. Nonetheless, it has been difficult to wean decadron without triggering a flare. She continues to require increasing doses of baricitinib. Discussion(s) MAS may be seen as a complication of rheumatic diseases, as well as inborn errors of immunity. However, none of these conditions have been diagnosed in this patient despite extensive testing, including WES. The degree of her immune dysregulation has been very severe making her disease process unpredictable and extremely difficult to control. She has frequent flares precipitated by viral infections or attempts at adjusting her immunomodulators. Weaning her medications has been challenging as she continues to require increasing doses of baricitinib and corticosteroids. The UNC13D gene is associated with autosomal recessive familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3). Our patient is heterozygous for an UNC13D variant of uncertain significance. Additional genetic inquiries with whole genome sequencing to help elucidate the underlying etiology of her severe condition is being conducted. We hypothesize she developed MAS due to a combination of genetic predisposition, prior EBV infection, and immune stress associated with the COVID-19 vaccine. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.
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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Qualitative research Topics: Vaccines / Variants Language: English Journal: Clinical Immunology Year: 2023 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Etiology study / Observational study / Qualitative research Topics: Vaccines / Variants Language: English Journal: Clinical Immunology Year: 2023 Document Type: Article