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A CASE OF COVID-19-ASSOCIATED PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS
Chest ; 162(4):A585-A586, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060638
ABSTRACT
SESSION TITLE COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON 10/17/2022 1215 pm - 0115 pm

INTRODUCTION:

COVID-19 patients requiring admission to an ICU have a higher risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) with a reported incidence of 19.6%-33.3%. CASE PRESENTATION A 63-year-old male presented with progressively worsening dyspnea for one week. He has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and obesity. He was tested positive for COVID about two weeks prior. He did receive a single dose of Moderna vaccine. Initial chest x-ray(CXR) showed diffuse ground-glass opacities. He was initiated on Remdesivir and decadron, and later received a dose of tocilizumab. He was intubated on hospital day 3 for worsened hypoxemia. Repeat CXR suggested some improvement but a new left lower lobe airspace haziness. He also had new-onset leukocytosis with elevated procalcitonin level. He was started on cefepime for concern of superimposed hospital-acquired pneumonia. A second dose of tocilizumab was administered. No clinical improvement was seen, and additional workups were obtained. Serial CXRs revealed increasing diffuse airspace opacities concerning for ARDS. Tracheal aspirate culture grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Aspergillosis Fumigatus. Cefepime was changed to vancomycin, and voriconazole and caspofungin were added. Unfortunately, the patient's respiratory status worsened with increasing ventilation requirement. He also developed septic shock and acute renal failure requiring CVVH. He became even more hypotensive after CVVH initiation, and multiple vasopressors were required to maintain his hemodynamics. Unfortunately, he continued to deteriorate and he also developed profound respiratory acidosis. He died shortly afterwards after family decided to withdraw care.

DISCUSSION:

In this case, in addition to superimposed bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary aspergillosis likely also contributed to his clinical deterioration. The mechanism by which fungal infections develop in COVID-19 infection is not well-understood. Severe COVID-related immune dysregulation, ARDS, and high-dose steroids use are potential culprits for the increased risk of IPA. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody used in patients with severe COVID-19 infection, may also predispose the patient to IPA according to post-marketing data. The mortality rate from current case reports is as high as 64.7%. Diagnosis and treatment in such a scenario remain a challenge. Sputum culture, serum Beta-galactomannan, Beta-D glucan, and aspergillosis PCR have low sensitivity. Tissue biopsy and CT scan in critically ill patients are often not feasible. Voriconazole is usually considered the first-line treatment in IPA. CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions between azoles and antiviral agents require further investigation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Clinicians should be aware that severe COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of IPA. The prognosis is poor. Early detection and treatment in clinically deteriorated patients are warranted. Reference #1 Borman, A.M., Palmer, M.D., Fraser, M., Patterson, Z., Mann, C., Oliver, D., Linton, C.J., Gough, M., Brown, P., Dzietczyk, A. and Hedley, M., 2020. COVID-19-associated invasive aspergillosis data from the UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory. Journal of clinical microbiology, 59(1), pp.e02136-20. Reference #2 Lai CC, Yu WL. COVID-19 associated with pulmonary aspergillosis A literature review. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2021;54(1)46-53. doi10.1016/j.jmii.2020.09.004 Reference #3 Thompson Iii GR, Cornely OA, Pappas PG, et al. Invasive Aspergillosis as an Under-recognized Superinfection in COVID-19. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7(7)ofaa242. Published 2020 Jun 19. doi10.1093/ofid/ofaa242 DISCLOSURES No relevant relationships by Jason Chang No relevant relationships by Jason Chang No relevant relationships by kaiqing Lin No relevant relationships by Guangchen Zou
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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Reviews Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article

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Full text: Available Collection: Databases of international organizations Database: EMBASE Type of study: Diagnostic study / Observational study / Prognostic study / Reviews Topics: Vaccines Language: English Journal: Chest Year: 2022 Document Type: Article