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Enteritis in calves: anamnestic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic evaluations with special attention to enteropathogenic rotavirus and bovine coronavirus
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 9), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025201
ABSTRACT

Introduction:

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is a multifactorial disease that sometimes leads to high economic losses. It can be fatal due to dehydration and acidosis and has been one of the main causes of calf mortality. Material and

methods:

This retrospective study considered calves of a maximum of 35 days of age and with a diagnosed infection with rotavirus and/or bovine coronavirus. We examined the clinical records of 156 calves that were referred to the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna. Results Calves that had been treated with antibiotics before admission to the Clinic had a higher risk of staying longer, suggesting either that these calves had a more serious illness or that antibiotic treatment was not indicated and so therapeutic success was not achieved. Twenty-three calves died or were euthanized at the Clinic. At the time of admission, they were younger than the surviving calves and they had a lower inner body temperature and a lower base excess at the first examination. The four most common pathogens in faecal samples were rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli, which were detected in 67.1%, 53.9%, 48.1% and 94.1% of the faecal samples examined. The most common co-infection was rotavirus with Cryptosporidium parvum (17 faecal samples). We inspected the four most common pathogens in more detail. There were significant correlations between bovine coronavirus and season, with the risk of suffering from bovine coronavirus 1.6 times higher in winter than in other seasons. There was also a correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and general behaviour the risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium parvum was 2.6 times higher in calves that were moderately to severely depressed at the first examination. There was a correlation between co-infections and mortality, with calves with a co-infection at three times higher risk of dying than calves with a mono-infection.
Keywords
Dairy Animals [LL110]; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals [LL821]; Protozoan, Helminth, Mollusc and Arthropod Parasites of Animals [LL822]; Diagnosis of Animal Diseases [LL886]; Meteorology and Climate [PP500]; age differences; antibiotics; body temperature; calves; clinical aspects; cryptosporidiosis; dairy cattle; diagnosis; disease prevalence; drug therapy; enteritis; epidemiology; Escherichia coli infections; faecal examination; mixed infections; mortality; risk factors; seasonal variation; seasonality; survival; viral diseases; protozoal infections; parasites; infections; parasitoses; Bovine coronavirus; calf diarrhoea rotavirus; cattle; Cryptosporidium parvum; Escherichia coli; Cryptosporidium; Austria; Central Europe; Europe; European Union Countries; high income countries; OECD Countries; very high Human Development Index countries; Betacoronavirus 1; Betacoronavirus; Coronavirinae; Coronaviridae; Nidovirales; positive-sense ssRNA Viruses; ssRNA Viruses; RNA Viruses; viruses; Rotavirus A; Rotavirus; Sedoreovirinae; Reoviridae; dsRNA Viruses; Bos; Bovidae; ruminants; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; Cryptosporidiidae; Eucoccidiorida; Apicomplexa; Protozoa; Escherichia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Gammaproteobacteria; Proteobacteria; Bacteria; prokaryotes; Calf diarrhea rotavirus; clinical picture; chemotherapy; ileitis; jejunitis; E. coli; colibacteriosis; fecal examination; multiple infections; death rate; seasonal changes; seasonal fluctuations; viral infections; protozoal diseases; parasitosis; parasitic diseases; parasitic infestations

Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: CAB Abstracts Type of study: Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: German Journal: Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: CAB Abstracts Type of study: Experimental Studies / Observational study / Prognostic study Language: German Journal: Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift Year: 2022 Document Type: Article